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Full text of "History of Queens County, New York, with illustrations, portraits, & sketches of prominent families and individuals"

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[llustrations, portraits, & ^ketches 




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Discovery of New York— The Indians of 

the Five Nations T, 8 

New York under the Dutch— English Gov- 
ernors to 1675 8-10 

War with France and the Commencement 

of the Revolution 10,11 

Revolutionary Events in New Y'ork— The 

State Government Established 11,12 

The War of 1812 between the United States 

and Great Britain 12,13 

Internal Improvements — Constitutional 
- Amendments— Schools— Statistics. ., 1:3-15 


A Sketch of the Topography, Geology and 

Natural History of Long Island 16-18 

: .'6 Indians of Long Island— Territory, 
laracteristics, and Relations with the 

ites 18-22 

Discovery and Settlement of Long Island 

—History of Colonial Times 22-26 

Customs, Characteristics and Institutions 

of the Early Long Islanders 27-30 

The participation of Long Island in the 

War with France 30,31 


Beginning of the Revolution— Prevalence 
of Toryism— Independent Spirit in Suf- 
folk 31-34 

The British Invasion— Battle of Brooklyn- 
Washington's Retreat 34-36 

Long Island in British Hands— Raids from 
the Mainland— Smuggling— The Prison 

Ships— Nathaniel Woodhull 37-41 

The War of 1812— Privateering— The For- 
tification of Long Island 41-43 


The Construction of Wagon Roads and 

Railioadson Long Island 43,44 

The Agricultural Capabilities and Develop- 
ment of Long Island 44-46 

Formation and Growth of the Long Island 
Historical Society 46-48 


Civil History of the County— Crimes and \ 
Penalties— The Court-House— Omcials... 4H-55 
Early Schools and Studies— The Establish- 
ment of Academies 55-57 

The Cradle of American Horse Racing- 
Courses and Cour.sers of Old 57-59 

The Timber Growth of Queens County - 

Its Uses— The Nursery Growths 59,60 

History of the Queens County Agricultural 

Society 60-64 

Queens County in the Civil War— Record 
of the Volunteers, 65-73 


Flushing 74-143 

Hempstead 144-192 

Jamaica 193-258 

Long Island City 259-326 

Newtown 329-406 

North Hempstead 409-467 

Oy ste r Ba y 468-576 


Albertson, T. W 430 

Allen, Benjamin W 438 

Allen, Mrs. B. W 438 

Alsop Family 340 

Alt-Muller, George 526 

Angevine, Lewis W 185 

Armstrong, John J 247 

Back us. Ascan 344 

Bell, Robert M 120 

Belmont, Perry 576 

Bennett, Jacob 262 

Bergen, George W 1.55 

Belts, Richard 340 

Birdsall, John .573 

Bloodgood Family 90 

Bloomer, Joshua 241 

BrinckerhofT Family 343 

Brinckerhotr, John H 253 

Bi( ) w II , J oh n W 290 

Bru tncll, Richard 259 

Burnet, Matthias 2133 

Burroughs Family 344 

Burrinighs, Robert 355 

Buvtis, Oliver D 548 

Bryant, William CuUen 446 

Carpenter, James S 525 

Charlick, Oliver. . . 575 

Clark, John M 431 

Clement, Charles H 158 

Cock, Townscnd D -..•• 508 

Cock, William T 511 

Colden, Cadwallader D 86 

Colgan, Thomas 239 

Colyer, Charles 497 

Cornell Family 89 

Corsa, Isaac 89 

Covert, Charles G 384 

Crimmin, John 294 

Cutting, Leonard 176 

De Family 317 

De Bevoise, Abraham 252 

De Be Voise, Adrianna 351 

De Bevoise, Charles 1 352 

De Be Voise, Cornelius S 3.')0 

De Bevoise, Henry S .• 280 

De Be Voise, J ohn 349 

De Be Voise, John C 349 

De Bevoise, John 1 321 

Debevoise, John M 352 

Dennett, A. K. P 135 

Denton, Richard 173 

Ditmars Family 2i5Q 

Downing, Benjamin W 136 

Downing, George S 530- 

Duryea, John S 408 

Eastman, Henry W 4!)6 

EmbrecFamily 86 

Farringtnn Family 89 

Feakcs, .lohn. 507 

Fish Family 341 

Floyd-Jones, William 570 

Fos<lick, Morris 248 

Geisscnhainer, F. W 392 

Greenoak, .lohn 267 

Griffin Family 1.52 

G rosjean, F 214 

Hallett Family 344 

Hallett, William 90,266 

Halsey, Stephen A 272 

Haviland Family 89 

Haviland, Isaac E 431 

Hegeman, Daniel 541 

Heitz, John F 551 

Herzog, Frederick 550 

Hewlett Family 433 

Hewlett, J acob C . . . . : . .563 

Hewlett, Joseph L 431 

Hewlett, William H 433 


H Icks, Kliiis *66 

Hicks Family 89 

Hopkins, John B • 209 

Hunter, Geo i-Kc ~S" 

H II liter, Jacob 365 

Jackson Fam ily 159, 408 

Jackson, John C 31-) 

Jolinson Family 348 

Jolinson, Martin G SSO-b 

Jones Family. 552 

Jones, Cliarles H 555 

Jones, David W 556 

Jones, Jolin D 5.58 

Jones. ( )liver L -5.55 

Jones. Walter R 5,5T 

King-. Ilufus 355 

King:, Gov. John A 356 

King:, John Alsop 358 

Kissam Family 437 

Lawrence Family 90 

I^awrence, John W 138 

Lawrence, Joseph A 370 

Ixni t Fara i ly .343 

Le verich, Edward 398 

Leverich, ( 'harles P 401 

Lewis, Francis 86 

L'Horamedieu, James H 445 

Licht, Philip 384 

Loweree Family 86 

Ludlam Family .544 

Ludlam, Henry 547 

Lndlam, .Tames M 499 

lAiyster Family 343 

Luyster, John B 539 

Maurice, James 380 

Merritt, Israel J 131 

Messenger, Thomas 463 

Moore Family 340 

Moore, Thomas L 178 

Mudge, William 527 

Nicoll, Delancey 140 

Nicoll Family 140 

Nostrand Family 250 

Oak ley , J . M 254 

Onderdonk, Henry, Jr 320 

PafiE, George N .' 183 

Parsons, Samuel 93 

Parsons, S. B 93 

Pitkin, John U 219 

Powell, B. S 569 

I'oyer, I'homas 238 

Praa, Peter 260 

Prince Family 124 

Prince, L. B J28 

Kapelye, Ge<n-g-e 1 356 

Remsen Family 313 

Remson, .lames S 251 

Riker, Samuel 369 

Rodman, John 86 

Roemer, Jacob 134 

Rog-ers, Charles H 322 

Ryeken (Riker) Family 342 

Schwalenber^, William H 325 

Seabury, Samuel 176 

Scabury, Samuel, jr 240 

Seaman Family l;-,8 

Smith, Richard 495 

Smith, Silvan us S 460 

Smith, William Mitchell 461 

Snedikcr Family 249 

Spooncr, .\lden J 157 

Sprong, Bernard 90 

Suydam Family 343 

Taber, Samuel T 45(1 

Taber. Stephen 455 

Thorne Family 89 

Thome, James 520 

Tompkins, Joseph J 359 

Townsend Family 4^^ 

Townsend, Solomon 49I 

T'nderhill, Daniel 543 

Underbill, John 506 

Urrjuhart, William 238 

Valentine Family { 89 507 

A'an Alst, John 1 365 

Van Alst, Peter G 326 

Vanderveer, George W. 

Vanderveer, H. S 

Van Duyn, William 

Van Nostrand, John E. . 

Van Pelt, Peter 

Van Siclen, Abraham... 

Van Siclen, James 

Van Wyck Family 

Van Zandt Family 

Walters Family 

Webb, Edwin 

Weed, Henry R 

Weeks, W^illiam M 

White Family 

Whitney, Scudder V 

Willets, Samuel 

Williams, William H.... 

WoodhuU, Nathaniel 

Wyckoff, Nicholas 

Youngs, Daniel K 



Albertson, T. W 430 

Allen, Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin W 440,441 

Alt-Muller, Georg-e 537 

Angevine, Lewis W 185 

Armstrong, John J 247 

Backus, Ascan 345 

Bell, Robert M 120 

Belmont, Perry ; 577 

Bergen, George W 154 

Birdsall, John ,573 

Brinekerhoff, John H 2.53 

Burroughs, Robert ,355 

Burtis, OliverD .548 

Bryant, William Cullen 447 

Carpenter, James S 524 

Chariick, Oliver 575 

Clark, John M 430 

Cock, To w nsend D .508 

Cock, William T 510 

Colyer, Charles 497 

Covert, Charles G 385 

De Bevoise, Abraham 252 

De Bevoise, Anna M 253 

De Be Voise, Adrianna 351 

De Bevoise, Charles 1 353 

De Be Voise, Cornelius S 350 

De Bevoise, Henry S 281 

De Be Voise, John 349 

De Be Voise, John C 348 

De Bevoise, John 1 331 

De Bevoise, Jane 330 

Debevoise, John M 3,52 

Dennett, A. K. P 135 

Downing, Benjamin W 137 

Downing, George S..i ,531 

Duryea, H. V 519 

Duryea, John S 408 

Eastman, Henry W 457 

Floyd-Jones, William 571 

Fosdick, Morris 246 

Geissenhainer, F. W 392 

Haviland, Isaac E 431 

Hegeman, Daniel 541 

Heitz, John F 551 

Herzog, Frederick ,5,50 

Hewlett, William H 433 

Hewlett, William 432 

Hewlett, Jacob C 562 

Hewlett, Joseph L 434 

Hopkins, John B 211 

Hunter, Jacob 261 

Jackson, John C 315 

Johnson, Martin G 2.50-b 

Jones, Charles H .' 554 

Jones. David W 556 

Jones, John D 559 

King, Ruf us 255 

Lawrence. John W 133 

Lawrence, Joseph A 370 

Leverich, Edward 398 

Leverich, Charles P 400 

L'Hommedieu, James H... 

Licht, P 

Ludlam, Henry 

Ludlam, James M 

Luyster, John B 

Maurice, James 

Merritt, Israel J 

Messenger, Thomas... . .. 

Moore, Thomas L 

Moore, William H 

Mudge, William 

Nicoll, Delancey 

Oakley, J. M 

Paff , George N 

Pitkin, John R 

Powell, B. S 

Prince, L. B 

Rapelye, George I 

Remsen, James S 

Ri ker, Sam uel ~. . 

Roemer, Jacob 

Rogers, Charles H 

Schwalenberg, William H. 

Smith, Richard 

Sniith, Silvanus S 

Smith, William Mitchell.. 

Taber, Samuel T 

Taber, Stephen 

Tompkins, Joseph J 

Townsend, Solomon 

Underbill, Daniel 

Van Alst, John 1 

Van Alst, Peter G 

Vanderveer, George W 

Vanderveer, H. S 

Van Nostrand, John E 

Van Pelt, Peter. 

Webb, Edwin 

Weeks, William M 

Whitney, Scudder V 

Willets, Samuel- 

Wyckoff, Nicholas 

Youngs, Daniel K 



Bergen, George W., Residence 156 

Church, Grace, Jamaica 240,34.3,244 

Church, Christ, Oyster Bay... ^2 

Church, St. George's, Hempstead 175,177 

Church Rectory, St. George's, Hempstead. 177 

Church, Presbyterian, Jamaica 233,234 

Church, Reformed, Jamaica 236 

Church, Union Evangelical, Corona 396 

De Bevoise, J. C, Residence 348 

Duryea, Starch Works 518 

Frontispiece 1 

Grosjean, F., Residence 215 

Hewlett, George, Residence 4.35 

Hopkins, John B., Residence 211 

Jackson, Samuel C, Residence 408 

Johnson, Martin G., Residence 250-b 

Jones, Oliver L., M. D., Hotel 566,567 

Leverich, C. D., Residence 404 

Lutheran Cemetery 393 

Licht, Philip, Factory 386 

Lott, A. V. S., Residence 342 

Nichols, G. H. & Co., Chemical Works 377 

Owen, Mrs. Henry, Residence 217 

Portable House Manufactory, Corona 404 

Patf, George N., Residence 183 

Remsen & Wainright, Hotel 162 

Roe, G. B. & Co., Lumber and Coal Yard. .. 107 

Schenck, John, Residence "l 535 

Smith, Henry T., Brick Works 546 

Stein way & Sons' Piano Works 306, .307 

Taylor, Johu, Residence 88 

Thorne, James, Residence and Office 521 

Van Wickel, George S., Residence 254 

Van Siclen, Abraham, Residence 204 

Van Siclen, James, Residence 207 

Williams Veneer Mills 309 

Wyckoff, N., Residence 388 

Map of Long Island 5 

Willets, Samuel, Residence 46S 


It has heretofore been possible for the scholar, with 
leisure and a comprehensive library, to trace out the 
written history of his county by patient research among 
voluminous public documents and many volumes, some- 
times old and scarce; but these sources of information 
and the time to study them are not at the command of 
most of those who are intelligently interested in local 
history, and there are many unpublished facts to be res- 
cued from the failing memories of the oldest residents, 
who would soon have carried their information with 
them to the grave; and others to be obtained from the 
citizens best informed in regard to the various interests 
and institutions of the county which should be treated 
of in giving its history. 

This service of research and compilation, which very 
few could have undertaken for themselves, the publish- 
ers of this work have caused to be performed. While 
all the standard sources of information have been con- 
sulted, very much of the material embodied has been 
gained by personal interview and original investigation. 
The publishers desire to acknowledge in general terms the 
kindness and courtesy with which their efforts to obtain 
the facts recorded here have usually been met. To the 
proprietors of the newspapers of the county, for access to 
the files of their journals; to officers in charge of the 
public records; to clergymen, for assistance in preparing 
the church histories; and to the secretaries of numerous 
associations, for data furnished, their thanks are due. 
Aside from this general expression more particular men- 
tion is called for of several contributors to the work. 

Any one attempting at this day a complete history of 
Queens county must profit largely by the labors of 
Henry Onderdonk jr., whose contributions to the early 
history of Long Island (enumerated on page 220) are as 
valuable as they are voluminous. While his publications 
have furnished many facts incorporated in various parts 
of the volume, Mr. Onderdonk prepared expressly for 
this work the general history of the county (pages 49- 
65), the history of Jamaica village (pages 220-246) the 
records of the Society of Friends in North Hempstead 
and Oyster Bay, and the account of Revolutionary events 
in those towns. 

The late Alden J. Spooner prepared chapters II and 
XII of the general history of Long Island (pages 18-22, 
46-48), but his lamented death left the completion of 
them to other hands. Chapter XI of the same section 
of the work (pages 44-46) was written by Richard Wil- 
lets, of Westbury. 

In the preparation of the history of the town of 
Hempstead articles were contributed as follows: On the 
village of Pearsalls (pages 166, 167), by Miss Ellie F. 
Pearsall; the "Jerusalem" neighborhood (pages 157-162), 
by Edward H. Seaman; St. George's church Hemp- 
stead village (pages 174-178), by Rev. W. H. Moore, D. 
D., who also furnished the accompanying cuts; the 
church institutions at Garden City, by Rev. T. S. 
Drowne, D. D.; Seaford, New Bridge, Bellmore and 
Smithville South (pages 169-171), by Thomas D. Smith; 
and Rockville Centre and East Rockaway (pages 163- 
166, 170^ by John Rhodes and Oliver Denton. 

The very valuable early history of the town of North 
Hempstead (pages 409-412) was contributed by H. G. 
Onderdonk, of Manhasset, to whom the publishers are 
also indebted for other assistance. The history of the 

Methodist Episcopal churches of this town was written 
by Rev. E. Warriner, from a portion of the material 
which he has for years been collecting for his forthcom- 
ing " Cyclopedia of Long Island Methodism." The 
value of these articles and the amount of research in- 
volved in their preparation will be recognized by all 
readers. The section on the agriculture of North Hemp- 
stead (pages 416, 417) is by Benjamin D. Hicks, and we 
are indebted to that gentleman for other favors. The 
account of journalism in the town was furnished by H. 
W. Eastman; that of the schools by Commissioner C. E. 
Surdam; that of the Roslyn mills by Walter Hicks; and 
notes on Port Washington and the oyster business by 
Warren Weeks. Histories of the religious institutions 
of the town, other than the M. E. churches above men- 
tioned, were contributed as follows: Christ church 
Manhasset, Rev. J. E. Homans; Westbury union 
Sunday-school, Miss Henrietta Titus; Reformed church 
of Manhasset (in part), Warren Mitchell; Trinity 
church Roslyn, Rev. William C. Brush; St. Aloysius 
church. Great Neck, Rev. E. J. Smith; the Ro- 
man Catholic church at Roslyn, Rev. M. C. Brennan; 
Roslyn Presbyterian church, J. Browne jr.; Baptist 
church of Port Washington, James E. Bird. 

Contributions to the history of the town of Oyster Bay 
were made as follows: Sea Clitf (page 529) Rev. W. H. 
De Puy, D. D.; agriculture (pages 487, 488), Daniel 
K. Youngs; Odd Fellows' lodge. Glen Cove (page 520), 
W. M. Peck; Syosset (pages 547, 548), O. D. Burtis; 
Glen Cove and Matinecock (pages 505-525), J. T. Bowne; 
Hicksville (page 549), John F. Heitz; churches of Oyster 
Bay village — Episcopal Rev. W. M. Geer, Baptist Rev. C. 
S. Wightman, Presbyterian Rev. A. G. Russell, Method- 
ist Episcopal William Ludlam; churches of Glen Cove 
—Presbyterian Rev. T. S. Bradner, Methodist Episco- 
pal Rev. J. S. Gilder, Protestant Episcopal Rev. J. C. 
Middleton; Brookville Reformed church. Rev. J. H. 
Davis; Locust Valley Reformed church. Rev. A. De W. 
Mason; East Norwich M. E. church, H. H. Frost; Jones 
Institute, Walter Franklin. The author of the history of 
this town would acknowledge the kind assistance given 
in its preparation by the town clerk, John N. Remsen, 
and by Miss Letitia Townsend; many facts in the early 
history of the town were taken by permission from the 
"Townsend Memorial." 

Other acknowledgments are made in different parts of 
the history itself. 

So much time is necessarily consumed in preparing 
and printing a work of the magnitude of this that the 
parts first done may not in all cases embody the latest 
information, as, for example, in giving a list of the pas- 
tors of a church or the officers of an organization or a 
town; this would be inevitable at whatever time the vol- 
ume might be issued. Thus: while the supervisors are 
the same in several towns as in 1881, the present super- 
visor of Newtown is Thomas F. McGowan; of North 
Hempstead, Jacob Powell; Hempstead, Martin V.Wood. 

While some unimportant errors may perhaps be found 
amid the multitude of details entering into the composi- 
tion of a work of this character, the publishers yet present 
this result of many months' labor as a reliable and 
orderly narrative of all the events in, the history of 
Queens county of sufficient importance to merit such 








'N 1524 John de Verazzano, a Florentine navi- 
gator in the service of Francis the First of 
France, made a voyage to the North American 
coast, and, as is believed from the account 
which he gave, entered the harbor of New 
^^ York. No colonies were planted, and no results 

_ followed; and the voyage was almost forgotten. 

Though discoveries were made by the French north 
from this point, and colonies planted by the English 
further to the south, it is not known that New York was 
an;ain visited by Europeans till 1609, when the Dutch 
East India Company sent Hendrick Hudson, an English- 
man by birth, on a voyage of discovery in a vessel called 
the "Half Moon." Fie reached the coast of Maine, sailed 
thence to Cape Cod, then southwesterly to the mouth of 
Chesapeake Bay, then, coasting northward, he entered 
Delav/are Bay on the 28th of August. From thence he 
proceeded northward, and on the 3d of September, 1609, 
anchored in New York Bay. On the 12th he entered 
the river that bears his name, and proceeded slowly up 
to a point just above the present site of the city of Hud- 
son; thence he sent a boat's crew to explore farther up, 
and they passed above Albany. September 23d he set 
sail dov,-n the river, and immediately returned to Europe. 

In 1607 Samuel Champlain, a French navigator, sailed 
up the St. Lawrence, explored its tributaries, and on the 
4th of July in that year discovered the lake which bears 
his name. 

At the time of the discovery of New York by the 
whites the southern and eastern portions were inhabited 
by the Mahican or Mohegan Indians; while that portion 
west from the Hudson River was occupied by five con- 
federate tribes, afterwards named by the English the 

Five Nations, and by the F'rench the Iroquois, and by 
themselves called Hodenosaunee — people of the long 
house. The long house formed by this confederacy ex- 
tended east and west through the State, having at its 
eastern portal the Mohawks, and at its western the Sen- 
ecas; while between them dwelt the Oneidas, Ononda- 
gas, and Cayugas; and after 1714 a sixth nation, the 
Tuscaroras, southeast from Oneida Lake. Of these 
Indians Parkman says that at the commencement of the 
seventeenth century " in the region now forminp the 
State of New York, a power was rising to a ferocious 
vitality, which, but for the presence of Europeans, would 
probably have subjected, absorbed or exterminated every 
other Indian community east of the Mississippi and 
north of the Ohio." 

" The Iroquois was the Indian of Indians. A thorough 
savage, yet a finished and developed savage.- he is, per- 
haps, an example of the highest elevation which man 
cr-n reach without emerging from his primitive condition 
of the hunter. A geographical position commanding on 
the one hand the portal of the .c;reat lakes, and on the 
other the sources of the streams flowin,<^ both to the 
Atlantic and the Mississippi, p;ave the ambitious and ag- 
gressive confederates advantages which they perfectly 
understood, and by which they profited to the utmost. 
Patient and politic as they were ferocious, they were not 
only the conquerors of their own race, but the pov/erful 
allies and the dreaded foes of the French and English 
colonics, flattered and caressed by both, yet too sagacious 
to give themselves without reserve to either. Their or- 
ganization and their history evince their intrinsic superi- 
ority. Even their traditionary lore, amid its v/!ld pueril- 
ities, shov.s at times the stamp of an energy and force in 
striking contrast with the flimsy creations of Algonquin 
fancy. That the Iroquois, left under their own institu- 
tions, would ever have developed a civilization of their 
own, I do not believe." 

These institutions were not only characteristic and 
curious, but almost unique. Without sharing the almost 
fanatical admiration for them of Morgan, or echoing 


the praises which Parkman lavisnes on tnem, it may be 
truly said that their wonderful and cohesive confederation 
furnished a model worthy to be copied by many civilized 
nations, while, so long as they were uncontaminated by 
the vices of civilization, they possessed, with all their 
savagery, many noble traits of character, which would 
adorn any people in their public, social, or domestic 

They made themselves the dreaded masters of all 
their neighbors east of the Mississippi, and carried their 
victorious arms far to the north, the south, and the east. 
Their dominance is thus eloquently pictured in Street's 
" Frontenac "; i 

" The fierce Adirondacs had fled from their wrath, 
The Hurons been swept from their merciless path; 
Around, the Ottawas, like leaves, had been strewn, 
And the lake of the Eries struck silent and lone. 
The Lenape, lords once of valley and hill, 

. Made women, bent low at their conquerors' will. 
By the far Mississippi the lUini shrank 
When the trail of the Tortoise was seen on the bank; 
On the hills of New England the Pequod turned pale 
When the howl of the Wolf swelled at night on the gale; 
And the Cherokee shook in. his green, smiling bowers 
When the foot of the Bear stamped his carpet of flowers." 

It will hereafter be seen that the Iroquois acted an im- 
portant part in the early history of the State. 

Space will not permit a description of their league, or 
confederation, a sketch of their tribal relations, and their 
religious, social and domestic customs, or a history of 
their warlike achievements. 

Only an allusion may here be made to the many dim 
and shadowy records of a pre-existing people of whom 
not even' a faint tradition remains. These records con- 
sist of stone, terra cotta, or bone weapons, implements 
or ornaments, that are occasionally discovered, and of 
the remains of defensive works found here and there 
through the State. Many similar works have been leveled 
by ihe plough, and those that remain are slowly 
crumbling and passing to oblivion. Some of them, 
though they would not be regarded as models of military 
engineering at the present day, give evidence of an 
adaptation to the circumstances that probably existed 
when they were built, and of skill in construction, which 
are not discreditable to their builders. 



TO 1765. 

IN 1 6 10 another vessel was sent from Holland 
to trade with the natives and in 161 2 two 
more, soon after followed by others; and a 
small fort and a few rude buildings were 
erected at the southern extremity of Man- 
^ ^ hattan Island, and the place was named New 
^ Amsterdam. In 1614 the States General of Hol- 
land granted a charter to the merchants engaged in these 

expeditions, giving exclusive privileges of trade for four 
years. The Hudson River had been ascended by Hen- 
drick Christiansen, and a fort and trading house erected 
near the present site of Albany, which was named Fort 

In 1621 the Dutch West India Company was chartered, 
and in 1623 settlers were sent thither. In 1626 Peter 
Minuit, as director-general or governor of the province, 
arrived with other settlers, and purchased the island of 
Manhattan from the Indians for trinkets of the value of 
about ^24. In 1629 the company offered grants to 
patroons who should found settlements in the province 
(which had been named New Netherlands) of fifty or 
more adults, and several availed themselves of this offer. 
In 1633 Minuit was recalled and WouterVan Twiller ap- 
pointed in his place. During his administration the con- 
troversy concerning jurisdiction was commenced between 
the Dutch and the English, who claimed the country on 
the ground of prior discovery by Cabot and the grant of 
James I. covering the territory. v 

In 1638 Van Twiller was succeeded in the government 
of the colony by William Kieft. By reason of hostilities 
which occurred with the Indians on Long Island in 
1643-44, for which Kieft was censured, he was recalled, 
and succeeded by Peter Stuyvesant in 1647. The con- 
troversy concerning jurisdiction continued during his 
administration, till, in 1664, Charles II. of England, re- 
gardless of the claims of the Dutch to New Netherlands, 
granted to his brother, the Duke of York and Albany, 
afterwards James II., the whole country from the Con- 
necticut to the Delaware, including the entire Dutch pos- 
sessions. A fleet was sent under Colonel Richard Nicolls 
by the duke to enforce his claim, and. on the 3d of Sep- 
tember, 1664, the province was surrendered without 
bloodshed, and the government of the colony passed into 
the hands of the English. 

Colonel Nicolls at once assumed the functions of gov- 
ernor; the name New Amsterdam was changed to New 
York, and Fort Orange to Albany, laws for the govern- 
ment of the province were prescribed, and courts for the 
administration of these laws established. In 1668 Gov- 
ernor Nicolls resigned, and was succeeded by Colonel 
Francis Lovelace. England at about this time became 
involved in a war with Holland, and this government 
sent a squadron to repossess its province in America. 
This squadron arrived July 30th, 1673, and the fort at 
New York was surrendered without resistance by Captain 
John Manning, who was in command. Captain Anthony 
Colve became governor; but his reign was short, for on 
the conclusion of peace between the two powers, Febru- 
ary 9th, 1674, the province reverted to the English. A 
new patent was issued, confirming the first, and Sir Ed- 
mund Andros was commissioned governor. The despotic 
agent of a despotic ruler he was unpopular with the peo- 
ple, and became involved in difficulties with the neigh- 
boring colonies. He was recalled and his successor, 
Thomas Dongan, arrived on the 22nd of August, 1683. 
In the autumn of the same year the first colonial assem- 
bly was convened, many needed reforms were instituted, 


and better times than tlie colonists had ever known ap- 
peared to have dawned. The most important act of this 
Assembly was the adoption of a charter of liberties and 
privileges, or bill of rights. The hopes thus raised were 
soon disappointed. On the accession of James II. to the 
English throne he refused his confirmation of the priv- 
ileges which had been granted while he was Duke of 
York, prohibited the Assembly, forbade the establishment 
of a printing press in the colony, and filled the principal 
ofSccs in the province with Roman Catholics. 

In 1687 a war broke out between the Iroquois and the 
French. The country of the former was invaded by the 
French, under Dc la Barre and M. de Nonville success- 
ively, and in retaliation the Iroquois, twelve hundred 
strong, fell upon the French on the south side of the 
island of Montreal, " burnt their houses, sacked their 
plantations, and put to the sword all the men, women and 
children without the skirts of the town. A thousand 
French were slain in this invasion, and twenty-six were 
carried into captivity and burnt alive." Shortly after- 
ward, in another attack, the lower part of the town was 
destroyed, and in all this the assailants lost only three. 

In 1688 New York and the Jerseys were annexed to 
the jurisdiction of New England, and Sir Edmund An- 
dros was made governor of all. Governor Dongan was 
removed, and Francis Nicolson succeeded him. The 
government was vested in a governor and council, who 
were appointed by the king without the consent of the 

In 1689 William and Mary ascended the English 
throne. Sir Edmund Andros was seized at Boston, and 
Jacob Leisler seized the fort at New York, under the 
pretence of holding it for the new sovereigns. During 
the two years of Leisler's usurpation the French and In- 
dians made a descent on Schenectady, February Sth; 
1690, and massacred about sixty of the inhabitants. The 
danger by which they were threatened induced the people, 
— who, though favorably disposed toward William and 
Mary, were opposed to Leisler — to submit to his authority 
for the time. On the arrival, in March, 1691, of Colonel 
Sloughter, who had been commissioned governor in 1869, 
Leisler at first refused to surrender the government to 
him. For this he was tried by a special commission, and 
sentenced to death. The governor, who refused to sign 
his death waiTant, was persuaded, while intoxicated, to 
do so, and he was executed before the governor had re- 
covered from his intoxication Governor Sloughter died 
in July, 1 69 1, after a weak administration of only a few 

The colonial Assembly was again established during 
this year, and the oppressive laws which had been im- 
posed on Ihe colony repealed. In the interim between 
the death of Sloughter and the arrival of his successor 
the chief command was committed to Richard Ingoldsby. 
In August, 1692, Benjamin Fletcher arrived with a com- 
mission as governor. He was narrow, violent, avaricious 
and bigoted, and his administration was a continual ex- 
hibition of these qualities. 

In 1693 the French and Indians under Count Frontenac 

invaded the country of the Iroquois, killed some, and 
took three hundred prisoners. In 1696 he made another 
incursion, and ravaged a portion of the coun ry. The 
Indians retaliated by hostile incursions among their 
enemies, but the peace of Ryswick, betv/een France and 
England, terminated these hostilities. 

Governor Fletcher was succeeded in 1698 by Richard, 
Earl of Bellomont, who died in 1701, and John Nanfan, 
the lieutenant-governor, succeeded him till the arrival of 
the next governor, Lord Cornbury, in 1702. The admin- 
istration of this governor was chiefly distinguished for 
religious intolerance; and he received the unenviable 
distinction of being the worst governor under the English 
regime. He was succeeded, December i8th, 1708, by 
Lord Lovelace, who died on the 5th of ^he following 
May. Under Lieutenant-Governor Ingoldsby, who ad- 
ministered the government after his death, an unsuccess- 
ful expedition against Canada was undertaken. Gerardus 
Beekman succeeded him as governor pro icm., till June 
14th, T710, when the next governor, Robert Hunter, 
arrived. In 17 11 another disastrous expedition against 
Canada v.-as made, but in 17 13 the treaty of Utrecht ter- 
minated the war between England and France, and put 
an end to Indian hostilities. In 1719 Hunter returned 
to England, and Peter Schuyler was governor, ad interim, 
till the arrival of William Burnet in 1720. On the acces- 
sion to the throne of George II. Burnet was transferred 
to the government of Massachusetts, and succeeded, 
April 15th, 1728, by John Montgomery, who died July 
ist, 1731. Rip Van Dam, by virtue of seniority in the 
council, was his successor till the arrival of William 
Cosby, the next governor, finished his administration and 
began one rendered memorable for its arbitrary proceed- 
ings and tumult, rather than for striking or important 
events. Cosby died March loth, 1736, and was succeeded 
by George Clark, senior counselor after Van Dam, whom 
Cosby had caused to be suspended. Clark was com- 
missioned lieutenant-governor in the following October. 
An antagonism had been growing during some time be- 
tween the democratic and the aristocratic parties in the 
colonies. Clark at first sought to conciliate both, but in 
the end had the confidence of neither, and his retirement, 
on the arrival of his successor. Admiral George Clinton, 
September 23d, 1743, was but little regretted. The ad- 
ministration of Governor Clinton was characterized by a 
continual conflict with the people, represented in the 
provincial Assembly. Unable by repeated prorogations 
and dissolutions to coerce them into submission, he re- 
signed after an administration of ten years, and was suc- 
ceeded, October icth, 1763, by Sir Danvers Osborne. 
He was charged with stiil more stringent instructions 
than liis predecessors, and met with still firmer resistance 
from the people. After an administration of a few days 
he committed suicide by hanging, probably because of 
the embarrassment by which he was surrounded, and 
grief for the death of his wife. He was succeeded by 
Lieutenant-Governor James De Lancey till the arrival, in 
September, 1755, °^ Sir Charles Hardy, who, though nom- 
inally governor, surrendered the duties of the office into 


the hands of De Lancey. Governor Hardy resigned in 
17;/ and De Lancey became governor. He died on the 
30th of July, 1760. and Cadwalader Golden, president of 
the council, took charge of the government. He was 
commissioned lieutenant-governor in August, 1761, and 
in October of the same year General Robert Moulton, 
who had been appointed governor, assumed the guber- 
natorial functions; but on the 13th of the following mon^h 
he left the administration of affairs in the hands of Golden, 
and went on an expedition against Martinique. Colden's 
administration continued till 1765. 



S early as 1722 a trading post was established 
at Oswego by Governor Burnet, with the view 
of establishing others farther west on the 
lakes, and securing the trade of the western 
Indians. To intercept this, and secure this 
trade for themselves, the French established a 
post and erected a fort at Niagara, with the 
design of extending a chain of military posts to the Ohio 
River, and thus limiting the English trade. 

In Marc'h, 1744, war was declared between France and 
England, in which the colonies of New York and New 
England participated. During its continuance the coun- 
try north from Albany was frecjuently ravaged by parties 
of French and Indians. Saratoga was burned, and nearly 
all the inhabitants either killed or made prisoners, and 
the village of Hoosic taken. 

In 1746 an unsuccessful expedition against Ganada was 
undertaken, for which the colony of New York furnished 
sixteen hundred men. Peace was concluded at Aix La 
Ghapelle in 1748, and a period of nominal tranquillity 
followed, though the frontier was desolated bv savage 
parties, encouraged by the French. 

In 1755, with the view of checking their encroach- 
ments, four expeditions were sent against them, two of 
which were in the colony of New York. One of them, 
that against Niagara, was unsuccessful, but the other, 
against Crown Point, achieved a success, which was not 
however followed uj). 

It was not till 1756 that the English ministry aroused 
from its imbecility and formally declared war. In the 
campaign of 1756 the English and colonial forces met 
with no success, but the two forts at Oswego were lost, 
with 1,600 prisoners and much war material. The cam- 
paign of 1757 was equally unsuccessful and disastrous. 
Fort William Henry, on Lake George, with 3,000 men, 
fell into the hands of the French under Montcalm. 

On the accession of William Pitt to the head of the 
British ministry in 1758 new energy was infused into 

their measures, and a fresh impulse given to the colonies. 
Success soon turned in favor of the English, and, with 
few exceptions, continued till Ganada was subdued. 
Ticonderoga, Crown Point, Niagara and Quebec fell in 
1758, and Montreal, Detroit, Michilimackinac and all 
other Canadian Dosts in 1760. A great obstacle to the 
prosperity of New York was removed by the conquest of 
Ganada, which prevented further hostile mcursions of 
French and Indians into its territory. 

In 1763 a controversy arose between the colonies of 
New York and New Hampshire concerning the jurisdic- 
tion over the territory between Lake Ghamplain and the 
Connecticut river, now comprising the State of Vermont. 
Proclamations and counter proclamations were issued, 
but the matter was finally referred to and settled for the 
time by the crown. 

During many years the government of Great Britain 
had attempted to make encroachments on what the col- 
onists regarded as their rights, but without success. The 
taxation of the people without their consent was sought 
to be accomplished in some insidious manner, and was 
steadfastly and watchfully guarded against by the col- 
onists, through their representatives in the colonial As- 
sembly. In 1764 the notorious stamp act was passed 
and its enforcement m the city of New York attempted. 
It was resisted by the populace, the effigy of Governor 
Golden, who was charged with its execution, was hanged 
and burned in the streets, and finally a quantity of the 
stamped paper was seized and consumed in a bonfire. 

Through the influence of London merchants, whose 
colonial trade suffered by reason of the act, the odious 
law was repealed in 1766, but its repeal was followed by 
a declaration by Parliament of the right " to tax the col- 
onies in all cases whatsoever." Troops were quartered 
in New York city, really for the purpose of enforcing the 
laws that Parliament might enact. Collisions occurred 
between these troops and the people, and the Assembly 
refused appropriations for their support. Parliament 
declared the legislative powers of the Assembly annulled 
till compliance was had with the demands of the govern- 
ment. In June, 1767, a bill was enacted by Parliament 
imposing duties on certain articles imported into the col- 
onies. This was followed by a revival of the non- 
importation agreement that had previously been entered 
into by the colonists, and again the influence of the 
English merchants procured the repeal of all these duties 
except that on tea, which was retained by reason of a de- 
termination to assert and maintain the right of taxation. 

Sir Henry Moore succeeded Governor Golden in 1765, 
and his administration continued till his death, in 1769, 
when the government again devolved on Cadwallader 
Golden. Between the soldiers and those colonists who 
were known as the Sons of Liberty animosities continued 
to exist, and finally, on the i8th of January, 1770, five 
years previous to the battle of Lexington, a collision oc- 
curred at Golden Hill, in New York city, in which several 
of the citizens were wounded. 

In October, 1770, Lord Dunmore superseded Golden 
in the government of New York, and in 177 1 he was 



transferred to the government of Virginia and succeeded 
in New York by William Tryon, who was rendered in- 
dependent of the people by a royal decree that his salary 
should be paid from the revenue. 

The non-importation agreement was continued so far 
as related to tea, and the East India Company suf- 
fered severely in consequence. Doggedly determined to 
maintain the assumed right of taxation, the British gov- 
ernment abolished the export duty on such tea as was 
shipped to the colonies, thus enabling the company to 
sell it there cheaper than in England, and appointed 
consignees in the colonial ports for its sale. Regardless 
of this appeal to their cupidity, the people made such 
demonstrations of resistance that the consignees in New 
York resigned, and when an attempt was made to land a 
quantityof tea clandestinely it was thrown overboard by the 
vigilance committee, and the vessel sent out of the harbor. 

It is hardly necessary to say that in the other colonies 
the oppressive acts of the King and Parliament met with 
as firm resistance as in New York. The battle of Lex- 
ington was the signal for a general rush to arms through- 
out the colonies. 

In New York city the arms in the arsenals were seized 
and distributed among the people, and a provisional gov- 
ernment for the city was organized. Ticonderoga was 
seized on the loth of May, 1775, by Connecticut patriots 
under Colonel Ethan Allen, and two days later Crown 
Point, both without resistance, and thus the command of 
Lake Champlain was secured. 

The Continental Congress assembled on the loth of 
May, and on the 22nd of the same month a Provincial 
Congress assembled in New York. 

In August an attack was made by the British ship of war 
" Asia" on a party who were engaged in removing some 
cannon from the battery in New York, and considerable 
damage was done to the buildings in the vicinity but the 
guns were removed. In the autumn an armament was 
collected by General Schuyler at Ticonderoga and an ex- 
pedition went against Canada. The forts at Chambly, 
St. Johns and Montreal were taken, and Quebec was as- 
saulted, but the colonial force was here repulsed and 
driven out of Canada. 



IfV'F^ ARLY in 1776 General Lee, with a force of 

fe^^ twelve hundred men, occupied the city of 

IL(l5^ New York. General Schuyler with a small 

force had disarmed the tories of the Mohawk 

valley and a like service had been rendered on 
Long Island by the New Jersey militia. About the 
first of July General Howe who had previously 
evacuated Boston and sailed for Halifax, appeared off 

Sandy Hook with his army, where he was soon afterward 
joined by his brother. Admiral Howe, with a force of 
British regulars and Hessians, and Clinton and Parker, 
on their return from an unsuccessful attack on Charles- 
ton, making an aggregate force of about 30,000 men. 

The Provincial Congress of New York adjourned to 
White Plains, where it convened on the 9th of July, and 
ratified the Declaration of Independence by the Conti- 
nental Congress. 

On the 22nd of August a British force landed on Long 
Island, and on the 27th a battle was fought, resulting in ■ 
the defeat of the Americans, who on the night of the 
29th, favored by a thick fog, retreated to New York. 
The plan had been formed to capture New York, ascend 
the Hudson, effect a junction with a force from Canada 
under General Carlton, and thus cut off communication 
between the patriots of New England and those of the 
middle and southern colonies; but the movements of 
Washington and the failure of Carlton frustrated the 

On the 15th of September General Howe took posses- 
sion of New York, and the Americans retreated to Har- 
lem Heights. General Howe sought to gain their rear, 
but Washington's movements frustrated his designs. 

Opposed to General Carlton at the north was General 
Gates, who abandoned Crown Point and concentrated 
his forces at Ticonderoga. A small squadron was 
formed and placed on Lake Champlain under command 
of Arnold in August. An action took place in October 
between this squadron and the fleet which Carlton had 
prepared at St. Johns, in which the Americans were de- 
feated and fell back on Ticonderoga. Not deeming it 
prudent to attack them there General Carlton withdrew 
to Canada. 

On the 2ist of April 1777 a State constitution was 
adopted, and under it George Clinton was elected gov- 
ernor, and he assumed the duties of the office on the 
31st of the following July. 

The principal object of the British in the campaign of 
1777 was to carry out the cherished design of separating 
the eastern from the southern colonies by controlling the 
Hudson River and Lake Champlain. Lieutenant-General 
Burgoyne, who had superseded General Carlton, was to 
force his way from Canada, and meet Sir Henry Clinton 
at Albany, while Colonel St. Leger was to ascend the 
St. Lawrence, and, with a force of loyalists and Indians, 
sweep through the Mohawk valley from Oswego and 
Rome, and join them at Albany. 

In June Burgoyne moved on Ticonderoga, which the 
American commander. General St. Clair, evacuated. As 
the American army retreated some fighting took place, 
without decisive results, till at Bennington the Amer- 
icans, under General Stark, achieved a victory over a 
detachment of the enemy under Colonel Baum, who was 

Colonel St. Leger advanced and invested Fort Schuy- 
ler, otherwise called Fort Stanwix, now Rome. The 
battle of Oriskany was fought, soon after which St. Leger 
abandoned his undertaking and returned to Canada. 



General Burgoyne advanced to Saratoga, where he was 
surrounded, and on the 17th of October was compelled 
to surrender. 

While operations were in progress in the vicinity of 
Saratoga Sir Henry Clinton sought to make a diversion 
in favor of Burgoyne. He proceeded up the Hudson, 
captured Forts Montgomery and Clinton, devastated the 
settlements along the banks of the river, burnt Kingston, 
and, on learning of the surrender of Burgoyne, returned 
to New York. 

In the campaigns of 1778 and 1779 no very important 
operations were carried on in New York. The Indians 
of the Six Nations (except the Oncidas and a fevv' others) 
were induced to carry on the Americans their 
savage and cruel warfare, and devastation, slaughter and 
massacres were the result. To arrest these depredations 
General Sullivan, in the summer of 1779, with an army 
of 3,000 men, ascended the Susquehanna to Tioga Point, 
where he was joined by General Clinton with a thousand 
men. With these forces they penetrated the country of 
the savages, destroyed their towns, and laid waste their 
cornfields and orchards. Though not subdued by this 
punishment, they were so crippled that their inroads were 
less frequent a^nd destructive afterward. 

During the years 1780 and 1781 the Mohawk valley 
was the scene of devastation by the savages of the Six 
Nations, particularly the Mohawks, under their celebrated 
chief Brant; but aside from these New York was not the 
scene of important hostile operations. The year 1780 
was made memorable by the treason of Arnold. This 
gallant officer had, for some irregularities in Philadelphia 
in 1778, been court-martialed and sentenced to be repri- 
manded by the commander-in-chief. He apparently ac- 
quiesced in the sentence, but his pride was deeply 
wounded, and he thirsted after revenge. He solicited 
and obtained command of West Point, and entered into 
negotiations with Sir Henry Clinton for the delivery of 
that fortress into the hands of the British. In the course 
of these negotiations Major Andre, of the British army, 
met General Arnold. on the bankii of the Hudson. In 
attempting to return he was captured, about thirty miles 
from New York, by three militiamen named Paulding, 
Williams and Van Wert, who refused his offered bribes 
and delivered him to their commander. He was tried, 
condemned and executed as a spy. 

The Revolutionary war virtually closed with the sur- 
render of Cornwallis and his army at Yorktown on the 
19th of October, 1781. A treaty of peace was entered 
into on the 3d of September, 1783, and on the 25th of 
November in the same year the Btitish troops evacuated 
on New York. 

After the United States had achieved their independ- 
ence it was early perceived that the confederation, which 
had been established for a particular purpose, lacked 
that cohesive force which was requisite for an effectual 
national government. Measures were accordmgly insti- 
tuted, first for a revision of the Articles of Confederation, 
but finally the formation of a national constitution was 
deteirained on; and such constitution was formed by the 

convention in Philadelphia in 1787. After its adoption 
by the requisite number of States it was ratified in con- 
vention by the State of New York, by a close vote, on 
the 26th of July, 1788, but with the recommendation of 
several amendments, which, however, were not adopted. 

The difficulties arising out of the conflicting claims of 
New York and New Hampshire to the territory now com- 
prising Vermont, which had been held in partial abey- 
ance during the Revolutionary struggle, were finally set- 
tled by the admission of the disputed territory into the 
Union as a State, in 1790, under the name of Vermont. 

By reason of indefiniteness and confusion in the original 
grants Massachusetts claimed a portion of the territory 
of New York. This claim was settled by the cession to 
Massachusetts of all rights, except that of political sov- 
ereignty, over about one-fourth of the State. The largest 
tract of these lands, embracing what has been known as 
the Genesee country, was sold by Massachusetts for the 
sum of one million dollars. 



'@,^^|i'T the commencement of the present century 
nU-^i JiMi. difficulties arose between this country and 
yfXlJl^A ' Great Britain concerning the rights of neutrals 
Y'si:^%p\ % on the seas, and the aggressions of the British 
WS^'^J became a subject of bitter animosity. In ad- 
(^^^^^^ dition to other encroachments, the English gov- 
^<o^ ernment claimed the right to search American ves- 
sels and impress into their service such of their crcw.^ as 
they chose to regard as British subjects. Outrages were 
committed in the enforcement of this pretended right, and 
for the suppression of the practice, and the vindication 
of the national honor, war became necessary; and it was 
declared on the 19th of June, 1812. To this measure 
there was a strong opposition, both in New England and 
New York, and this opposition embarrassed the govern- 
ment to some extent in the prosecution of the war. An 
invasion of Canada was determined on, and for that pur- 
pose forces were collected in the vicinity of Plattsburg, 
on Lake Champlain, under General Dearborn, and at 
Lewiston, on the Niagara River, under General Van 
Rensselaer. A naval force was fitted up on the lakes, 
and Commodore Chauncey was placed in command of it. 
Unsuccessful attacks were made by the British fleet on 
Sackett's Harbor and Ogdensburg, while, on the other 
hand, the British vessel " Caledonia " was captured at 
the foot of Lake Erie An attack was made on the 
heights 'at Queenston, on the Canadian bank of the 
Niagara, and though at first the Americans were success- 
ful they were finally compelled to surrender. Nothing 
beyond slight skirmishing occurred in this quarter during 
the remainder of the year. 



Early in the spring of 1813 a successful expedition to 
Canada was made from Ogdensburg, and in retaliation 
an attack v/as made on that place, some stores taken, sev- 
eral vessels destroyed and the property of citizens injured. 
In yVpril a successful expedition was sent by General 
Dearborn against York, now Toronto. In May the Brit- 
ish were driven from Fort George, on the Niagara River, 
near Lake Ontario, and the enemy's post on that frontier 
evacuated. Sackctt's Harbor was attaclied by the British, 
v/ho v/ere repulsed, and an unsuccessful attack was also 
made by them on the village of Black Rock. 

The brilliant victory of Commodore Perry, on Lake 
Erie, was achieved on the loth of September in this year, 
but the operations on Lake Ontario were less decisive. 
Late in the autumn an unsuccessful attempt was made to 
invade Canada under General Wilkinson. The Ameri- 
can generals Izard and Hampton were repulsed near the 
border of Franklin county. In December the British 
took Fort Niagara, and massacred a large part of the gar- 
rison and even hospital patients. Lewiston was burned, 
and the villages of Youngstov.m, Manchester, Schlosser 
and the Indian village of Tuscaroia were devastated by 
the enemy. The village of Black Rock and Buffalo were 
also burned, and thus the desolation of the Niagara fron- 
tier was completed. 

Early in 1014 an attempt was made by the British to 
ca^^turc some military stores at Oswego Falls, but without On the 3d of July, 1814, Fort Erie was taken 
by the Americans, and on the 25th a battle was fought 
at Lundy's Lane. In August Fort Erie was besieged by 
the British, who v/ere comoelled to retire about the mid- 
dle of September. 

The plan of a dismemberment of the Union, by pos- 
sessing Lake Champlain and the Fludson River from the 
north, and capturing Nev/ York, v/as again formed, and 
it v/as hoped that discontent and opposition to the v/ar 
in Ncv/ England, and possibly in Nev/ York, might lead 
to the conclusion of a separate peace with these States. 
The people, however, were fully aroused, and the de- 
fenses of New York were strengthened and strongly gar- 
risoned. An invasion was undertaken from Canada, and 
a descent was tnadc on Plattsburg by an army of 14,000 
men under Sir George Prevost, but after a severe engage- 
ment on the nth of September this army was compelled 
to retire with great loss. The British fleet, under Com- 
modore Downie, was on the same day captured on Lake 
Champlain by Commodore Macdonough. No further 
invasion of this frontier took place. On the 24th of De- 
cember a treaty of peace was concluded at Ghent. 

No other interruption of the peaceful relations between 
this country and England has occurred. Some infrac- 
tions of the neutrality laws have been attempted by peo- 
ple on the Canadian frontier, the chief of which took 
place during the Canadian rebellion, commonly known 
as the '"Patriot v/ar," in 1837-38. 

What v/crc known as the anti-rent disturbances com- 
menced as early as 1839, and were not terminated till 
1846. Laws were enacted to modify the process of col- 
lecting rents and to extend the time (or " re-entry " on 

lands where rents were in arrears. Participators 'in out- 
rages were pardoned, and quiet was finally restored. 

The annexation of Texas to the United States led to 
hostilities between Mexico ai]d this nation, and on the 
iiih of T'.Iay, 1846, Congress declared that, by the acts 
of the Mexicans, war existed between the two nations. 
The Americans were victorious in all important engage- 
ments with the Mexican army, and the part taken by the 
troops from the State of New York was conspicuous and 
highly creditable to their valor. 

From time to lime the Legislature enacted laws con- 
cerning slavery, down to the year 1819. A law passed 
in 1799 provided for the gradual extinction of slavery in 
the State. "In 1817 a further act was passed, decreeing 
that there should be no slavery in the State after the 4th 
of July, 1827. Ten thousand slaves were set free by this 

The recognition of slavery in the territories of the 
United States was earnestly resisted during many years, 
and the controversy finally resulted in a gigantic civil 
war. On the election of Abraham Lincoln to the pres- 
idency, in i860, on the platform of avowed hostility to 
the extension of slavery, and the failure to effect a com- 
promise by which the institution should be recognized or 
tolerated in any of the territories, the southern States de- 
termined to secede from the Union and establish a sep- 
arate government. The attack by the Confederates, as 
these States styled themselves, on Fort Sumter was the 
first overt act of the Rebellion, and on its occurrence, in 
.'Vpril, 1861, was the commencement of active hostilities. 
Before the close of that year the State of New York had 
pLaccd in the field one hundred and fifteen regiments. 

In July, 1863, during the execution of a draft ordered 
by Congress, an alarming riot occurred in the city of 
New York. The police were unable to check its progress, 
and during several days the city was convulsed with law- 
lessness, rapine and murder. The outbreak was finallv 
quelled by military force, but not until a large amount of 
property had been destroyed and many lives sacrificed. 
The war was prolonged till the spring of 1865, when it 
terminated with the complete success of the Union arms, 
and peace has since prevailed. 




^vW 1?^ 1 791 the Legislature ordered an exploration 
^^IkW and survey to ascertain the most eligible 
j)SM^j|n||y method of removing obstructions from the 
'iS^^-J%' Mohawk and Hudson rivers, with a view to 
(%iA improve their navigation by the construction 

4^' y of canals. The following year two companies 
« were incorporated, styled the Northern and West- 
ern Inland Lock Navigation Companies, for the purpose 



of facilitating navigation by connecting Lake Ontario 
with the Mohawk and Lake Champlain with tlie Hudson 
by canals. 

In 1810 a provision was made by the Legislature " for 
exploring the route of an inland navigation from Hudson's 
River to Lake Ontario and Lake Erie." It was at first 
proposed to solicit aid from the general government to 
carry out this work, but in 1812 a commission reported 
to the Legislature that sound policy demanded that this 
should be done by the State. War with Great Britain 
interrupted the project. 

On the termination of the war the policy was revived; 
and notwithstanding the formidable character of the un- 
dertaking, and the difificulties in its way, through the 
untiring energy and perseverance of De Witt Clinton an 
act prepared by him was passed in April, 181 7, author- 
izing the construction of the work. It was commenced 
on the 4th of July in that year, and on the 26th of Oc- 
tober, 1825, the first flotilla of boats left Buffalo for New 
York. The departure of this flotilla was communicated 
to New York in one hour and twenty minutes, by the dis- 
charge of cannon stationed within hearing of each other. 
This was then regarded as a rapid transmission of intelli- 

The first railroad in the State, that between Albany and 
Schenectady, was chartered in 1826 and completed in 
1 83 1. Other roads through the central portion of the 
State were soon constructed, and railroad connection be- 
tween the great lakes and Hudson River established. In 
185 1 these different roads were consolidated into the 
present immense New York Central Railroad, and subse- 
quently connection was established, through the Hudson 
River Railroad, with the city of New York. In 1833 the 
New York and Erie Railway was commenced, but it was 
not completed till 1852. The enlargement of the Erie 
Canal to its present capacity was commenced in 1835 and 
completed in 1862. These constitute the main avenues 
of travel and transportation through the State between 
the eastern and western extremities, but connecting routes 
in every direction have come into existence, and the fa- 
cilities for transportation and travel in this State are not 
excelled by those of any other. It is hardly necessary 
to call attention to the telegraph lines that ramify through 
all parts of the State. 

It has already been stated that a State constitution was 
adopted in 1777. Several amendments to this constitu- 
sion were adopted in a convention held for that purpose 
in 1801. In 1821 it was revised by a convention chosen 
for that purpose, and the new constitution was adopted 
early in 1822, at a popular election held for that purpose, 
by a majority of more than 33,000 in a total vote of 

On the ist of June, 1846, another constitutional con- 
vention met at Albany, and it continued in session more 
than four months. The amendments to the constitution 
adopted by that body were ratified by the people in the 
following November by a majority of more than 20,000 

In 1867 another constitutional convention assembled, 

on the 4th of June, and continued its session, except 
during an adjournment of two months, several weeks into 
1868. The amended constitution framed by this con- 
vention was submitted to the people in November, 1869, 
and resulted in its rejection, except the article making 
changes in the judiciary, by a majority of more than 
66,000. The judiciary article was accepted by a small 

In 1872 a commission of thirty-two persons was ap- 
pointed to propose to the Legislature amendments to the 
constitution. In 1873 several important amendments 
were recommended, and ratified at the election in 1874. 
It is a notable fact that, as changes have been made in 
the constitution of the State, the right of the elective 
franchise has been extended; till now complete manhood 
suffrage is established. 

In 1787 a law was enacted incorporating the Regents 
of the University of New York, and in their report for 
1793 they called attention to the importance of instituting 
a common school system. At different times from 1787 
to 1795 Governor Clinton called the attention of the 
Legislature to the same subject, and in that year an act 
was passed appropriating $50,000 annually for five years 
for the encouragement of schools. In 1805, after atten- 
tion had repeatedly been called to the subject by the dif- 
ferent governors, the Legislature passed an act laying the 
foundation of the present common school fund. In 181 2 
the first common school system was adopted, comprising 
substantially the features of the system as it existed up to 
1840. Changes in this system have from time to time 
been made, till now the free school system of this State is 
believed to be, with scarcely an exception, the most 
nearly perfect of all in existence. 

The State Agricultural Society, which has been pro- 
ductive of such great benefit, was organized at a conven- 
tion in Albany in 1832. It was reorganized in 1841, and 
measures were adopted for raising funds and holding 
annual fairs. 

In 1836 the Legislature ordered a scientific survey of 
the State for the purpose of developing a knowledge of 
its geology, mineralogy and natural history. The pub- 
lished reports of this survey are of very great value. 

The following list of the governors, lieutenant-govern- 
ors and presidents of the council who have administered 
the government of the colony and State of New York 
from 1629 to the present time will be found convenient 
for reference. 

Under the Dutch regime: Wouter Van Twiller, 1629; 
William Kieft, 1638; Peter Stuyvesant, 1647. 

English governors, etc.: Richard Nirolls, 1664; Francis 
Lovelace, 1667; Anthony Colve, on the recapture of the 
province by the Dutch, 1673. After the surrender to the 
English: Sir Edmund Andros, 1674; Anthony Brockholls, 
1681; Thomas Dongan, 1683; Francis Nicholson, 1688; 
Jacob Leisler, 1689; Henry Sloughter, 1691; Richard 
Ingold^by, 1691; Benjamin Fletcher, 1692; Richard, 
Earl of Bellomont, 1698; John Nanfan, 1699; Lord 
Cornbury, 1702; Lord Lovelace, 1708; Richard Ingoldsby. 
1709; Gerardus Beekman, 1710; Robert Hunter, 1710;, 



Peter Schuyler, 1719; William Burnet, 1720; John 
Montgomery, 1728; Rip Van Dam, 1731; William Cosby, 
1732; George Clark, 1736; George Clinton, 1743; Dan- 
vers Osborne, 1753; James De Lancey, 1753; Sir Charles 
Hardy, 1755; James De Lancey, 1757; Cadvvallader 
Golden, 1760; Robert Monkton, 1762; Cadvvallader 
Golden, 1763; Henry Moore, 1765; John, Earl of Dun- 
more, 1770: William Tryon, 1771. 

Governors of the State: George Clinton, 1777; John 
Jay, T795; George Clinton, 1801; Morgan Lewis, 1804; 
Daniel D. Tompkins, 1807; De Witt Clinton, 1817; 
Joseph C. Yates, 1822; De Witt Clinton, 1824; Martin 
Van Buren, 1828; Enos T.Throop, 1830; William L. 
Marcy, 1832; William H. Seward, 1838; William C. Bouck, 
1842; Silas Wright, 1844; John Young, 1846; Hamilton 

Fish, 1848; Washington Hunt, 1850; Horatio Seymour, 
1852; Myron H.Clark, 1854; John A.King,i856; Edwin D. 
Morgan, 1858; Horatio Seymour, 1862; Reuben E. Fenton, 
1864; John T. Hoffman, 1868; John A. Dix, 1872; Samuel 
J.Tilden,i874; Lucius Robinson, 1876; A. B. Cornell, 1880. 

The population of the colony and State of New York 
was in 1698,18,067; 1703,20,665; 1723,40,564; 1731, 
50,824; 1737, 60,437; 1746, 61,589; 1749, 73.348; 1756, 
96,790; 1771, 163,337; 1790, 340,120; i8oo, 586,756; 
1810, 959,049; 1820, 1,372,812; 1830, 1,918,608; 1840, 
2,428,921; 1850, 3,097,394; i860, 3,880,735; 1870, 
4,382,759; 1880, 5,083,173. 

Of the total population there were in 1790, 21,324 
slaves; in 1800, Ti;i,;i4s; 1810, 15,017; 1820, ro,o88; 1830, 
75; 1840, 4. 





HE time has long since gone by when a belief 
in the sudden creation of the earth in its 
present form was generally prevalent. Once 
it was considered not only heterodox but 
almost blasphemous for a man to avow his 
conviction that he saw on the surface of the earth 
indications of changes that occurred at a period 
previous to about six thousand years since. That con- 
tinents, or even islands, should rise from the sea, become 
submerged, and emerge again in the lapse of immense 
time, was not deemed possible. Within the limits of 
historic time no record was given of more than slight 
changes, and men had not learned to read the record 
which is written in the strata beneath the surface, and 
which science has made legible on the edges of those 
strata where they are visible. The man w.ho ventured 
to assert that Long Island was once submerged, and that 
its emergence was of comparatively recent date, would 
have been regarded by some as impious and by others as 
mad. That period of ignorance has passed, and people 
have come to recogni-ze the fact that, as far as the 
records of the past can be deciphered, the earth has been 
steadily changing, in the midst of its changing environ- 
ments, and that, as far as science is able to peer into the 
future, changes will continue to succeed each other. 

An inspection of the map of Long Island shows that 
it, as well as the coast south from it, had its birth from 
the sea, in what, geologically speaking, may be termed 
modern times; and there are evidences of vertical oscilla- 
tions of the surface here which may have caused a suc- 
cession of partial or complete submergences and emerg- 

The island extends from east to west about one hun- 
dred and twenty miles, -and has an average width of 
about fifteen miles. Along the northern coast an avcracre 
elevation of about one hundred feet is found, though 
there are places where the hills are much higher. On 
this coast numerous " necks " of land and inlets or es- 
tuaries of the sound are seen; and the water along this 
shore is deeper than on the southern coast. Between the 
heights along the sound shore and the irregular range of 
hills which extend lengthwise through the island near the 
middle, for most of its length, and which arc termed the 
backbone, the surface is in many places much broken. 
Harbor Hill, in North Hempstead, one of the highest 
points on the island, was found by actual measurement to 
be three hundred and eighty-four feet in height. 

The northern coast of the island is indented by eight 
principal bays, or fiords, which extend inland from three 
to six miles and have a width of from half a mile to a 
mile and a half. In some places in these the water has 
a depth of from thirty to fifty feet, and the average depth 
is about twenty feet. South from this central range the 
surface slopes to the coast gradually, and so evenly as to 
have the appearance of a level plain. 

Along the south shore are numerous shallow bays and 
inlets, especially toward the western extremity of the 
island. Along this shore also is a narrow sand beach, which 
incloses a bay, or rather a succession of narrow bays, for 
most of the length of the coast. This beach is crossed 
at different points by inlets, formerly called " guts'" 
(Dutch '"gat," or gate), which connect these bays with 
the ocean, and divide the beach into a succession of long 
narrow beaches; as narrow necks of land connect these 
beaches with the mainland and divide the long narrow 
bay into a succession of bays, some of which do not 
communicate with the ocean, Outside these long narrow 
beaches is a shifting sand bar, and inside the bays arc 
extensive salt marshes, or meadows. About forty miles 
of the eastern end of the island is divided by a succession 
of bays into two peninsulas, each having an average 



width of about five miles and the southern extending 
some twenty miles further east than the northern, though 
the last seems to be continued to about the same distance 
by a succession of islands. 

When the geological survey of the State was made — 
nearly forty years since — it was believed that the forma- 
tion of the island was due to the action of opposite and 
resultant currents, and probably its foundation on the 
primary rock which underlies it was thus laid, in a pre- 
glacial period. The Gulf Stream from the south, as it is 
beheved to have flowed; the Arctic current from the 
north, and the action of the tides in the Atlantic, all 
combined to bring hither and deposit the materials of 
which this foundation consists. 

It is believed by geologists that the strata of rocks 
here were formerly from three hundred to one thousand 
feet lower than they now are. Then the southeastern 
shore of the United States was farther inland, and the 
Gulf Stream swept from the south parallel with and 
nearer to the base of the primary Atlantic chain of moun- 
tains than at present. Along the course of this stream, 
from Georgia to Maryland, extended a broad belt of 
primary rocks. These rocks, which were various in their 
character, were remarkably prone to disintegration, and 
the results ot their wearing down were extremely various. 
These debrita were borne northward beneath the sur- I 
face by the equatorial current, and deposited, as in its 
course northward this current became less rajiid; hence 
the deposits of various kinds that are found in Virginia, 
Maryland, Delaware and New Jersey. At this period 
the basin of the St. Lawrence and Hudson valleys was 
occupied by an inland sea, through which came the Arctic 
current, bringing its freight of debrita to be deposited 
when circumstances favored its subsidence. The effect 
of the oblique meeting of those currents in the region of 
Long Island, when the force of both was partially spent, 
was to arrest their northward and southward flow, and to 
produce a gentle resultant current toward the east, with 
eddies that were influenced by the form of the sea bot- 
tom where the currents met, by storms that swept over 
the surface here, and by other storms at the north or 
south, which temporarily deflected, retarded or ac- 
celerated these currents. Thus, it was believed, were the 
materials of the strata which underlie Long Island brought 
hither; and thus in the resultant comparatively still water 
and eddies were they deposited; hence the lignite and 
the bones of marine and terrestrial animals that are found 
at great depths when wells are sunk and excavations 

After the process of piling the foundation of the island 
on the sea bottom had gone on, in the way indicated, 
during indefinite time, the upheaval took place. Previous 
to the adoption of the glacial theory it was believed that 
icebergs floated hither, bringing the boulders, etc., that 
they had torn from their beds in the north, and dropping 
them, one by one, as they slowly melted while circulat- 
ing in the eddies here; and that at a later period they 
became stranded or ran aground in siiallow water, and 
there melted, leaving their entire cargoes to constitute 

the hills on the island as the surface was further up- 
heaved. The researches of modern geologists seem to 
show that subsequent to the period spoken of, but in 
pre-glacial times, an upheaval occurred which carried 
the surface here from three hundred to four hundred feet 
higher than it now is, and that it remained thus elevated 
during the glacial period. 

It IS believed that during this time of elevation the 
Hudson River had its mouth eighty miles farther to the 
southeast than at present, and that its course and the 
former littoral plain through which it ran, as well as the 
old coast lines, are traceable by soundings. During the 
time of elevation the ice period occurred, and it is thought 
that the terminal moraine of the glacier extended length- 
wise through the island and far to the east along the 
New England coast, as well as west across New Jersey; 
and that the drift material of the island was brought by 
this agency from the regions to the north and west, where 
it existed in place. Thus were brought the deposits 
of clay, sand and gravel which are found especially on 
the north half of the island, and which often vary so 
greatly in their character, though separated only by short 
distances. Thus, too, were brought hither the boulders, 
some of which are of immense size. Kidd's Rock and 
Millstone Rock in the town of North Hempstead, Queens 
county, may be mentioned as examples. 

The primary rock which underlies the island comes to 
the surface at Hell Gate and Hallett's Cove, on its north- 
western extremity, and here the drift deposit lies di- 
rectly on this rock. Elsewhere it is superposed on older 

It is certain that since the glacial period a subsidence 
of the surface has taken place, and it is not considered 
impossible that several vertical oscillations have occurred. 
Mr. Lewis says: "If a depression of two hundred feet 
should take place all of Long Island that would remain 
above the water would be a broken range of hills. With 
an elevation of two hundred feet Long Island Sound 
would be converted to dry land. The Connecticut and 
Hudson Rivers would roll along deeper channels, and 
discharge their waters many miles seaward; while Brook- 
lyn and New York would be inland cities." It is believ- 
ed, as before stated, that the vertical oscillations in past 
time have carried the surface of the land here more than 
two hundred feet higher as well as lower than its present 
elevation. At present the surface is subsiding, though 
at the rate of only a few inches in a century. Evidences 
of this subsidence are found in abundance where excava- 
tions or borings are made, and in some instances where 
the bottom of the sea at some distance from the coast is 
explored. The stumps of submerged or buried forests 
are thus found, as well as other products of the former 
surface. Evidences of a former subsidence, much greater 
than at present, are found in the occurrence of marine 
deposits at points in the higher parts of the island. It 
is believed that every rood of the space from the central 
range of hills " has been the shore line of first an invad- 
ing, atterward of a receding ocean, and the scene of those 
great coast changes which waves produce." These 



changes, which occur from time to time now as the re- 
sults of storm and ocean currents, it is hardly necessary 
to detail. As the swell rolls obliquely from the eastward 
along the coast the beach is modified by the deposit or 
the washing away of the sand; inlets to the bays are 
choked up and obliterated, and others break out ar other 
points; sand spits and beaches form, and southerly winds 
drift the sands on the island, to be again washed away 
by the waves. 

Along the northern coast changes have taken place, 
and they are still going on, by shore erosion and the 
transportation of the detritus by storms and tidal currents. 
Portions of the main island have been thus cut off and 
have become islands, and the material washed away has 
been deposited, sometimes at considerable distance, to 
form shoals, beaches, or necks connecting what had thus 
been made islands with the shore again. Beaches have 
thus been formed and obliterated, inlets and channels 
have been excavated and again filled up, islands have 
been cut off and joined again to the island, or washed 
away, and changes, many of which are now difficult to 
trace and doubtless others that cannot now be traced, 
have in the lapse of time occurred. Some of the more re- 
cent of these may, however, be easily discerned, and peo- 
ple whose lives have been spent here have been able to 
note many that have gradually occurred, or to remember 
others that were effected by violent storms. 

The species of animals which were found on Long Isl- 
and when it was first discovered did not differ from 
those on the main land. Of course its insular condition 
prevented the annual or occasional migrations which oc- 
curred elsewhere by reason of climatic changes or other 
causes, and the complete extinction here of many of 
those species took place earlier by reason of that condi- 
tion. With the long stretch of sea coast which the island 
has, of course it was the habitat of all those species of 
aquatic birds which are found in this latitude. The isl- 
and was annually visited too by those migratory land 
birds that frequent regions in this latitude, and at the 
present time it is the annual resort of many species that 
attract hither sportsmen during each season. The mu- 
seum of the Long Island Historical Society lias specimens 
of many of these species of animals and birds, and in this 
department it is proposed to make it quite complete. 

By reason of the prevailing character of the soil, the 
botany of the island does not embrace as wide a range of 
species as are sometimes found on equal areas in the same 
latitude. Of the trees formerly covering large portions of 
the island the oak, pine and chesnut were the most abund- 
ant and valuable ; and it is said that the quality of this 
timber was far superior to that of the same species found 
elsewhere. Among the most valuable species of timber 
growing on the island at present the locust occupies a 
prominent position. It is thought that Captain John 
Sands, who came to Sands Point about 1695, introduced 
this tree, from Virginia, about the year 1700. Since that 
time it has spread extensively here. The quality of this 
timber grown here is greatly superior to that of the same 
species in the region whence it was brought. A few gi- 

gantic specimens of this tree a "c standing on the lawn at 
the residences of Mr. Bogart, of Roslyn, and of the late 
Elwoo.d Valentine, at Glen Cove. Says Lewis : "It is 
believed that those on Mr. Bogart's ground, several now 
or recently at Sands Point, and two in the dooryard of 
the old Thorne mansion at Little Neck, now occupied by 
Eugene Thorpe, Esq., are of the first imported and plant- 
ed on Long Island". About eighty species of forest 
trees — indigenous and those that have become acclimat- 
ed — are growing without cultivation on the island. Speci- 
mens of many species of these are now in the Historical 
Society's museum, in which a competent and energetic 
member of the society proposes to place a complete set 
of specimens of the flora and fauna of the island. 



EFORE the settlement by the Dutch were the 

dark ages of island history. The wampum 

or wampum belts give no record of the red 

f^^£^ men's origin, migrations, wars or loves. Im- 

mBSI, mense heaps of the broken shells of the quahog 

or periwinkle are their only monuments. 

Every locality where one or more families 
were located had a name which gave designation to a 
tribe. The authorities on this subject have recognized 
thirteen tribes, as follows: 

The Canarsie tribe claimed the whole of Kings 
county and a part of the town of Jamaica. They includ- 
ed the Marechawicks at Brooklyn, the Nyacks at New 
LTtrecht, and the Jamecos at Jamaica. Their principal 
settlement was at the place called Canarsie, which is still 
a famous place for fishing and fowling, and was doubt- 
less the residence of the sachem and a great portion of 
the tribe. In 1643 the name of the sachem was Penha- 
witz. In 1670 the deed of that part of the city of Brook- 
lyn constituting Bedford was signed by Peter, Elmohar, 
Job, Makagiquas, and Shamese, sachems. In 1656 the 
deed of Newtown was signed by Rowcroesteo and Pom- 
waukon, sachems supposed to have been of Canarsie. 
The confirmatory deed of Gravesend in 1650 was signed 
by Johosutum, Airemakamus, Aeramarka and Assanched, 
sachems who called the Indian name of the place Massa- 

The Rockawav tribe was scattered over the southern 
part of the town of Hempstead, which with a part of 
Jamaica and the whole of Newtown constituted their 
claim. The greater part of the tribe was at Near Rock- 
away. Part lived at the head of Maspeth Creek, in 
Newtown, and deeds for land there were executed by the 
Rockaway sachem. This tribe had also a settlement of 
several hundred acres on Hog Island, in Rockaway Bay. 



The first Rockaway sachem known to the Dutch was 
Chegonoe. Nowedinah was sachem in 1648, Eskmoppas 
in 1670, Paman in 1685, and Quaquasho or the Hunter 
in 1691. 

The MoNTAUK tribe had jurisdiction over all the re- 
maining lands to Montauk, probably including Gardiner's 
Island; and there seems to be evidence that the sachem 
of this tribe was conceded the title and functions of 
grand sachem of Paumanake, or Long Island. 

The Merrick, Meroke, or Merikoke tribe claimed all 
the territory south of the middle of the island from Near 
Rockaway to the west line of Oyster Bay, and was in all 
probability at some former period a part of the Marsa- 
pequa or Marsapeague tribe. A part of the land in the 
town of Hempstead was bought from this tribe. They 
had a large settlement on Hicks's Neck, and occupied 
the other necks between that and their principal site, 
where the village of Merrick now stands. Their sachem 
in 1647 was Wantagh. 

The Marsapequa or Marsapeague tribe had its prin- 
cipal settlement at Fort Neck, in South Oyster Bay, and 
thence extended eastward to the bounds of Islip and 
north to the middle of the island. Here were two Indian 
forts, the larger of which was stormed by Captain John 
Underhill, in the service of the Dutch, in 1653, with 
great slaughter of the Indians. The remains of the fort 
have been encroached upon and covered by the waters 
of the Great South Bay. Tackapousha was sachem of 
this tribe in 1656; also chief sachem of the western chief- 
taincies of the island, after the division between the Dutch 
and the English. 

The Matinecock tribe claimed jurisdiction of the 
lands east of Newtown, as far as the west line of Smith- 
town and probably to the Nissaquag River. This was a 
numerous tribe, and had large settlements at Flushing, 
Glen Cove, Cold Spring, Huntington and Cow Harbor 
A portion of the tribe took part in the war of 1643, under 
Gunwarrowe; but their sachem at that time remained 
friendly to the Dutch, and through his diplomacy suc- 
ceeded in establishing peace. Whiteneymen (one-eyed) 
was sachem in r643, and Assiapam in 1653. 

The Nesaquake or Missaquogue tribe possessed the 
country from the river named after them to Stony Brook 
and from the sound to the middle of the island. The 
extensive shell banks near the village of Nissaquag show 
that it was the site of a considerable settlement, and it 
was probably the residence of the sachem. Coginiquant 
was sachem in 1656. 

The Setalcat or Setauket tribe claimed from Stony 
Brook to the Wading River and was one of the most 
powerful. Its members inhabited Strong's Neck and the 
banks of the different creeks, coves and harbors. Warra- 
waken was sachem in 1655, and Gil in 1675. 

The Corchaug tribe owned the territory from the 
Wading River to Oyster Ponds, and was spread along 
the north shore of Peconic Bay and over the necks ad- 
joining the sound. It probably claimed Robin's Island 
also. There is reason to believe that it was a numer- 
ous and powerful tribe. Momometon was sachem in 1648. 

The Manhasset tribe peopled Shelter Island and 
probably Hog Island. This tribe, although confined to 
about 10,000 acres, could, if tradition is reliable, bring 
into the field at one time more than 500 warriors. Pog- 
gattatuck, brother of Wyandanch, was sachem in 1648, 
and Yokee or Youghco in 1651. His residence was on 
Sachem's Neck. 

The Secatooue tribe adjoined the Marsapequas on 
the west and claimed the country as far east as Patch- 
ogue. The farm of the Wijlets at Islij) is called Seca- 
togue Neck, and here is sujjposed to have been the prin- 
cipal settlement and probably the residence of the sachem, 
who in 1683 was Winnequaheagh. 

The Patchogue tribe extended its jurisdiction east 
from Patchogue to Westhampton, and as some think to 
Canoe Place. The main settlements were at Patchogue, 
Fire Place, Mastic, Moriches and Westhampton. Tobac- 
us was sachem in 1666. 

The Shinnecock tribe claimed the territory from 
Canoe Place to Easthampton, including Sag Harbor and 
the whole south shore of Peconic Bay. 

The Indians of Long Island were designated on the 
Dutch maps Mohegans, and have been so called by his- 
torians. This is but a sub-title under the general term 
Algonquins, covering a great race of savages scattered 
over Connecticut, Rhode Island, Delaware and other 

The Indians of the island were tall and straight, mus- 
cular and agile, with straight hair and reddish-brown 
complexion. Their language was the Algonquin, the 
highly descriptive tongue in which the apostle Eliot 
wrote the Indian Bible, and which was used by other 
missionaries. It was the language that greeted the col- 
onists at Roanoke, and the Pilgrims at Plymouth. It 
was spoken through twenty degrees of latitude and sixty 
degrees of longitude. Strange that a language which a 
century ago was spoken so widely and freely between the 
aborigines and the settlers should have so perished that 
it is doubted whether a man is living who can speak it or 
read the Indian Bible, so laboriously prepared by the 
apostolic John Eliot. 

The Indian names of Long Island are said to be Se- 
vvanhacky, Wamponomon and Paumanake. These names, 
or at least the first two, seem to have arisen from the 
abundance of the (juahog or hard clam, the shell of which 
furnished the wampun or sewant, which in the earlier 
times was the money of the country, as well as the 
material for the embroidery and the record symbols of 
the Indian belts. Matouwacs is the name given the 
island on the earliest Dutch maps. The deed to the 
settlers at Easthampton styles it Paumanake. Rev. 
William Hubbard, of Ipswich, in his history of New 
England, called it Mattamwake. In books and deeds it 
bears other names, as Meitowax, Metoac, etc. Sewan- 
hacky and Wamponomon both signify the island, or place, 
of shells. Of Mattanwake Judge Furman says: "In 
the Narragansett language mattaii was a term used to 
signify anything "fine or good, and duke or ake meant land 
or earth; thus the whole word meant the good or pleasant 



land, which was certainly highly characteristic of Long 
Island, even at that period of its early settlement." 

The religious notions of the Long Island Indians are 
described in a communication from the Rev. Samson 
Occum, published in the collections of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society. His words are: " They believe in a 
plurality of gods, and in one great and good being, who 
controls all the rest. They likewise believe in an evil 
spirit, and have their conjurors or paw-waws." The 
ceremony performed by these characters was so odious 
in the opinion of the whole people that the duke's laws 
of 1665 enacted that "no Indian shall be permitted to 
paw-wavv or perform worship to the devil in any town 
within this government." It is evident, however, that they 
still kept up their devil worship at the visit of the 
Labadists in 1679-80. They also had divinities in the 
winds and waters. It is surprising how few tokens are 
found, in the shape of idols, or carvings of any kind, to 
signify a reverence for their gods. The only thing which 
has attracted particular attention is " the foot-print of the 
evil spirit " — the impression of a foot on a boulder, now 
iu the possession of the Long Island Historical Society, 
which had lain upon Montauk Point from the earliest 
English knowledge, and probably for centuries before, 
and which was always an object of Indian veneration. 

The lodges or wigwams of the Long Island Indians 
were fifteen or twenty feet wide, having a frame of two 
rows of poles bent together and covered with rushes, 
except along the ridge, where an opening was left for 
smoke to escape. This frame of poles was interlaced 
with the bark of trees, and continued to a length of 180 
feet or more, as the families conjointly occupying the 
wigwam might require. Fires were built along the floor, 
each family having its own for cooking and for comfort 
in cold weather. The principal household utensils were 
earthen pots and gourds for holding water. 

The original fur and feather clothing of these savages 
gave place to cloth after the advent of Europeans. At 
first a blanket about the shoulders and a cloth hanging 
from a belt about the waist composed their costume, but 
they afterward imitated the dress of the whites. All were 
fond of decoration. In early deeds from them there is a 
peculiar reservation of "the trees in what eagles do build 
their nests," doubtless in order to secure to them the 
feathers of the royal bird, which were among their valued 

Their canoes were of different sizes, from the light 
shallop to those of sixty feet in length. They were 
wrought out of logs with stone axes, with the help of fire. 
Their pottery, of which specimens are found in the shell 
heaps, is of clay, mixed with water, hollowed out by the 
hand and baked. Most of the specimens are very inferior. 
Private collections abound in arrow-heads, stone axes, 
and the pestles and mortars which served them for mills. 
The Long Island Historical Society has a collection of 
Indian relics, in which the only metallic instrument is 
an ax of native copper unearthed a few years ago at 
Rockaway, together with a few stone axes and a quantity 
of spear heads, apparently buried for preservation. 

Long Island was the great source of the supply of 
wampun or sewant — the Indian shell money, as well as 
the beads which they wore as ornaments or fastened to 
their clothing. Along the shores of the island immense 
deposits of shells once existed (some of which yet remain), 
from which the blue portion forming the eye was care- 
fully removed for making blue beads; these were 
worth three times as much as the white, which were 
made from the inner pillars of the conch shell or 

Long Island will always be a monumental point in 
history as the place to which IIud.«on and his mariners 
first came as the key to open a world in commerce and 
civilization, to which the di'-coveries of Columbus were 
but the vestibule. The earliest account of the Indians 
of the island is that given by Hudson in the narrative of 
his voyage of 1609. On the 4th of September of that 
year he came to anchor in Gravesend Bay. He says the 
Canarsie Indians came on board his vessel without any 
apprehension and seemed very glad of his coming. They 
brought with them green tobacco and exchanged it for 
knives and beads. They were clad in deer skins, well 
dressed, and were " very civil." On a subsequent visit 
some of them were dressed in "mantles of feathers " and 
some in " skins of diver sorts of good furs." Hudson states 
that " they had yellow copper and red copper tobacco 
pipes, and ornaments of copper about their necks;" also 
that they had currants and "great store of maize or 
Indian corn, whereof they made good bread." They also 
brought him hemp. Some of his men landed where is 
now the town of Gravesend and met many men, women 
and children, who gave them tobacco. They described 
the country to Hudson as " full of great tall oaks, and 
the lands as pleasant with grass and flowers and goodly 
trees as they had ever seen." 

Doubtless the natives presented their very best festal 
appearance to the great captain of the " big canoe;" 
though when, seventy years after (in 1679-80), when they 
were visited by the Labadist agents, Dankers and Sluyter, 
after contact with the early settlers, they had sadly de- 
generated, and the best collection that has been made of 
their utensils and adornments fails to show any of the 
yellow copper ornaments. 

The Dutch and English found the river Indians and 
the Long Island tribes greatly reduced by their conflicts 
with the more warlike Iroquois or Five Nations, who had 
laid them under tribute. The powerful Pequots of Con- 
necticut did the same before their own extermination. 
After the coming of the Dutch, under a promise of pro- 
tection by them, the Canarsies neglected to pay their 
tribute to the Mohawks, representing the Five Nations 
and in 1655 the latter made a descent on Staten Island, 
where they killed 67 of the natives, and going thence to 
Gravesend, Canarsie and other places made a thorough 
butchery. A bare remnant of the Canarsies escaped to 
Beeren Island, and Mrs. Abraham Remsen left the state- 
ment that she made a shroud for the last individual of 
them. The consistory of the Dutch church at Albany 
thereafter for many years acted as agent for the Indians 



down the Hudson in the payment of their tribute to their 

The settlers at the east end of the island found Wy- 
andanch, the grand sachem, at war with Ninigret, the 
sachem of the Narragansetts of Rhode Island. There 
had been retaliatory massacres on both sides. Ninigret 
struck the finishing blow on the occasion of the marriage 
of a daughter of Wyandanch to a young chieftain of his 
tribe, at Fort Pond, on Montauk. Knowing that all pre- 
caution would be overlooked in the revelry of the festive 
occasion Ninigret came down in force upon his unpre- 
pared enemy; slaughtered half the tribe, including the 
bridegroom, and bore away the bride as his captive to 
the mainland. This blow broke the power and the spirit 
of Wyandanch, who then by a cession of Montauk came 
under the government and protection of Easthampton. 

Hereby hangs a romance which can not be done away 
with by any captious objectors, like those who have 
sought to resolve the story of Pocahontas into a myth. 
It is secured by deed. On a square bit of paper, written 
plainly in the pld English character, framed and placed 
in the noble building of the Long Island Historical 
Society, is a conveyance to Lion Gardiner, then lord of 
the Isle of Wight or Gardiner's Island, of the great part 
of Smithtown, as a consideration for his services in re- 
gaining from Ninigret the captive daughter of Wyan- 
danch; the last named signed the deed, as also did his 
son Wyancombone, and the latter's wife. 

Thompson ascribes the war between the Montauks and 
the Narragansetts to the refusal of the Montauk monarch 
to join in the plot for exterminating the Europeans. 
Roger Williams traced the war to the pride of the con- 
tending sachems. The Long Island chief he said was 
"proud and foolish;" Ninigret, "proud and fierce." 

Lion Gardiner, in his notes on Easthampton, says that 
the Block Island Indians, acting as allies of the Narra- 
gansetts, attacked the Montauks during King Philip's 
war and punished them severely. The engagement took 
place on Block Island, whither the Montauks went in 
their canoes, and the latter on landing fell into an am- 
buscade. He says: "The Montauk Indians were nearly 
all killed; a few were protected by the English and 
brought away; the sachem was taken and carried to Nar- 
ragansett. He was made to walk on a large flat rock 
that was heated by building fires on it, and walked several 
times over it, singing his death song; but his feet being 
burned to the bones he fell, and they finished the tragical 
scene as usual for savages." 

The Long Island Indians joined the neighboring main- 
land tribes in the hostilities between them and the Dutch, 
which grew out of the murder of an Indian at New York 
in 1641. In 1643 some Dutch farmers on the island 
ventured to seize and carry off two wagon loads of corn 
belonging to the Indians; the owners attempting to de- 
fend their property two of them were killed. 

The Long Island and Hudson River Indians burning 
to avenge such outrages, more than two thousand of them 
rose in open war and made the greatest possible de- 
struction of the property and lives of the settlers. A 

transient peace was patched up, the Canarsie chief Pen- 
hawitz being one of an embassy to New Amsterdam for 
that purpose. In a few months war broke out again, 
this time, it is said, on account of Governor Kieft's em- 
bezzling the presents for the natives by which the treaty 
should have been ratified. The savages, crossing to the 
island from Westchester county, destroyed the settlement 
of Mespat, now Newtown; also the first house built in 
Brooklyn, that of William Adriance Bennett, near Gow- 
anus. They then fell upon the settlement of Lady 
Moody at Gravesend, but were beaten off by a company 
of forty men, who had been recruited and disciplined by • 
Nicholas Stilwell, and who were concealed in Lady 
Moody's log house. From the neighboring villages more 
than a hundred families flocked to New Amsterdam for 
protection. From these was raised a company of fifty 
men, who under the famous John Underbill participated 
in the massacre of over five hundred of the Indians in 
March 1644, at Strickland's Plain, on Horse Neck, near 
Greenwich, Conn. As one of the results of this decisive 
blow several of the Long Island chiefs went to New Am- 
sterdam and made a treaty of peace. 

In 1655 Hendrick Van Dyke, the late " schout fiscal " 
of New Amsterdam, shot and killed a squaw who was 
stealing peaches from his garden. He was soon killed by 
the Indians in revenge. At the same time they perper- 
trated terrible massacres on Staten Island and in New 
Jersey, and spread terror on Long Island, though doing 
no damage there. Governor Stuyvesant ordered all 
persons living in secluded places to gather and " form 
villages after the fashion of our neighbors of New Eng- 
land," but little attention was paid to his command. 

On the division of the island in 1650 between the 
English and the Dutch, the English taking the eastern 
and the Dutch the western part, the jurisdiction of 
Grand Sachem Wyandanch was nominally divided, 
Tackapousha being elected sachem of the chieftaincies in 
possession of the Dutch, namely, those of the Marsape- 
quas, Merricks, Canarsies, Secatogues, Rockaways and 
Matinecocks. In the winter of 1658 the smallpox de- 
stroyed more than half the Montauks, while Wyandanch 
lost his life by poison. The remainder of the tribe, to 
escape the fatal malady and the danger of invasion in 
their weakened state, fled in a body to their white neigh- 
bors, who entertained them for a considerable period. 

Wyancombone succeeded his father in the sachemship, 
and, being a minor, divided the government with his 
mother, who was styled the squaw sachem. Lion Gard- 
iner and his son David acted as guardians to the young 
chief by request of his father. At Fort Pond — called by 
the Indians Konkhongank — are the remains of the burial 
ground of the chieftaincy, and here once stood the citadel 
of the monarch Wyandanch. 

From the numerous array of tribes mentioned on a 
preceding page it is evident that the island was in the 
earlier periods of its history thickly settled by the Indians, 
who found support and delight in its ample resources of 
hunting, fishing and fowling; but their position exposed 
them to invasion, and their stores of wampum tempted 



the fierce tribes of the mainland. Tliey were evidently 
in constant fear of aggression, and at two points — Fort 
Neck, at Oyster Bay, and Fort Pond, Montauk — forts 
were built, capable of sheltering five hundred men. Gov- 
ernor Winthrop in 1633, referring to Long Island, which 
had just been reconnoitred by his bark, the "Blessing," 
says, doubtless upon mere report: " The Indians there 
are very treacherous, and have many canoes so great as 
will carry eighty men." 

But the natives soon dwindled in numbers and power 
upon contact with the whites. The Dutch at the west- 
ern end of the island, coveting their corn lands, soon 
found means to purchase and appropriate them, while at 
the east end the Narragansetts drove the tribes into the 
arms of the English. All over the island their lands were 
bought at a nominal price from the too easy owners. 

Their inordinate fondness for " fire-water " had a large 
share in their ruin. Rev. Azariah Ilorton was a mis- 
sionary to the Long Island Indians in 1741-44. He 
states that in 1741 there were at the east end two small 
towns of them, and lesser companies settled at a few 
miles distance from each other through the island. Up 
to the close of 1743 he had baptized 35 adults and 44 
children. He took pains to teach them to read, and some 
of them made considerable progress; but, notwithstand- 
ing all this, Mr. Horton in 1744 complained of a great 
defection by a relapse into their darling vice of drunken- 
ness, to which Indians are everywhere so greatly addicted 
that no human power can prevent it. 

In 1761 the Indians had so diminished on Long Island 
as in some places to have entirely disappeared; and 
the once powerful Montauks could muster but 192 souls. 
This number was reduced by the withdrawal of many 
who went to Brotherton with Rev. Samsom Occum. This 
celebrated Indian preacher went about 1755 to Montauk, 
where he preached and taught about ten years. He went 
to England and raised ^^{^1,000 for establishing schools 
among the Indians. 

Rev. Paul Cuffee was another Indian preacher on the 
island. He was buried about a mile west of Canoe Place, 
where the Indian meeting-house then stood, and a neat 
marble slab has been erected to his memory by the Mis- 
sionary Society of New York, which employed him. The 
writer has conversed with persons who gave testimony to 
his piety and the fervor of his eloquence. 

The Indian kings at Montauk have for a century and 
more borne the name or Pharoah or Pharo. This was 
doubtless conferred u])on them by the first misssionaries, 
who are also responsible for Solomons, Tituses and other 
Christian and classic names. A si^uaw who died recently 
at Easthampton at a very advanced age was named Han- 
nah Hannibal. One of the Montauk Pharoahsdied about 
three years ago and his brother succeeded him. He bore 
the traits of pure blood in the sallow complexion and long 
straight hair of his race. With the advance of settlements 
on the island the Montauks have faded away, till but a 
remnant of scarcely a dozen pure bloods remains on the 
reserved "Indian fields" on the promontory of Montauk. 
Subject to their reservations the whole promontory was 

recently sold in partition sale of the property to Arthur 
W. Benson, of Brooklyn, for ^151,000. 

The influence of their friends at Easthampton kept 
these Indians from taking part in King Philip's and other 
wars, and from being violently blotted out like most of 
their brethren. Elsewhere many of them have succeeded 
in whaling enterprises, and they have been ingenious in 
basket making. Some of those remaining around Mon- 
tauk are useful sailors or domestics. 

The Shinnecock tribe, much modified by negro inter- 
marriages, still cluster about Southampton to the number 
of about 200. They are in general a worthy and indus- 
trious people, with a good school and much pride of 
character. Many will recollect the mourning which went 
abroad on the loss, in the wreck of the "Circassia," of 
that fine corps of sailors of the Shinnecock tribe, whose 
courage and manliness were of a high heroic type. 



HE names by which Long Island was called 
by the Indians were various. Among them 
were Mattanwake, Meitowax, Sewanhacky 
(Island of Sheiks), Paumanake, etc. By rea- 
son of its form the early settlers applied to 
the island its present name. The colonial Legis- 
lature in 1693 changed it to Nassau, in honor of 
William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, and required that 
all legal instruments should recognize that name. It 
never acquired more than a partial use, and though the 
act is unrepealed the name is obsolete. 

There have been traditions that this island was visited 
by Europeans prior to its discovery by Hudson; but 
these are probably no more reliable than similar traditions 
concerning other regions. An account of a voyage by 
John de Verazzano, in 1524, was published, and from his 
description it is believed by some that he entered the 
harbor of New York. Others insist that his journal gives 
no foundation for such a belief. 

The first discovery of Long Island by Europeans was 
made early in September 1609, by Henry Hudson, an 
Englishman in the employ of the Dutch East India 
Company. He had sailed in the " Half Moon " from 
Amsterdam on the 25th of the preceding March in search 
of a northwest passage to India. After touching at var- 
ious points on the coast north he sailed south to the 
mouth of Chesapeake Bay; then, passing north, entered 
Delaware Bay, from which he again sailed northward and 
entered Nevv York Bay on the 3d of September. During 
the week that he remained there a boat's crew, engaged 
in making explorations, landed at Coney Island — the 
first portion of Long Island pressed by the foot of a white 



man. On the 6th, John Colman, of a party that was sent 
up the river to sound and explore, was killed and two 
others were wounded by a party of twenty-six savages in 
two canoes. The next day Colman's body was buried on 
the shore, and the place of his interment was named Col- 
man's Point. By some this is believed to have been Sandy 
Hook; by others, Coney Island. After the discovery of the 
island by Hudson the region was visited by private adven- 
turers to trade, but in 1614 a decree of the States General 
forbade this and gave to the East India Company monopoly 
of this trade. In that year Adrian Block and Hendrick 
Christiance visited this region under the East India Com- 
pany and built a fort and some dwellings on the island of 
Manhattan or Manhattoes, as it was called by the Indians. 
Captain Block passed with his vessel through Hell Gate 
and sailed through the sound, and first discovered the 
insular condition of Long Island. Block Island, which 
was called by the Indians Manissees, was named in 
honor of him. It is said that his vessel was accidentally 
burned, and that he built another on or near Manhattan 
in the summer of 1614. If so, it was the first vessel 
built in the United States. 

When English settlements were made in New England 
a rivalry at once sprang up between the English and the 
Dutch, each power striving to strengthen its authority by 
extending its settlements. Under these circumstances the 
settlement of the western end of the island by the Dutch 
commenced. It is not known who was the first actual 
settler on Long Island. Settlements were made in Flat- 
lands, Kings county, as early as 1636, possibly earlier. 
It is not probable that any settlement was made at the 
Wallabout prior to 1636. The name of this bay is cor- 
rupted from " Wahle Bocht " or " Waale Boght," which 
according to the late Hon. Teunis G. Bergen means " the 
Beach or Shore of the Cove;" Samuel Ogden renders it 
"the Bend of the Inner Harbor." Settlers came and 
located as caprice or circumstance seemed to dictate, 
without any provision for local government. At nearly 
the same time permanent settlements were made on the 
west end of the island by the Dutch and on the east by 
the English. Both purchased theit lands from the 
Indians; the English directly, and the Dutch through 
their governors, who first extinguished the Indian title, 
then parceled out the land to individuals in various ways, 
or gave permits to purchase from the Indians. 

On the west end of the island the Dutch in 1636 set- 
tled Brooklyn, first named Breuckelen after a town of that 
name in the province of Utrecht, in Holland; Flatlands, 
first New Amersfort, after a place of the same name in 
Holland, also in 1636; Flushing, or in Dutch Vlissingen, 
also after a place of the same name in Holland, 1645; 
Flatbush, originally Midwout, after Midwout in Holland, 
1651; New Utrecht in 1657, and Bushvvick orWoodtown 
in 1660. 

English immigrants were permitted to settle on territory 
claimed by the Dutch on taking the oath of allegiance to 
the Dutch government. Of the English towns under 
the jurisdiction of the Dutch Hempstead was settled in 
1643; Gravesend in 1645; Jamaica, originally Rusdorp, 

in 1655, and Newtown, first called Middlebury, in 1656- 
The jurisdiction of Oyster Bay, which was settled in 
1653, was not during many years determined, but it finally 
came under Connecticut. 

The Dutch towns appear to have been wholly under 
the control of the governor, whose will in all matters — 
general and individual, civil and ecclesiastical — was ab- 
solute. The English towns under Dutch jurisdiction 
were allowed to choose their own officers, subject to the 
approval of the governor, to hold their town meetings, 
and manage their own matters as nearly like the eastern 
towns as circumstances would permit. 

It was hardly to be expected that in the exercise of 
power so nearly absolute the representatives of their High 
Mightinesses, as the States General was termed, should not 
at times yield to their caprices, their sympathies or an- 
tipathies, and do arbitrary and oppressive acts. In the 
case of Governor Stuyvesant his tyrannical disregard of the 
people's rights led to the assembling, in 1653, of delegates 
from New York, Brooklyn, Flatbush, Flatlands, Graves- 
end, Newtown, Flushing and Hempstead, and the adoption 
of an address to the governor and council and States 
General, setting forth their grievances, and asking that 
they be redressed. To this no reply was given, though a 
protest was entered on their minutes against the meeting. 
When, in the same year, a second meeting assen.bled, 
the governor ordered them " to disperse and not to as- 
semble again on such business." 

A line had, in 1650, been established between the 
Dutch towns on the west and the English on the eastern 
end of the island by four commissioners — two from the 
Dutch government and two from the united colonies of 
New England, although the New England colonists had 
at that time no jurisdiction on the island. This line ran 
southward across the island from the " westernmost part 
of Oyster Bay." Notwithstanding this arrangement the 
Dutch governor continued to claim, jurisdiction over 
Oyster Bay. 

The people at about this time were sorely troubled by 
what were known as "land pirates" or outlaws, who had 
been banished from New England, and against these the 
Dutch governor failed to afford them protection. 

It may here be remarked that the administration of 
Governor Stuyvesant, from about 1656 to the conquest in 
1664, was disgraced by a degree of religious intolerance, 
and especially by persecution of the Quakers, which 
rivaled but which did not equal that of the Puritans of 
New England, of whom it may truly be said that the 
principle of religious liberty never dawned on their minds. 
For this persecution he was rebuked by the authorities in 
Holland. These persecutions were renewed about the 
commencement of the eighteenth century under the ad- 
ministration of Lord Cornbury, who in religious intoler- 
ance was fully equal to Peter Stuyvesant. 

In 1662 a new charter was granted to Connecticut, and 
this charter was interpreted to include the whole of Long 
Island. The eastern towns gladly availed themselves of 
this interpretation, and in 1663 the English towns under 
Dutch jurisdiction resolved to withdraw from that juris- 



diction and place themselves also under Connecticut. 
Soon afterward two commissioners were appointed by 
Connecticut to organize the government of that colony 
in these towns; but it does not appear from history that 
they fulfilled their mission, and the unsatisfactory con- 
dition of things continued till the conquest in 1664. 

As has been stated, the settlements of the Dutch were 
limited to the western end of the island, and their juris- 
diction to a comj^aratively small portion of that end. 
The eastern end was settled by English immigrants, un- 
der different auspices, and its settlement commenced a 
few years later. 

In 1620 King James I. of England granted to the 
Plymouth Company a charter for all the land between 
the 40th and 48th degrees of north latitude, extending 
from "sea to sea", which territory was termed New 
England. In 1636, at the request of King Charles I., 
the Plymouth Company conveyed by patent to William 
Alexander, Earl of Stirling, the whole of Long Island 
and the adjacent islands. Earl Stirling appointed James 
Farret his attorney for the sale of his real estate, and 
authorized him to select for himself twelve thousand 
acres of the territory. Farret selected Shelter Island 
and Robin's Island in Peconic Bay, and in 1641 sold 
these to Stephen Goodyear, of New Haven. Soon after 
the death of Earl Stirling and his son in 1640, the heir 
of the latter, grandson of the earl, for a consideration of 
three hundred pounds, surrendered to the crown the 
grant from the Plymouth Company, and it was embodied 
in the grant to the Duke of York, April 2nd 1664, which 
thus described it: "And also all that island or islands 
commonly called by the several name or names of Meito- 
wacks, or Long Island, situate, lying and being toward 
the west of Cape Cod and the narrow Higansetts, abut- 
ting upon the mainland between the two rivers there 
called or known by the several names of Connecticut 
and Hudson's River." 

In 1662 the Connecticut colony claimed Long Island 
under that clause in their charter of that year which in- 
cluded the "islands adjacent," and in 1664 sent a com- 
mission to the island to assert jurisdiction. The conquest 
in that year put an end to their proceedings. With this ex- 
ception no claim was made by any jjower to the eastern 
portion of the island between the years 1640 and 1664. 

The eastern towns were settled by the English as fol- 
lows: Gardiner's Island (annexed in 1680 to Easthamp- 
ton) in 1639. It was purchased in that year by Lion 
Gardiner from the attorney of Lord Stirling. Mr. Gar- 
diner had previously purchased it from the Indians. This 
was the first English settlement, and Mr. Gardiner was 
one of the first English settlers in the State of New York. 
Soutliampton and Southold were settled in 1640, East- 
hampton in 1648, Shelter Island in 1652, Huntington and 
Oyster Bay in 1653 though the latter was claimed by the 
Dutch, Brookhaven in 1655, and Smithtown in 1663. 

Most of the settlers in these towns were previous im- 
migrants in New England, who crossed the sound ii, 
larger or smaller companies and established independent 
settlements, which as their numbers increased came to be 

little republics, completely independent of all other 
powers. .Although there were differences in the details 
of the government of the different towns, there was a 
general similarity among them. Each had its legislative, 
executive, and judicial department. The people assem- 
bled in town meeting constituted the legislative depart- 
ment, and in important cases the judicial also. In that 
case the assembly was sometimes termed the general 
court of the town. Two or three magistrates, a clerk, 
and a constable usually constituted the ordinary judicial 
and executive functionaries of the town. Of course the 
people required no bill of rights or constitution to pro- 
tect them from oppression by their rulers, for they were 
their own rulers. They organized companies of citizen 
soldiers, erected and garrisoned forts when necessary, 
enacted and enforced laws to regulate not only civil but 
also social and religous matters, and to guard against 
threatened vices as well as to restrain existing evils 
churches were erected, schools were established, and 
ministers and teachers were supported by taxes on the 
property of the citizens, imposed by the people them- 
selves in their legislative character. 

It is hardly necessary to say that these original settlers 
were Puritans, and that, although they were not guilty of 
such manifestations of bigotry and intolerance as disgraced 
the Puritans of New England, they jealously guarded 
against the introduction among them of innovations which 
would exert what they deemed a deleterious influence. 
They required of those who proposed to settle among 
them a probation of from three to six months, and if at 
the end of that time they were not satisfactory to the 
people they were notified to leave within a specified time. 
They were thus able to prevent undesirable people from 
coming among them, and to maintain their religious faith 
free from contamination by those holding heterodox 
opinions. To guard against the evils of intemperance 
the sale of intoxicating drinks was restricted under heavy 
penalties. The profanation of the Sabbath, lying, profane 
cursing and slander were penal offences in most of the 
towns, and the whipping post, the stocks, pillory, etc. were 
in common use. Thus, each town managed its own 
affairs^ without any combination with neighboring 
towns, till the island came to be a part of New York 
in 1664. 

In view of their exposed situation and the difficulty of 
defending themselves against hostile attacks by the Indians 
or invasions by the Dutch, these towns one by one placed 
themselves under the protection of the New England 
colonies; without, however, subjecting themselves to tax- 
ation by those colonies, or relinquishing to the slighest 
extent their self-government. Southampton did this in 
1644, Easthampton in 1657, Brookhavan in 1659, and 
Huntington in 1660. These came under the protection 
of Connecticut. Southold and Shelter Island assumed 
the same relation to New Haven in 1648. Connecticut 
and New Haven became united under a new charter in 
1662, and these towns became a part of the new colony 
of Connecticut, sent representatives to the colonial As- 
sembly, and contributed toward the expense of the gov- 



ernment. In the same year Oyster Bay also assumed 
this rehition. 

The oppression to which the people in the towns under 
the jurisdiction of the Dutch were subjected has been 
spoken of. The inhabitants of both the Dutch and English 
towns had submitted to the tyranny of their rulers be- 
cause they saw no way of escape. In November of 1663 
the people of the English towns held a mass meeting at 
Jamaica to consider their condition and devise means for 
their relief; but, although no attempt to disperse them 
was made, no results were accomplished. They were 
therefore ready to welcome anything which promised 

Early in r664 Charles the Second of England granted 
to his brother James, Duke of York, territory which in- 
cluded New Amsterdam and all of Long Island. An ex- 
pedition was at once fitted out and sent under Colonel 
Richard NicoUs, who was commissioned de|)uty governor, 
to take possession of the colony. On his arrival at New 
York in August of that year he demanded of Governor 
Stuyvesant the surrender of his possessions, which was 
refused. Colonel Nicolls and the commissioners, Robert 
C^arr, George Cartwright and Samuel Maverick, who had 
been sent with him to assist in the government of the 
colony, landed at Gravesend, and, at a meeting held for 
that purpose, consulted with the people, and with Gov- 
ernor Winthrop of Connecticut, and exhibited to them 
the royal grant to the Duke of York. He also issued a 
proclamation promising protection and all the privileges 
of English subjects, and sent ofificers for volunteers in the 
western towns of the island. After consultaiion with his 
burgomasters and the people Governor Stuyvesant, find- 
ing that the current of popular opinion set strongly in that 
direction, reluctantly consented to a surrender, and thus, 
without bloodshed, the government passed to the English. 

The people of the towns on the west end of the island 
acquiesced in the change, relying on the promise of Gov- 
ernor Nicolls and the commissioners that they should 
enjoy all the privileges of English subjects — a promise 
which was not fulfilled. The eastern towns, however, 
which had been independent, and which were then a part 
of Connecticut, were not willing to sever their political 
relations with that colony and become subject to the 
Duke of York, and Connecticut at first maintained her 
claim to them. Governor Winthrop, who had been one 
of the commissioners to arrange the terms of surrender, 
"informed the English on Long Island that Connecticut 
had no longer any claim to the island; that what they had 
done for them was for the welfare, peace and quiet set- 
tlement of his Majesty's subjects, they being the nearest 
organized government to them under his Majesty. But 
now that his Majesty's pleasure was fully signified by his 
letters patent their jurisdiction had ceased and become 

In March 1665 a convention of delegates from the 
towns assembled at Hempstead, in accordance with a 
proclamation of Governor Nicolls, " to settle good and 
known laws within this government for the future, and 
receive yor best advice and information at a genall meet- 

ing." At this convention the boundaries and relations of 
the towns were settled and determined, and some other 
matters adjusted. New patents were required to be taken 
by those who had received their patents from the Dutch 
authorities, and it was required that patents should be 
taken by those who had never received any, as was the 
case with the eastern towns. These required a quit-rent 
— a relic of feudal customs — which was the source of 
much trouble, and the subject of abuse afterward. A 
code of laws for the government of the province was also 
promulgated. These, which had been compiled at the 
dictation of the governor, were termed the duke's laws. 
I'hey contained many of the provisions which had been 
adopted by the eastern towns, and many of the enact- 
ments would be looked on at the present day as curios- 
ities. With some modifications they were continued in 
force till 1683, when the first provincial Assembly held 
its session. Thompson says: "In addition to other mat- 
ters which occupied the convention at Hempstead in 1665, 
Long Island and Staten Island (and probably Westchester) 
were erected into a shire, called after that in England 
Yorkshire, which was in like manner divided into se|)- 
arate districts denominated ridings; the towns now in- 
cluded in Suffolk county constituted the East ' Riding;' 
Kings county, Staten Island, and the town of Newtown 
the 'West Riding,' and the remainder of Queens county 
the 'North Riding' of Yorkshire upon Long Island." 
The word " riding" thus used is a corruption of trithing 
— a third. The original names of some of the towns were 
changed to the present ones at this meeting, it is sup- 
posed. So highly pleased were the delegates at this con- 
vention with the prospect before them, under the assur- 
ances of the governor, that they adopted and signed an 
address to the king, pledging loyalty and submission in 
terms that were not pleasing to the i)eople and that were 
criticised with such severity that the court of assize is- 
sued an edict forbidding further censure of these dep- 
uties, under penalty of being brought before the court 
" to answer for the slander." 

Under the duke's laws the justices — one in each town 
— were appointed by the governor, as was also the high 
sheriff of the shire, and a deputy slieriff for each riding- 
Each town elected at first eight and afterward four over- 
seers and a constable, who constituted a town cf)urt. with 
jurisdiction limited to cases of ;£<, or less. They also 
assessed taxes and regulated minor matters. Each riding 
had a court of sessions consisting of tlie justices, with 
whom the high sheriff, members of the council, and sec- 
retary of the colony were entitled to sit. It had criminal 
jurisdiction, and in civil cases its judgments were final in 
cases less than ^^20. The court of assize, which con- 
sisted of the governor, council and an indefinite number 
of magistrates, had appellate jurisdiction in cases from 
inferior courts, and original jurisdiction in suits for de- 
mands above £20. 

No provision was made for a legislature; and, while 
this court of assize was nominally the head of the gov- 
ernment, the governor, who appointed the members of it, 
and who could remove most of them at his pleasure, 



really possessed unlimited legislative, executive and ju- 
dicial authority. Thompson says : "In this court the 
governor united the character of both judge and legislator. 
He interpreted his own acts, and not only pronounced 
what the law was but what it should be." 

Although the people on the western end of the island 
became aware that the government under the Duke of 
York was framed on no better model then that under the 
Dutch governor, and those in the English towns that they 
were shorn of all their former privileges, Governor 
NicoUs exercised his powers so carefully and judiciously 
as to allay their discontent. 

He relinquished the reins of government in 1668 
and was succeeded by Francis Lovelace, who during 
his administration acquired the almost unanimous ill- 
will of the people. When, in 1670, a levy was made 
on the towns to raise money for repairing the fort at New 
York, nearly all the English towns, by vote, refused to 
obey the order for the contribution or levy unless "they 
might have the privileges that other of his Majesty's sub- 
jects have and do enjoy." Thompson says: " The 
English colonists on Long Island brought with them the 
doctrine that taxes could only be imposed with the con- 
sent of the people by their representatives in a general 
assembly." It is not known that this tax was ever col- 
lected in those towns. This was the first open manifes- 
tation in this country of a spirit of resistance to the in 
vasion of this right — a resistance which led, a century 
later, to the American Revolution. 

The resolutions of refusal were laid before the governor 
and council, and were by them ordered to be publicly 
burned before the town house of the city. It is said of 
Governor Lovelace that in 1668 he wrote to Sir Robert 
Carr in New Jersey, that to keep people submissive the 
best method was "to lay such taxes upon them as may 
not give them liberty to entertain any other thoughts but 
how they shall discharge them." 

Had not the administration of Governor Lovelace come 
to an end by a sudden and unexpected event, he would 
probably have suffered the full consequences of the pop- 
ular indignation which his disregard of the people's rights 
aroused. " The country, which had now been nine years 
governed by the Duke of York's deputies, and experienced 
in very full measure the ill effects of ignorance and indis- 
cretion in the conduct of its rulers, came once more 
under the government of their ancient masters, the 

Between 1672 and 1674 the English and Dutch were at 
war, and in the latter part of July 1673 a small Dutch 
squadron entered New York harbor, and Captain Manning, 
the commandant of the fort, surrendered it without re- 
sistance. For this act he was afterward sentenced to have 
his sword broken over his head. 

Captain Anthony Colve was by the commanders of the 
squadron appointed governor of the colony, and he at 
once set about the re-establishment of the authority of the 
Dutch government. In the towns that had before been 
under the Dutch regime submission was readily made, 
but in the towns of the East riding his task was more 

difficult. Huntington and Brookhaven yielded after a 
time on certain conditions, but Southold, Southampton 
and Easthampton rejected all overtures, and petitioned 
for admission to the colony of Connecticut. They were 
accepted, and when Governor Colve attempted to reduce 
these towns to submission by force Connecticut sent 
troops to their assistance, and the Dutch were repulsed. 
In November T673 the New England colonies declared 
war against the Dutch, and made preparations for active 
hostilities. The conclusion of peace, early in 1674, be- 
tween the English and Dutch of course arrested their 
proceedings. On the restoration of the duke's govern- 
ment these towns were unwilling to become subject again 
to a rub under which they had been oppressed. Resist- 
ance was unavailing, however, and they were compelled 
to submit to a repetition cf ilic foimer despotic sway of 
the duke's governors. 

Sir Edmund Andros became governor on the restor- 
ation of the duke's authority, and his administration, 
which continued till 1681, was even more despotic 
than that of Governor Lovelace. Colonel Thomas 
Dongan succeeded Governor Andros. On his arrival, 
in 1683, he at once issued orders for summoning a 
general assembly. This was the result of a petition 
to the duke by the grand jury of the court of assize 
in 1681. 

At the first session of this colonial Assembly, in 1683, 
they "adopted a bill of rights, established courts of justice, 
repealed some of the most obnoxious of the duke's laws, 
altered and amended others, and passed such new laws 
as they judged that the circumstances of the colony re- 
quired." At this session the "ridings" were abolished, 
and the counties of Kings, Queens, and Suffolk or- 
ganized. Another session was held in 1684, at which, 
among other acts, the court of assize was abolished, and 
another Assembly was summoned to convene in the fol- 
lowing year. 

"Charles II. died February 6th 1685, and the Duke of 
York succeeded him by the title of James II.; as he de- 
termined to have as little to do with parliaments as pos- 
sible so it is probable that he revoked the power which 
he had given to his governors to call assemblies, and de- 
termined that they should rule the colony by his instruc- 
tions alone, without admitting the people to any partici- 
pation in the public councils." Under the government 
of James no other session of the Legislature was ever 

On the occurrence of the revolution in England which 
placed William and Mary on the throne a party of sympathi- 
zers with that revolution, led by Jacob Leisler, seized the 
government of the colony, and during two years matters 
here were in an unsettled condition. Long Island gave 
only a partial support to Leisler; and when, in 1690, he 
summoned a general assembly, no members from Suffolk 
attended and one from Queens refused to serve. It ap- 
pears that Leisler attempted to use force against some 
portions of Long Island which he declared to be in a state 
of rebellion, but that his efforts proved entirely unsuc- 





HE customs of the early Dutch settlers on the 
west end of the island were in many respects 
quite different from those of the people who 
settled other parts of it. An account of some 
of them is given by Mr. Furman in his 
"Antiquities of Long Island," from which most of 
the following brief sketches are condensed. 
At first most of those on the north side or middle of 
the island buried their dead in private or family burial 
grounds, without monuments. On the south or level 
portion interments were made in the churchyards, and 
even in the churches in some instances. The governors 
and colonial Assembly in 1664 and 1684 enacted laws 
against this practice. Their funerals were quite different 
from those of the present time; wines and liquors and 
cold collations were provided for the guests, and often 
linen scarfs, gloves, funeral cakes etc. were distributed 
among them. Funerals were thus made very expensive, 
and often bore a strong resemblance to joyous feasts. 
It was also customary for young men, on arriving at their 
majority, to convert the first money they earned into 
gold and lay it aside to defray the expense of a respect- 
able funeral should they die early. Another practice was 
to lay aside for each member of the family a linen shirt, 
handkerchief, etc., and never suffer them to be worn, but 
keep them clean to bury them in. In case a woman died 
in childbed a white sheet, instead of a black pall, was 
spread over her coffin as she was carried to the grave. 

They took especial care to provide for the education 
of their children. The teachers were appointed only on 
the recommendation of the governor, and their duties 
were very accurately prescribed. In modern times a 
teacher would smile to find that his contract required 
him to instruct the children in the common prayer and 
catechism; to be chorister of the church; to ring the bell 
three times before service, and read a chapter of the 
Bible between the ringings of the bell; to read the Ten 
Commandments, the articles of faith, and set the psalm 
after the last ringing: to read a psalm of David as the 
congregation were assembling in the afternoon: to read a 
sermon, in the absence of the clergyman; to furnish a 
basin of water for the baptisms, report to the minister the 
names and ages, and names of the parents and sponsors 
of the children to be baptized; to give funeral invitations, 
toll the bells, serve as messenger for the consistories, etc., 
etc.. and to receive his salary in wampum, wheat, dwell- 
ing, pasturage and meadow. Such were the provisions of 
a contract with a Dutch teacher in 1682. 

The practice of nicknaming prevailed among them and 
even in the public records are found such names as Friend 
John, Hans the Boore, Long Mary, Old Bush, and Top 
Knot Betty. The same practice prevailed among them 

that is found among the Swedes now, of taking the par- 
ent's Christian name with "sen" or "son" added to it, and 
for this reason it is often difficult to trace genealogies. 

Both negro and Indian slavery prevailed on Long Isl- 
and. Not many records are left of cruelty on the part 
of masters toward their slaves, and it is believed that the 
"peculiar institution" here did not possess some of the 
opprobrious features which characterized it in the south- 
ern States. A species of white slavery also existed here 
as elsewhere. Indigent immigrants sold their services for 
definite periods, during which they were as much the sub- 
jects of purchase and sale as veritable slaves. Frequently 
advertisements appeared in the papers offering rewards 
for fugitive negro or Indian slaves. 

At the time of the negro plot to burn New York some 
of the slaves on Long Island were suspected of complic- 
ity; and it is recorded that one was sentenced "to be 
burnt to death on the i8th of July 1741." 

What was termed samp porridge (from the Indian 
seaump — pounded corn) was made by long boiling corn 
that had been pounded in a wooden mortar — a process 
that was learned from the Indians. What was known as 
"suppaan" was made in the same way from more finely 
ground meal. The same dish was called suppaan by the 
Palatines who afterward settled in the Mohawk valley. 
These mortars or pioneer mills, as they were sometimes 
called, were at first the only means the settlers pos- 
sessed of converting their corn into coarse meal, 
and the process was called niggering corn, because 
the work was usually done by negrci slaves. In the 
absence of shops or manufactories, which have so 
universally come into existence, every farmer was his 
own mechanic. He was, by turns, mason, carpenter, 
tanner, shoemaRer, wheelwright and blacksmith; and the 
women manufactured their cloth from flax and wool, fre- 
quently,it is said, taking their spinning-wheels with them 
on afternoon visits to each other. Houses and their fur- 
niture among these people in early times were quite dif- 
ferent from those of the present day; white floors 
sprinkled with sand, high-backed chairs, ornamented with 
brass nails along the edge of the cushioned seat and 
leathern back; pewter and wooden plates and dishes — 
which were preferred by the conservative old Knicker- 
bockers long after the introduction of crockery, because 
they did not dull the knives — and silver plate among the 
wealthy were the common articles of furniture. This 
silver plate was in the form of msssive waiters, bowls, 
tankards, etc., and had usually descended in the family 
from former generations as an heirloom. Sometimes 
china plates were seen hanging around as ornaments — 
holes having been drilled through their edges and ribbons 
passed through by which to suspend them. Punch, which 
was a common beverage, was drunk from a common bowl 
of china or silver, and beer or cider from a tankard. 
The wealthy Dutch citizens had highly ornamented brass 
hooped casks in which to keep their liquors, which they 
never bottled. Holland gin, Jamaica rum, sherry and 
Bordeaux wines, English beer or porter, beer from their 
own breweries and cider were common drinks in early 



times. When a wealthy young man among these settlers 
was about to be married he usually sent to Maderia for a 
pipe of the best wine, a portion of which was drunk at his 
marriage, another portion on the birth of his first son, 
and the remainder was preserved to be used at his 
funeral. Tea drinking was a custom of later date. The 
custom of visiting each other on Sunday afternoons long 
prevailed; but the clergy and the strictest of the laity, 
influenced perhaps by the views of their New England 
neighbors, came to regard it as an evil, and it was grad- 
ually discontinued. Funnan says: " It seems more like 
Puritanic rigor than as an exhibition of Christian feeling 
to break up such kindly and social meetings as these, 
after the religious services of the day had been performed." 

Previouc to 1793 no post office was established on the 
island and no mail was carried on it. A Scotchman named 
Dunbar rode a voluntary post as early as about 1775. 
This was in violation of the law, but the necessity of ihc 
case caused the offense to be winked at The people on 
the west end of the island were supposed to receive their 
letters Irom the post-oftice in New York, and those on the 
east end from New London. Even as late as 1835, f^"'' 
man says, the mail stage left Brooklyn for Easthampton 
no oftener than once a week, and mail packages were of- 
ten left and taken at designated places, such as a particu- 
lar rock or a box nailed to a tree. Hotels were few 
then, and the hosi>italities of the people living along the 
route through the island were always readily extended to 
the few travelers who passed over it. 

Under the colonial government nearly all marriages on 
the island were under a license from the governor — a prac- 
tice which increased his income and added to the expense 
of entering the matrimonial state. Marriage by publica- 
tion of the i)anns secins to have been held in disrepute. 
In 1673 there was an ofiScer at New York whose duty, 
which extended to Long Island, was to hear and deter- 
mine matrimonial disputes. He was styled "the first 
commissary of marriage affairs." Such an officer at the 
present day would lead a busy life. 

Many of the amusements, sports, and fireside enjoy- 
ments ol tlic pe0|)le here, as well as their religious customs 
and superstitions, were transplanted from the native 
countries of the original settlers. The origin of many of 
these in the remote jjasl is lost; but customs often out- 
live the ideas which gave birth to them. On the annual 
return of Christmas the yule log and Christmas candles 
were burned among the English settlers as in ancient times 
in " merrie England" and the Dutch celebrated the holi- 
days with still greater zest alter the manner of their fore- 
fathers in the Netherlands. St. Nicholas, or " Santa 
Klaas," was regarded among the Dutch children as a veri- 
table personage, and they had a hymn in the Dutch lan- 
guage which they sang on the occasion of their Christmas 
festivities, the first line of which was, " Sanctus Klaas goedt 
heyligh man" i^St. Nicholas good holy man). The prac- 
tice which was introduced by these Dutch settlers of hav- 
ing their children's stockings hung up to be filled by 
Santa Klaas is far from being extinct. New Year's eve 
and the first of January were formerly celebrated in a 

noisy way by firing guns at the doors in a neighborhood, 
when the neighbors thus saluted were expected to invite 
their friends in to partake of refreshments and then join 
them to thus salute others till all the men were collected 
together, when they repaired to a rendezvous and passed 
the day in athletic sports and target firing. It was finally 
deemed necessary to arrest, by legal enactments, this 
practice of firing guns on these occasions. When the style 
was changed the Dutch here at first refused to recognize 
the change in their celebration of these festivals. New 
Year was never celebrated with greater cordiality and 
hospitality than by these people, and their old customs 
are plainly traceable in the manner of keeping the day 
still in vogue here. 

St. Valentine's day, called among the eaily Dutch here 
" Vrouwen dagh " or women's day, was a time of great 
hilarity among the young people. One peculiarity in 
their manner o( celebrating it is thus described by Fur- 
man: " Every girl provided herself with a cord without a 
knot in the end, and on the morning of this day they 
would sally forth, and every lad whom they met was sure 
to have three or four smart strokes from the cord be- 
siowed on his shoulders. These we presume were 
in those days considered as 'love taps ' and in that light 
answered all the purposes of the ' valentines ' of more 
modern times." 

Easter day, or " Pausch " (pronounced Paus), was ob- 
served by religious services as well as merrymakings, and 
these continued through Easter week. Among their 
customs was that of making presents to each other of 
colored eggs, called Easter eggs, and this still prevails 
among some of their descendants. 

" Pinckster dagh," or Pentecost, was once celebrated 
by the Dutch here on the first Monday in June by good 
cheer among neighbors, among which soft waffljs were 
peculiar to this festival. 

Among the Dutch people in the days of slavery the 
custom prevailed uf presenting the children of their fe- 
male slaves, at the age of three years, to some young 
member of the family of the same sex, and the one to 
whom the child was presented at once gave it a piece of 
money and a pair of shoes, and this event was often fol- 
lowed by strong and lasting attachments between these 
domestics and their destined owners. 

Of the domestic, social and religious customs of the. 
English or New England settlers on Long Island it is 
unnecessary to speak. Some of these customs, modified 
by changes in the surroundings of these peojjle during 
more than two centuries, and by the increasing cosmopol- 
itanism of the American people, are still in vogue among 
their descendants — faint traces of a bygone age, but 
sufficiently distinct to indicate their Yankee origin. These 
characteristic Yankee customs are generally known. 

The peculiar circumstances by which these settlers 
were surrounded led to the adoption of some customs 
which have quite passed away as these surroundings have 
given place to others. 

Since very early times the species of gambling that is 
designated " turf sports " has been very prevalent on 



Long Island, and the files of old newspapers abound with 
notices of races that were to take place, or accounts of 
those that had occurred. Lotteries too were not only 
tolerated but were often instituted to raise money for 
erecting churches, or founding religious or benevolent 
associations. The latter form of gambling is now pro- 
hibited by law, but whether or not the moral sense of the 
people will ever frown down the former is an unsolved 

During many years whaling was an important industrv 
on the southeastern coast of the island, and at intervals 
along the shore whaleboats were kept for launching 
whenever whales were sighted. Mr. Furman, in describ- 
ing a tour around Long Island in old times, says that there 
might be seen "occasionally, at long intervals, small 
thatched huts or wigwams on the highest elevations, with a 
staff projecting from the top. These huts were occupied, 
at certain seasons, by men on the watch for whales, and 
when they saw them blowing a signal was hoisted on this 
staff. Immediately the people would be seen coming 
from all directions with their whaling boats upon wagon 
wheels, drawn by horses or oxen, launch them from the 
beach, and be off in pursuit of the great fish. You would 
see all through this region these whaling boats turned 
upside down, lying upon a frame under the shade of some 
trees by the roadside, this being the only way in which 
they could keep ihem, having no harbors; four or five 
families would club together in owning one of these boats 
and in manning them." So much a standard industry 
was this that shares in the results of the fisheries were 
sometimes made portions of the salaries or jjerquisites of 
clergymen. In July 1699 it was said: " Twelve or thir- 
teen whales have been taken on the east end of the 
island." In 171 1 it was reported that four whales were 
taken at Montauk, eight at Southampton, two at Moriches, 
two and a calf at Brookhaven, two at Islip, and one 
drift whale that yielded twenty barrels of oil. In 172 i 
it was said that forty whales had been taken on Long 
Island, but in 1722 only four were reported. In 1741 
they were reported as being more abundant. The whales 
that formerly frequented this coast have long since been 
exterminated or driven away, though occasionally strag- 
glers have been seen in comparatively recent times. The 
New York Times oi February 27th 1858 published the 
following from a correspondent in Southampton: "At 
noon today the horn sounded through the streets, which 
is the signal to look out for a whale. In a few minutes 
tough old whalemen enough had mustered on the beach 
to man several boats and push out into the surf in chase 
of three whales which were leisurely spouting in the 
offing. After an exciting but brief chase the lance 
touched the life of one of the three, who spouted claret 
and turned up dead. He was towed to the shore and 
will make — the judges say — forty barrels of oil." 

The taking of shellfish in the bays and on the coast 
has been an important and increasing industry, and the 
capture of fish for the expression of oil and the manufac- 
ture of fertilizers has come to be a business of some im- 

It was the custom of the Indians on this island before its 
settlement by the whites to annually burn the herbage on 
large portions of it, which were thus kept free from trees 
and underbrush. This enabled the early settlers to enter 
at once on the cultivation of the land, and to convert 
large tracts into common pastures. The arrest of the 
annual fires permitted underbrush to spring up in such 
profusion that the male inhabitants of the towns between 
the apes of sixteen and sixty were called out by the court 
of assize during four days of each year to cut away this 
growth. On the wooded portions of the island the timber 
was cut and converted into staves so rapidly by the early 
settlers that within the first twenty years the towns insti- 
tuted rules regulating or prohibiting the cutting of trees. 

At first the scarcity of a circulating medium compelled 
people to make exchanges in various kinds of produce, 
and this method necesitated the fixing of the value of 
produce, either by custom or law. The Indian sewant 
or wampum was very much used in the place of money, 
and both it and produce were used not only in business 
transactions but in the payment of taxes, fines etc. By 
reason of the facility with which the material could be 
procured the manufacture of wampum was sometimes 
engaged in by the whiles within the memory of some now 
living. John Jacob Astor employed men to manufacture 
it here, that he might send it to the northwest and ex- 
change it with the Indians there for furs. The following 
schedule of the value of produce in the middle and latter 
part of the seventeenth century, when this custom pre- 
vailed, is taken from Wood: " Pork per lb., 3 pence; beef, 
2; tallow, 6; butter, 6; dry hides, 4; green hides, 2; lard, 
6; winter wheat 4s. to 5s. per bush.; summer wheat, 3s. 6d. 
per bush.; rye, 2s. 6d. to 3s. 6d. per bush.; Indian corn, 
2S. 3d. to 2S. 6d. per bush.; oats, 2s. per bush." Stock in 
1665 was legally valued as follows: " Colts, one to two 
years, jC^t, each; two to three, ;^4 each; three to four, 
^8; horses four years or more of age, j[,\2\ bullocks, 
bulls or cows, four years or upward, ^6 each; steers and 
heifers, one to two years, each ;Qi los; two to three, ^2 
los.; three to four, ^^4; goats, one year, 8s.; sheep, one 
year, 6s. 8d.; hogs, one year, J^i. These were the prices 
fixed for the guidance of the town authorities in receiving 
produce, etc., in payment of taxes. Produce in place of 
a circulating medium continued in use till about 1700, 
when money had become sufiiiciently abundant for the re- 
quirements of trade. Board was 5s. per week; meals 6d. 
each; lodgings, 2d. per night; beer, 2d. per mug; pasture 
per day and night, is.; labor per day, 2s. 6d. 

About the commencement of the present century 
President Dwight traversed the island, and said of it that 
by reason of its insular situation the people must always 
be contracted and limited in their views, affections and 
pursuits, that they were destitute of advantages that 
were calculated to awaken and diffuse information 
and energy, and if such were to spring up here they 
would emigrate, and that it must continue for an 
indefinite period to be a place where advantages that 
were enjoyed elsewhere would be imperfectly realized. 
Eighty years have passed, and one has only to glance 



over the island to see that his predictions have been 
very "imperfectly realized." Instead of becoming an 
intellectual waste by reason of its insularity, it has come 
to be the abode of wealtli, refinement and intelligence, in 
a degree quite equal to that of any region in the country. 
The salubrity of its climate, its proximity to the great 
commercial metropolis of the country, the excellent fa- 
cilities for travel and communication which its railroad 
system affords, and its unsurpassed pleasure resorts and 
watering places, combine to make it one of the most de- 
sirable places of residence in the country; and year by 
year people ;ivail themselves more and more of these ad- 



F).te'ONG ISLAND was not the theater of hostil- 
ities during the French and Indian wars. 
Military operations were carried on along 
^^^"i^d what was then the northern frontier of the 
^«-'i.^5i-4 colony, and each of the belligerents sent hos- 
W/ tile expeditions into the territory of the other, but 
^ no force of the enemy ever penetrated to this 

Only very imperfect records remain of the names and 
deeds of those from Long Island who had part in this 
war. It appears by an extract from the Assembly journal, 
made by H. Onderdonk jr., that in the war against France 
which had been proclaimed in 1744 an act was passed in 
1746 to raise ;^ 13,000 "for further fortifying the colony 
of New York, and for canceling the bills of credit. The 
quota of Queens was ^487 9s. sd.; that of Kings ^245 
i8s.; that of Suffolk ;!^433 6s. 8d. yearly for three years." 
In June of the same year Jonathan Lawrence, of Queens, 
and James Fanning, of Suffolk, were authorized to raise 
recruits. " In July Fanning had one hundred men mus- 
tered, of whom Hempstead sent seventy-eight and Jamaica 
twenty-two, under Captain VVraxhall." 

In August of the same year it was stated; " Five com- 
plete companies of the force raised in New York and 
Long Island for the expedition against the Canada border 
are now embarked for Albany, on their way to the place 
of rendezvous." 

In November 1747 an account was rendered by Lieu- 
tenant James Thorn of Colonel Hicks's regiment for 
Queens county "for forty-four days of service of himself 
and men in the fort at Schenectady," ;^ii3 9s. 6d. 

In June 1749 a public thanksgiving was appointed in 
the colony " for the late glorious peace;" which, however, 
does not appear to have proved glorious or permarent. 

After the declaration of war in 1755 a regiment was 
enlisted in New York city and its vicinity, which, under 
the command of Colonel William Cockroft, joined Gen- 

eral Johnson at the southern extremity of Lake George. 
In this regiment it is believed were many from Long 
Island. On the reception of the news of the battle of 
Lake George the inhabitants of Queens county sent a 
thousand sheep and seventy cheeses to the army, as a 
token of their approbation; and the county of Kings 
raised j^e^j 6s. 4d. for the transportation of these sheep to 

In 1756 Captains Thomas Williams and Potter raised 
companies in Suffolk and Queens counties, and joined the 
British forces near Lake George. In March 1757 it was 
stated that "to the French and Indian war Queens county 
sends thirty-eight men; Suffolk thirty-eight; Kings eight. 
It must be remembered that at that time the population of 
this island was a large proportion of that of the whole 
colony; and when, in the years 1758-60, provincial troops 
were called for to assist the regular forces in their oper- 
ations against the French, the quota of New York was 
1680, of which the allotment of Long Island was about 
one fourth, or 657. Of these 300 were assigned to Queens, 
289 to Suffolk, and 68 to Kings. In the attempt to reduce 
Fort Ticonderoga, in 1758, nnd in :he expedition of Col- 
onel Bradstreet immediately afterward against Fort 
Frontenac, there were from Long Island, Lieutenant Col- 
onel Isaac Corsa, Major Nathaniel Woodhull, Captains 
Elias Hand, Richard Hewlett, and Daniel Wright, and 
Lieutenants Ephraim Morse and Dow Ditmars, with 
many soldiers. In the attack on Fort Frontenac Colonel 
Corsa with his Long Island men did efficient service. 
He volunteered to erect a battery, which he did, under 
the fire of the enemy, during the night of August 26th; 
and on the morning of the 27th the cannonade from this 
battery compelled an immediate surrender. 

At the reduction of Fort Niagara in 1759 there were 
several hundred soldiers from Long Island, a portion of 
whom were commanded by Captain Ephraim Morse, who 
had been promoted; George Dunbar and Roeloff Duryea 
were his lieutenants. Honorable mention is made of the 
services of Captain Morse and his command in this cam- 
paign. On the 6th of November in that year a public 
celebration of the victories of the British and colonial 
arms was held at Jamaica. Captain Morse was engaged 
in the campaign of 1760, with Roeloff Duryea and 
Abraham Remsen as his lieutenants. They were at the 
surrender of Montreal, in the autumn of that year, which 
completed the conquest of Canada. In addition to the 
officers already mentioned the names-of the following are 
preserved: Captains PetrusStuyvesant and Daniel Wright; 
Lieutenants Daniel Wright, William Alges, David Jones, 
Morris Smith, James Cassidy, Isaac Seaman, Joseph 
Bedell, Michael Weeks, Edward Burk and John Dean; 
Sergeants John Allison, Joseph Cassidy, James Palmer, 
Samuel Brown, Nicholas Wilson, Timothy Hill, Simeon 
Smith, George Dunbar, James Marr and Cornelius 
Turner; Corporals Daniel Southard, Cooper Brooks, John 
Halton, John Larabee, Isaac Totten, James Brown, Jere- 
miah Finch, John Walters and Matthew Robins, and 
drummer Benjamin Agens. 

During the war privateers occasionally made their ap- 



pearance on the coast, to prey upon the commerce of 
New York and New England. Mr. Onderdonk records 
among his gleanings from the Postboy the following: 
"October 25th 1755. — Captain Wentworth, of Flushing, 
being at St. Thomas, mustered as many New Yorkers as 
he could find (twenty-four hands in all) and in his new ves- 
sel, indifferently mounted with great guns, put to sea in 
pursuit of a French privateer cruising off the harbor and 
chasing New York vessels, but the privateer thought fit 
to disappear." 

From time to time during the war troops were billeted 
on the inhabitants of the island or quartered among them; 
and their presence was not agreeable to the people, who 
feared the influence on their youth of soldiers who were 
uncontrolled by the restraints of public opinion. From 
the Assembly journal it appears that the sheriff from time 
to time presented bills for " lodging and victualling " these 
troops. These bills appear to have been paid to the 
sheriff, and the money to have been distributed 
among the people on whom the troops were 
billeted. In some cases the people petitioned the 
Assembly for relief from the burdens which the billeting 
of soldiers imposed on them. 

French prisoners also were brought hither and billeted 
on the inhabitants in different parts of the island, and 
many bills were rendered for the entertainment of these. 
It is said that the officers and men thus billeted passed 
their time and relieved the tedium of their imprisonment 
by hunting the game with which the island abo'mded, and 
engaging in other sports. When the treatment of these 
prisoners is contrasted with that of the prisoners in New 
York, or in the prison ships at the Wallabout during the 
Revolution, or with that of the Union prisoners at the 
south during the late civil war, the descendants of 
those early settlers of the island have no reason 
to blush because of the inhumanity of their ances- 

Prisoners — if they may be so termed — of another class 
were sent here during this war. When, in 17 13, the prov- 
ince of Nova Scotia was acquired by Great Britain the 
French inhabitants, who were simple, quiet people, 
strongly attached to their ancient customs and religion, 
were permitted to retain their possessions on taking the 
oath of allegiance to the English government. This oath 
was not well kept, and on the breaking out of war it was 
deemed expedient to expatriate these people, who under 
the guise of neutrality gave aid to the enemy. Accord- 
ingly they were dispossessed of their houses, separated, 
and sent to widely distant regions. They were known 
here as the " neutral French," and were distributed 
among the people in different parts of the island. From 
the Assembly journal of July ist 1756 it appears that 
" the justices of Kings, Queens and Suffolk counties are 
empowered to bind out the neutral French from Nova 
Scotia who are distributed in said counties." It also 
appears that in November of the same year " bills were 
paid by order of the general Assembly for supporting the 
neutral French, brought here in May last and sent to the 



IP^ '^i*^*^^ Qf representatives of the people was estab- 

S^ lished, and this was the first step in the direction 

of a free government in the colony of New York. 

The colonial governors had possessed very large — 
almost absolute — power, and that power had sometimes 
been arbitrarily exercised. The people's money had 
been used at the discretion of the governors, and, it was 
believed, had often been misapplied and embezzled. On 
application, in 1706, to Queen Anne the Assembly was 
authorized to appoint a treasurer to receive and disburse 
all money which was raised under its authority, and it 
accordingly "assumed general control of all the finances 
by making specific appropriations." In 171 1 the Assem- 
bly denied the right of the council (which was claimed) 
to alter revenue bills, asserting that the power of the 
council flowed from the pleasure of the prince, personified 
by the commission of the governor, but that the power of 
the Assembly, in relation to taxes, flowed from the choice 
of the people, who could not be divested of their money 
without their consent. 

From this time forward an almost constant struggle 
was going on between the crown, through its representa- 
tives — the governors — on one side, and the people, through 
their representatives — the Assembly — on the other. The 
governors sought to vex and coerce the Assembly into 
compliance with their demands, or to punish what they 
considered contumacy and contempt by frequent proro- 
gations and dissolutions. Under the absurd pretext 
that the colony had been planted and sustained in its 
infancy by the mother country, the right of almost ab- 
solute control over it afterward was claimed. The con- 
flict continued, with the result of constantly calling the 
attention of the people to the subject and leading them 
to investigate the principles which lie at the foundation 
of just government and the sources whence the powers 
of so-called rulers are derived. They thus came to know 
and appreciate the value of their rights, and thus was 
nurtured and developed the spirit of resistance to the ex- 
ercise of a power which they had come to believe had no 
just foundation. This conflict between the spirit of 
liberty and the encroachments of arbitrary power cul- 
minated in the resistance, on the part of the colonies, to 
the oppressive acts of the crown and Parliament of Great 
Britain that inaugurated the Revolution. 

It must be remembered that during all this conflict the 
inhabitants of Long Island constituted a large proportion 
of the colony, and even in 1787 more than one-fifth of 
the tax of the State was assessed to the counties of Kings, 



. Queens and Suffolk. Their resistance to the encroach- 
ments of regal power was as uncompromising as that of 
the people of other regions; though, by the force of cir- 
cumstances, many were loyalists during the Revolutionary 
struggle. Because of their well known conservative 
character the Dutch on the western end of the island 
were averse to engaging in a rebellion in which it required 
no extraordinary prescience to enable them to predict 
immediate serious consequences, and probable ultimate 
failure. They desired, as they had always, to pursue the 
even tenor of their way and make the best of the circum- 
stances by which they were surrounded, rather than to 
seek a change the result of which appeared to them 
doubtful. A different people inhabited Suffolk county. 
They were the descendants of the original Puritans, in 
whom resistance to oppression was almost an instinct; 
and, had circumstances permitted, they would have been 
rebels with as great unanimity as were the New Eng- 
landers; In Queens county the loyal sentiment was 
always largely in the ascendant, though, had circumstances 
favored, the rebel feeling would have become dominant 
here. It must be remembered that Long Island had 
about 300 miles of vulnerable coast, which could not have 
been successfully defended against a marine force. 
Thompson says: 

" Motives of personal safety and the preservation of 
their property would necessarily induce many either to 
remain inactive or join with the ranks of the op])osition. 
Others, and those not inconsiderable in number, were de- 
sirous for the opportunity of rioting upon the property of 
their neighbors, thereby benefitting themselves without 
the liability of punishment; and it so happened that more 
frequent and daring outrages upon persons and property 
were practiced by our own citizens than by many who had 
come 3,000 miles to force our submission to the tyranny 
of a foreign master. The engagement of the 27th of 
August 1776 was followed by an abandonment of Long 
Island to the enemy; and the town and county committees 
in many instances, eitlier through fear or necessity, were 
induced to repudiate all legislative authority exercised by 
the provincial and legislative Congresses. The inhabi- 
tants who continued on the island were compelled to 
subscribe to the oath of fidelity to the king. General 
Howe had, immediately on landing at Gravesend, issued 
a proclamation promising security of person and property 
to those who should remain peaceably upon their farms. 
The island became therefore at once a conquered territory, 
forts being erected and garrisons established in different 
places. Martial law prevailed, the army became a sanc- 
tuary for criminals of every grade, and means the most 
despicable were resorted to for increasing the numerical 
force of the enemy. Those inhabitants who had thereto- 
fore taken an active' part as officers of militia and com- 
mitteemen deemed it most imprudent to remain, and con- 
sequently took refuge within the American lines, leaving 
the greater i)art of their proj^erty exposed to the ravages 
of an unprincipled Toe. The British commanders were 
exorbitant and exaclious, requiring the more peaceable 
and unoffending inhabitants to perform every species of 
personal service; to labor on the forts, to go with their 
teams on foraging parties, and transporting cannon, am- 
munition, provisions and baggage from one place to 
another at the option of every petty officer. The enemy 
.took possession of the best rooms in their houses, and 
obliged the owners to provide them accommodations and 
support for men and horses. The property of those who 

had fled from their homes, and especially those engaged 
in the American service, was particularly the object of 
rapine, and in many instances the damages were immense. 
Woods and fences were lavishly used for fuel, and in any 
other way which served the purposes of those stationed 
in the neighborhood, as well as for the garrisons of Brook- 
lyn and New York. Churches and places for religious 
worship were desecrated for any objects which suited the 
convenience of the army, exce|)t those of the Episcopal- 
ians, which were, it seems, scrupulously regarded, doubt- 
less in pursuance of governmental instructions, their 
members (upon Long Island) being in general in the 
interest of England. 

" When the British army invaded Long Island, in 1776, 
many persons who belonged to the island and had joined 
the British forces on Staten Island landed with the in- 
vading army. Those royalists were ordered to wear red 
rags in their hats, as badges of friendship, to distinguish 
them from the rebels. The red rag men proceeded with 
the army in every direction, giving information against 
every person whom they disliked, and causing them to be 
plundered, imprisoned and tormented at their pleasure. 
" Shortly after the army landed General Howe ordered 
that every inhabitant who desired favor should attend at 
headquarters and receive a certificate of protection. 
Many obeyed as friends, and many from fear, but the 
greatest number remained at home. Every one who at- 
tended at headquarters was ordered to mount a red rag 
in his hat. When those persons who remained at home 
found out that there was magic in a red rag they all 
mounted the badge; negroes, boys, old and young wore 
r.'d rags. These badges of submission soon produced a 
scarcity of the needful article, and then, forsooth, red 
petticoats suffered. Many were torn into shreds for hat 
bands, and those who wore them were held in derision 
by the British and called the petticoat gentry." 

It has always been said of the loyalists or tories on 
this island that they were guilty of greater atrocities 
toward the rebels or Whigs than were the British soldiers 
who were sent to reduce the rebellious colonies to sub- 
jection; and this was doubtless in many instances true, 
for these soldiers were under military disci|)line, and, to 
some extent at least, were held to an observance of the 
rules of civilized warfare. The tories carried on hostil- 
ities without any such restraint, and the worst among 
them formed marauding bands who, under the pretense 
of loyalty, plundered and often murdered their rebellious 
neighbors. On the other hand it is a matter of history 
that the Whigs were not behindhand in carrying on this 
predatory kind of warfare. Parties from the New Eng- 
land States crossed the sound and united with some of 
the worst characters among the Whigs on the island to 
plunder the tories, or to kill or make prisoners of them. 
Similar expeditions were made from New Jersey. 

A century has passed since the Revolutionary struggle, 
and scarcely a word has been uttered in condemnation or 
even mild censure of the lawless acts and crimes of the 
patriots, while, on the other hand, not even an apology is 
offered for any of the deeds of the tories. In this case, 
as in many others, success or failure is the criterion by 
which they are judged, and the measure of praise be- 
stowed or of reproach heaped on them. In the American 
colonies the spirit of liberty had been developed more 
than a century, and when the mother country sought, by 
her unjust, arbitrary and oppressive acts to crush out 



this spirit open resistance followed, and a nation was es- 
tablished which has astonished the world by its rapid 
growth and prosperity, and has solved the previously 
doubtful problem of man's capacity for self-government. 
Unmeasured praise is lavished on those who achieved the 
success wliich has led to this stupendous result, the mo- 
tives by which some of them may have been actuated are 
never questioned, and no word of censure is ever applied 
to any of their acts. Had the rebellion failed, had the 
authority of the parent country been re-established, and 
had the American colonies grown great under English 
rule, there is no reason to doubt that the loyalists would 
have been recorded in history as the conservators of the 
blessings by which they were surrounded, the friends of 
good order, and the foes of that anarchy which the rebels 
sought to establish; and that the Whigs would, even now, 
be stigmatized as traitors who sought to subvert the au- 
thority of a beneficent government and inaugurate a reign 
of lawlessness, and that their acts would by many be con- 
sidered execrable crimes against humanity. 

As before stated, many of the inhabitants of the island 
were tories because of the force of circumstances. Policy 
or fear prompted them to give their adhesion to a cause 
which they would not otherwise have embraced; and by 
association they ultimately came to be earnest supporters 
of that with which they had at first no sympathy. In this 
case, as in every similar one, a large class were noisy adher- 
ents of the crown because the popular current bore them 
unresistingly in that direction; while their honest convic- 
tions of right prompted a portion to remain loyal to the 
government of Great Britain. In other regions the rebels 
or Whigs were influenced by similar motives, though a 
much larger proportion of them than of the tories here were 
controlled by principle. When people learn to look with 
more charity on those who differ with them in opinion, 
and to recognize in others the same freedom of thought 
which they claim for themselves, this will be a better 
world than it now is. 

Lawless bands, both of tories and Whigs, who were 
not controlled by military discipline, committed robberies 
and even murders with impunity. There is hardly a town 
on the island the history of which in that period does not 
contain accounts cf raids by these marauders. Thompson 

" Most parts of the island, and particularly along the 
sound, suffered greatly from depredations of little bands 
of piratical plunderers designated ' whaleboat men,' from 
the fact of their craft resembling those used in whaling 
along shore. With these they would make frequent de- 
scents under cover of night, attack detached houses, ritle 
the inhabitants of their money, plate, and other valuables, 
and, availing themselves of the speed of their vessels, 
reach their lurking places among the islands of the sound, 
or upon the main shore, before any effectual means could 
be taken to intercept them. Indeed, so great was the 
apprehension of these sudden attacks that many of the 
inhabitants had their doors and windows protected by 
iron bars; and it became usual for people to pass the 
nights in the woods and other secret places, to avoid 

In many cases these whaleboat men were downright 
robbers and pirates, who plundered Whigs and tories 

without discrimination, and were often guilty of murder, 
either wantonly or under some flimsy pretext. Besides 
these whaleboat marauders, who infested the shores for 
purposes of robbery, there were those who were known 
as whaleboat privateers, who prowled around the western 
end of the island and greatly annoyed British troops 
there and at New York, as well as the shipping in the 
harbor and vicinity. Many vessels were captured or de- 
stroyed by them, and many officers and prominent loyal- 
ists made prisoners. At times they rendered the waters 
in this region unsafe except for large vessels, and unavail- 
ing efforts were made to destroy them. It must be ad- 
mitted that they were not always over scrupulous in their 
transactions. Space will not permit a recital of their 
many adventures here. 

At the outbreak of the Revolution the strong tory pro- 
clivities of a majority of the people in Kings and Queens 
counties became known to the Revolutionary leaders and 
the 'Provincial Congress. Active and in some cases 
rather unscrupulous efforts were made to crush out this 
feeling, but without success. English ships of war were 
cruising off the southern coast, and with these the tories 
maintained communication in spite of the vigilance of the 
rebels who then had' possession of the island. Attempts 
to disarm these tories were only partially successful, and 
the arms taken from them were speedily replaced from 
the British ships cruising off the coast. The enforcement 
of a draft was also a failure, though the recusant tories, 
who were termed deserters, were hunted in their hiding 
l^laces in the swamps and elsewhere like wild beasts. 
Doubtless this active persecution by the Whigs was not 
forgotten by the tories when their time of triumph came. 

Although in Kings and Queens counties the loyal sen- 
timent was from the first largely in the ascendant, Suffolk 
early gave evidence of her adhesion to the republican 
cause. Says Field: 

"Out of its whole population of freeholders and adult 
male inhabitants, numbering 2,834 between the ages of six- 
teen and sixty, only 236 were reckoned as being of 
loyalist proclivities. The enrolled militia of the county 
exceeded 2,000, of whom 393 officers and privates were 
in the ranks of Colonel Smith's regiment, the best disci- 
plined and armed on the island. It was the only one 
which could be considered in any form to have survived 
the shock of the 27th of August, and only a small part 
even of this body ever did service after that fatal day. 

" In Queens county the whole force of the Whigs which 
could be mustered under arms was insufficient to overawe 
their loyalist neighbors. Seventeen hundred and seventy 
ablebodied men among her citizens were enrolled on the 
roster of her militia, while only 379 were by the most 
stringent measures induced to appear in arms." 

The comparative numerical strength of the Whigs and 
tories in Kings county is not known. It is certain, how- 
ever, that the tory element was largely in the ascendant. 

Early in 1776 a conspiracy was discovered, in which 
the leading loyalists on Long Island bore a conspicuous 
part. Governor Tryon, who had been for some time on 
board the English man-of-war "Asia," cruising off the 
coast, and whose gubernatorial functions were exercised 
in the cabin of that vessel, was probably among the chief 
of those who concocted the plot. Though the conspiracy 



had extensive ramifications, Long Island was to be the 
principal theater of the events which were to be accom- 
plished, and a majority of the leading conspirators were 
residents of Kings and Queens counties. Tlie timely 
discovery of the conspiracy and the frustration of the 
conspirators' designs prolonged the rule of the rebels on 
the island for a brief time, but the plans of the conspira- 
tors were in part followed when the island was invaded 
by Lord Howe in the succeeding August. 



N June nth 1776 the British army, which had 
a short time previously evacuated Boston^ 
where it had been closely besieged by the 
Americans, sailed from Halifax for New York 
harbor. The strategic importance of this 
point had long been apparent to the British 
commander, and it had been foreseen by Wash- 
ington that this would be the next point attacked. The 
plan of the British campaign was to possess New York 
and Long Island with an army of about 35,000 men; then 
to ascend the Hudson river and effect a junction with an 
army of some 13,000 that was to pass the lakes, penetrate 
to the Hudson and descend that river. The eastern 
provinces were thus to be divided from the middle and 
southern, and active operations were at the same time to 
be carried on at the south, and thus the rebellion was to 
be crushed in a single campaign. The failure of the 
southern campaign before the arrival of Howe at New 
York and the interruption of the Canadian army at the 
lakes frustrated the British commander's plan for the 
speedy subjugation of the rebellious colonies. 

As early as the preceding March Washington had or- 
dered the commencement of fortifications at Brooklyn, 
and when, after the sailing of the British fleet from 
Halifax, it became certain that this was to be the next 
point of attack, the work was pushed with the utmost 
vigor. To prevent the sailing of the fleet at once into 
the East River, and the immediate possession by the 
enemy of Brooklyn Heights, obstructions were placed in 
the river, of such a character as to be thought by both 
parties impassable, though at the present day they would 
not be looked on as formidable. 

On the 29th of June the fleet from Halifax entered the 
lower bay of New York. It was at first the intention of 
General Howe to land at once on Long Island at Grave- 
send Bay; but he was deterred from doing so by intelli- 
gence that was communicated to him, from spies, of the 
character of the defenses. On the ninth of July the Brit- 
ish troops were landed on Staten Island, where they re- 
mained during a month and a half, receiving reinforce- 

ments almost daily. The naval forces were under the 
command of Admiral Sir Richard Howe; and his brother, 
General William Howe, was in command of the land for- 
ces. Both were brave, skillful, and experienced officers, 
and the plan and conduct of the battle which followed 
fully sustained their good reputation. 

Space will not permit a detailed account of the defensive 
works which had been constructed on the heights of Brook- 
lyn and in its vicinity. In the construction of these works 
and in the disposition of the forces that were to man them 
the American officers found it necessary to provide a- 
gainst different possible plans of attack, and in doing so 
the effective American force of 20,000 men (the nominal 
force was 27,000) was extended from Kings Bridge, on 
Manhattan Island, and from the Wallabout Bay to Gow- 
anus Meadow, a line many miles in length. It is proper 
to say that the plan of these fortifications has since been 
made the subject of criticism. 

The transfer of the Britisli from Staten Island to Long 
Island is thus described by Field: 

"The morning of the 22nd of August dawned, with 
tropical brilliancy, on a scene of unequaled interest to the 
spectators of both armies. Long before the sun had risen 
the British army had been under arms, and from the vari- 
ous camps the entire force was marching, with the loud 
strains of martial music, to the place of embarkation. 
The men of war had quit their anchorage and were stand- 
ing up the bay under easy sail, with open ports and guns 
ready for action. At the landing on Staten Island seventy- 
five fleet boats, attended by three bateaux and two gal- 
leys, received four thousand of the Hessian troops on 
board, and at the firing of a signal gun their thousand 
oars dipped almost simultaneously into the waters of the 
bay. Another corps, of five thousand men, was embarked 
upon the transports which now took up their position 
under the guns of the men of war, attended by ten bat- 
eaux to aid in their landing. In another instant the sur- 
face of the bay between the two islands was covered with 
the flotilla rowing swiftly towards the Long Island shore. 
In advance sailed the galleys and bateaux over the shoal 
water where the great ships could not float, firing from 
their bow guns as they approached the land. The scene 
was not less magnificent than appalling. The greatest 
naval and military force which had ever left the shores 
of England was now assembled in the harbor of New 
York; for the mightiest power upon the globe had put 
forth its greatest strength to crush its rebellious colonies. 
Thirty-seven men of war guarded a transport fleet of four 
hundred vessels, freighted with enormous trains of artil- 
lery and every conceivable munition of war, with troops 
of artillery and cavalry horses, and provisions for the 
sustenance of the thirty-five thousand soldiers and sailors 
who had been borne across the ocean in their hulls. Amid 
all the stirring scenes which ninety years past have wit- 
nessed in the great metropolis of the western world, noth- 
ing which will compare in magnitude and grandeur with 
that upon which dawned the morning of the 22nd of Aug- 
ust 1776 has human eye since beheld in America." 

By noon 15,000 men and forty pieces of artillery had 
been landed at Denyse's dock, now Fort Hamilton, which 
was the landing of a ferry from Staten Island, and at 
what is now Bath. Hitherto the joint of attack had 
been uncertain, but this landing of the enemy dispelled 
the uncertainty, and troops were hurried across from 
New York to reinforce those holding the defenses. The 



following account of the battle which followed is taken 
from Thompson's history of Long Island: 

"The English, having effected their landing, marched 
rapidly forward. The two armies were separated by a 
chain of hills, covered with woods, called the heights, and 
which, running from west to east, divide the island into 
two parts. They are only practicable upon tliree points, 
one of which is by the road leading from the Narrows to 
Brooklyn. The road leading to that of the center passes 
the village of Flatbush, and the third is approached, far 
to the right, by the route of a road from the village of 
Flatlands to East New York and Bedford. Upon the 
summit of the hills is found a road, which follows the 
length of the range, and leads from Bedford to Jamaica, 
which is intersected by the road last described; these 
ways are all interrupted by hills, and by excessively diffi- 
cult and narrow defiles. The American general, wishing 
to arrest the enemy upon these heights, had carefully 
furnished them with troops; so that, if all had done their 
duty, the English would not have been able to force the 
passage without extreme difficulty and danger. The 
posts were so frequent upon the road from Bedford to 
Jamaica that it was easy to transmit from one of these 
posts to the other the most prompt intelligence of what 
passed upon the three routes. Colonel Miles, with his 
battalion, was to guard the road of Flatlands, as well as 
that of Jamaica, and to reconnoitre the movements of the 

" Meanwhile the British army pressed forward, its left 
wing being to the north and its right_ to the south; the 
village of Flatbush was found in its center. The Hessians, 
commanded by General De Heister, formed the main 
body; the English, under Major-General Grant, the left; 
and the other corps, conducted by General Clinton and 
the two Lords Percy and Cornwallis, composed the right. 
In this wing the British generals had placed their prin- 
cipal hope of success; they directed it upon Flatlands. 
Their plan was that, while the corps of General Grant and 
the Hessians of General De Heister should disquiet the 
enemy upon the two first defiles, the right wing, taking a 
circuit, should march through Flatlands and endeavor to 
seize the point of intersection of this road with that of 
Jamaica, and then, rapidly descending into the plain 
which extends at the foot of the heights on the other 
side, should fall upon the Americans in flank and rear. 
The English hoped that, as this post was most distant 
from the center of the army, the advanced guard would 
be found more feeble there, and perhaps more negligent. 
Finally, they calculated that the Americans would not be 
able to defend it against a force so superior. This right 
wing of the English was the most numerous, and entirely 
composed of fresh troops. 

" On the evening of the 26th of August General Clinton 
commanded the vanguard, which consisted of light 
infantry; Lord Percy the center, where were found the 
grenadiers, the artillery and the cavalry; and Cornwallis 
the rearguard, followed by the baggage, some regiments 
of infantry and of heavy artillery. All this part of the 
English army put itself in motion with admirable order 
and silence, and leaving Flatlands traversed the country 
called New Lots. Colonel Miles, who this night per- 
formed his service with little exactness, did not perceive 
the approach of the enemy; so that two hours before day 
the English were already within half a mile of the road 
to Jamaica, upon the heights. Then General Clinton 
halted and prepared himself for the attack. He had met 
one of the enemy's patrols, and made him prisoner. 
General Sullivan, who commanded all the troops in ad- 
vance of the camp of Brooklyn, had no advice of what 
passed in this quarter. He neglected to send out fresh 
scouts; perhaps he supposed the English would direct 

their principal efforts against his right wing as being the 
nearest to them. 

"General Clinton, learning from his prisoners that the 
road to Jamaica was not guarded, hastened to avail him- 
self of the circumstance, and occupied it by a rapid move- 
ment. Without loss of time he immediately bore his left 
toward Bedford, and seized an important defile which the 
Americans had left unguarded. From this inoment the 
success of the day was decided in favor of the English. 
Lord Percy came up with his corps, and the entire col- 
umn descended by the village of Bedford from the 
heights into the plain which lay between the hills and the 
camp of the Americans. During this time General Grant, 
in order to amuse the enemy and divert his attention from 
the events which took place upon the route of Flatlands, 
endeavored to quiet him on his right. Accordinly, as if 
he intended to force the defile which led to it, he had put 
himself in motion about midnight and had attacked the 
militia of New York and Pennsylvania who guarded 
it. They at first gave ground; but. General Parsons being 
arrived and having occupied an eminence, he renewed 
the combat and maintained his position until Brigadier- 
General Stirling came to his assistance with 1,500 men. 
The action became extremely animated, and fortune 
favored neither the one side nor the other. The Hes- 
sians, on their part, had attacked the center at break of 
day; and the Americans, commanded by General Sullivan 
in person, valiantly withstood their efforts. At the same 
time the British ships, after having made several move- 
ments, opened a very brisk cannonade against a battery 
established in the little island of Red Hook, upon the 
right flank of the Americans who combated against Gen- 
eral Grant. This was also a diversion, the object of which 
was to prevent them from attending to what passed in 
the center and on the left. The Americans defended 
themselves however with extreme gallantry, ignorant that 
so much valor was exerted in vain since victory was al- 
ready in the hands of the enemy. General Clinton, being 
descended into the plain, fell upon the left flank of the 
center, which was engaged with the Hessians. He had 
previously detached a small corps in order to intercept 
the Americans. 

"As soon as the appearance of the light infantry ap- 
prized them of their danger they sounded the retreat and 
retired in good order toward their camp, bringing off 
their artillery. But they soon fell in with the party of the 
royal troops which had occupied the ground in their rear, 
and who now charged them with fury. They were com- 
pelled to throw themselves into the neighboring woods, 
where they met again with the Hessians, who repulsed 
them upon the English; and thus the Americans were 
driven several times by the one against the other with 
great loss. They continued for some time in this desper- 
ate situation, till at length several companies, animated 
by a heroic valor, opened their way through the midst of 
the enemy and gained the camp of General Putnam, while 
others escaped through the woods. The inequality of 
the ground, the great number of positions which it of- 
fered, and the disorder that prevailed throughout the line 
were the causes that for several hours divers partial com- 
bats were maintained, in which many of the Americans fell. 

"Their left wing and center being discomfited, the 
English, desirous of a complete victory, made a rapid 
movement against the rear of the right wing, which, in ig- 
norance of the misfortune which had befallen the other 
corps, was engaged with General Grant. Finally, having 
received the intelligence, they retired. But, encountering 
the English, who cut off their retreat, a part of the sol- 
diers took shelter in the woods; others endeavored to make 
their way through the marshes of Gowanuscove, but here 
some were drowned in the waters or perished in the mud. 



. A very small number only escaped the hot pursuit of the 
victors and reached the camp in safety. The total loss 
of the Americans in this battle was estimated at more 
than three thousand men, in killed, wounded, and pris- 
oners. Among the last were found General Sullivan and 
Brigadier General Lord Stirling. Almost the entire regi- 
ment of Maryland, consisting of young men of the best 
families of that province, was cut to pieces. Six pieces 
of cannon fell into the power of the victors. The loss of 
the English was very inconsiderable. In killed, wounded 
and prisoners it did not amount to four hundred men. 

"The enemy encamped in front of the American lines, 
and on the succeeding night broke ground within six 
hundred yards of a redoubt on the left, and threw up a 
breastwork on the Wailabout heights upon the Debevoise 
farm, commenced firing on Fort Putnam, and reconnoi- 
tered the American forces. The Americans were here 
prepared to receive them, and orders were issued to the 
men to reserve their fire till they could see the eyes of 
the enemy. A few of the British ofificers reconnoitered 
the position; and one on coming near was shot by 
Willam Van Cott, of Bushwick. The same afternoon 
Captain Rutgers, brother of Colonel Rutgers, also fell. 
Several other British troops were killed, and the column 
which had incautiously advanced fell back beyond the 
the range of the American fire." 

It has been truly said that previous to the battle on Long 
Island there existed an uncertainty which of two move- 
ments that seemed equally to promise good results would 
be chosen by the British commander, and that it was 
Washington's misfortune to be compelled to act as though 
certain that both would be adopted. On the 29th of 
August that uncertainty had been removed. The battle 
had been fought, and what remained of the American 
army, dejected and dispirited, was confronted by the vic- 
torious and exultant hosts of the enemy. With these in 
their front, and the river, which might at any time be en- 
tered by the war vessels lying below should wind and 
tide favor, in their rear, it has been a matter of much 
wonder to many that a sagacious leader like Washington 
should hesitate a moment in his determination. On the 
afternoon of that day a council of war was convened in 
the Pierrepont mansion, near where the foot bridge 
crosses Montague street. This council unanimously de- 
cided to abandon the lines at Brooklyn and retreat across 
the river, and made a memorandum of the reason for so 
deciding. Field gives the following excellent descrip- 
tion of the arrangements for this retreat: 

"The preparations for this important movement, 
scarcely less fraught with danger than its alternative, were 
entered upon with the profoundest caution and secrecy. 
Everything which could convey the slightest intimation 
of the design to the enemy was carefully avoided; and 
never, perhaps, for a movement so important, were the 
plans more skillfully devised, or the performance of them 
more exact, where a thousand untoward events might 
have destroyed them. It was little that the boats for 
transporting the army were abundant in New York. 
They must be gathered with expedition and secrecy, and 
the troops transferred to the opposite shore during the 
short night of midsummer. Even the management of the 
boats by skilled oarsmen was important, for that service 
could not be left to the clumsiness of common soldiers. 
Fortunately the necessities of the occasion were not 
greater than the means at hand for meeting them. Col- 
onel Glover's Marblehead regiment provided seven hun- 

dred of the ablest men for this service, whose stout arms 
could safely and swiftly pass the men through the dense 
fog; and they were accordingly v.'ithdrawn from the ex- 
treme left of the line for that purpose. 

"At the same time that all the troops were warned to 
prepare for an attack upon the enemy, orders were quietly 
communicated to the alternate regiments along the front 
to fall in line; and long before those on the right and 
left were aware of any movement their comrades had 
silently moved away into the darkness, and the void was 
only felt, without being known. Often the first intimation 
that adjoining regiments received of the departure of 
those on their right and left was the whispered order to 
extend their own lines, and cover the space so mys- 
teriously vacated. Again and again was this maneuver 
performed on the constantly thinning line; and one reg- 
iment after another flitted away into the gloom, until 
nothing but a long line of sentinels occupied the breast- 
works, and preserved the empty show of a defense." 

So well was this retreat planned and so skillfully was 
the plan executed, that not only had the enemy no inti- 
mation of what was transpiring, but the men in the 
American army believed that these maneuvers portended 
a general assault on the lines of the enemy on the morrow. 
There were instances of mistakes and of a want of caution, 
but fortunately none of them seriously embarrassed the 
movement. A heavy fog, which hung over the island 
toward morning, concealed the movements of the retreat- 
ing troops from their enemies, who were so near that the 
sounds of their pickaxes and shovels could be distinctly 
heard. Not only were all the details of this retreat 
planned by the commander-in-chief, but the movement 
was executed under his immediate superintendence. 

After this evacuation of the island by the American 
forces it remained in the possession of the British and 
tories. Such of the patriots as had been active became 
exiles from their homes, which were plundered, and if 
they returned they were imprisoned; but, as before 
stated, those wearing red badges enjoyed immunity. 
Had the advantage gained by the English in this battle 
been followed up at once by the passage of the slender 
barrier, and the entrance of the ships of war into the 
East River, the American army must inevitably have been 
captured or annihilated; a result which the delay of a few 
hours in the retreat would have insured, for the British 
fleet below was preparing to weigh anchor for that purpose. 

Thompson says: " The unfortunate issue of the battle 
of Long Island is doubtless due to the illness of General 
Greene. He had superintended the erection of the works 
and become thoroughly acquainted with the ground. In 
the hope of his recovery Washington had deferred sending 
over a successor till the urgency of affairs made it 
absolutely necessary, and then General Putnam took 
command without any previous knowledge of the posts 
which had been fortified beyond the lines, or of the places 
by which the enemy could make their approach, nor had 
he time to acquire the knowledge before the action." 

The defeat of the American forces in this battle re- 
moved the restraint which had kept in check the strong 
feeling of loyalty in Queens county, and in the following 
autumn about fourteen hundred signed a declaration of 
loyalty and petition for protection. 







'T has already been stated that in the eastern 
half of the island, previous to the battle of 
August 27th, the feeling of loyalty to the 
crown of Great Britain was very weak. Meet- 
ings were held in the different towns and 
districts in the county of Suffolk, at which res- 
olutions were adopted expressive of sympathy with 
the cause of the rebels; and committees of correspondence, 
as they were termed, were appointed to represent them 
in county conventions and to devise such measures as the 
welfare of the country seemed to demand. In a county 
convention of these committees as early as 1774 resolu- 
tions were adopted recommending aid to the poor of 
Boston, and approving the doings of the Continental 
Congress. In the provincial convention for the appoint- 
ment of delegates to the Continental Congress Suffolk 
county was represented by Colonel William Floyd, Col- 
onel Nathaniel Woodhull, Colonel Phineas Fanning, 
Thomas Tredwell and John Sloss Hobart. 

During the summer of 1775 British vessels prowled 
about the east end of the island, and occasionally raided 
on and carried away the stock. To guard against these, 
troops that had been raised were retained and others 
were sent, but considerable depredations were committed 
on Fisher's and Gardiner's Islands, and still more efficient 
measures were adopted for protection. After the decla- 
ration of independence by the Continental Congress and 
the approval of this action by the Provincial Congress 
the enthusiasm of the Whigs in this part of the island 
rose to a high pitch. Public demonstrations were made, 
and in one instance at least the effigy of George III. was 
publicly hanged and burned. 

The evacuation of Long Island by the continental 
forces and its possession by the British after the battle of 
Brooklyn quenched this enthusiasm in a great measure. 
The regular continental troops withdrew from the island, 
and the militia disbanded. The people submitted to the 
inevitable condition, the actions of the committees were 
revoked, and no further public demonstration of sympathy 
with the rebels took place. Those who had been active, 
open rebels fled, and their property was unceremoniously 
taken. In the autumn of 1776 upward of six hundred in 
Snffolk county signed a testimonial of submission and 
allegiance to the British crown, and so far as open rebel- 
lion was concerned the subjugation of this part of the 
island was complete. This submission, however, was 
made by many under the force of circumstances and with 
large mental reservations. 

During the remainder of the Revolution the condition 
of the people in this part of the island was insecure. To 
insure the doubtful loyalty of a portion of the inhabitants 
British troops, the ranks of which were increased by en- 

listments from among the tories, were stationed at differ- 
ent points, and against the lawlessness of these there was 
no protection. Robbery was carried on by marauding 
gangs under the guise of Whig or tory partisanship, and 
frequent raids were made by parties of continental troops 
from the Connecticut shore of the sound, although noth- 
ing occurred which can justly be dignified by the name 
of a battle. A few of these may be mentioned here. In 
November 1776 three or four hundred troops crossed 
from New Haven to Setauket, where a sharp skirmish 
was had with a detachment of General Howe's troops. 
Eight or ten of the British troops were killed, and 23 
prisoners and 75 muskets taken. 

In April 1777 an expedition was planned by General 
Parsons, the object of which was to destroy a quantity 
of forage and provisions that had been collected at Sag 
Harbor. For that purpose a party of two hundred men, 
under Colonel Meigs, crossed the sound from New Haven 
on the 23d of May in whaleboats. They secreted their 
boats about three miles from Sag Harbor; marched to 
the village, arriving at 2 a. m.; impressed guides, by 
whom they were conducted to the quarters of the com- 
manding officer, whom they captured; forced the outpost 
by a bayonet charge and proceeded to the wharf, where 
in three-fourths of an hour, although under the fire of an 
armed schooner one hundred and fifty yards away, they 
burned twelve brigs and sloops, one hundred and twenty 
tons of hay and a quantity of grain, and destroyed ten 
hogsheads of rum and a quantity of merchandise. They 
also killed six of the enemy, took ninety prisoners, and 
returned after an absence of a little more than twenty- 
four hours without the loss of a man. For this service 
Congress presented a sword to Colonel Meigs, and Gen- 
eral Washington, in a letter, complimented General 

In August 1777 General Parsons organized an expe- 
dition of about one hundred and fifty men to break up a 
British outpost at Setauket, where a Presbyterian church 
had been fortified by surrrounding it with an embank- 
ment six feet in height and placing swivels in four of the 
gallery windows. After an engagement of two or three 
hours with the loss of only four men General Parsons 
withdrew, fearing his retreat might be cut off by the cap- 
ture of his sloop and boats. It is a notable fact that one 
of the volunteers in this expedition, Zachariah Green, 
was twenty years afterward installed a minister of this 
same church. 

In the autumn of 1780 Major Benjamin Tallmadge 
planned and saccessfully executed one of the most 
audacious exploits accomplished on the island during the 
war. At Smith's Point, Mastic, on the south side of the 
island, an enclosure of several acres had been made, tri- 
angular in form, with strongly barricaded houses at two 
of the angles, and a fort, ninety feet square, protected by 
an abattis, at the other. The fort was completed and 
garrisoned by about fifty men, and in it two guns were 
mounted. On the 21st of November Major Tallmadge 
embarked at Fairfield, Conn., with eighty dismounted 
dragoons, and landed at 9 in the evening at Mount Sinai, 


where the boats were secured. They attempted to cross 
the island, but a rain storm drove them back to their 
boats and kept them there till 7 the next evening, when 
they again set out. At 3 the next morning they arrived 
within two miles of the fort (which was called Fort 
George), and arranged to attack it simultaneously at 
three points, which was done. A breach was made, the 
enclosure entered, and the main fort carried at the point 
of the bayonet without the firing of a gun, the two other 
attacking parties mounting the ramparts at the same time 
with shouts. They were fired on from one of the houses, 
but they forcibly entered it and threw some of their as- 
sailants from the chamber windows. With none killed 
and only a few slightly wounded they destroyed the fort, 
burned a vessel and took fifty-four prisoners and a 
quantity of merchandise, with which they returned. A 
party of ten or twelve, with Major Tallmadge, visited 
Coram and burned some four hundred tons of hay. For 
this exploit Major Tallmadge was commended in a letter 
by General Washington. 

A year later Major Tallmadge sent a party of 150 
under Major Trescott to destroy Fort Slongo, in the 
northwestern part of Smithtown. The force crossed from 
Saugatuck River in the night, attacked and destroyed the 
fort, which was garrisoned by 140 men, burned the block- 
house, destroyed two iron guns, killed four and wounded 
two of the enemy, took twenty-one prisoners, one brass 
field piece and seventy muskets; and returned with none 
killed and but one seriously wounded. 

In 1778 a fort was erected on Lloyd's Neck by the 
British for the protection of wood cutters and djfense 
against raiders from the mainland. An unsuccessful 
attack was made on this fort on the 12th of July 1781, by 
a force of French under Count de Barras, assisted by 
American volunteers. In this affair a few of the assail- 
ants were wounded and one or two killed. 

Allusion has been made to the fact that the restraints 
of military discipline prevented the British troops on the 
island, during its long occupation by them, from the per- 
petration of such atrocities as the lawless marauding 
bands of tories or piratical whaleboat crews were guilty 
of. The following, from the pen of the excellent historian 
Henry Onderdonk jr., of Jamaica, is quoted as an illus- 
tration of this: 

"/>'///(■//;/!,'- Soldiers. — During the summer British troops 
were off the island on active service, or if a few remained 
here they abode under tents; but in winter they were 
hutted on the sunny side of a hill, or else distributed in 
farmers' houses. A British officer, accompanied by a jus- 
tice of the peace or some prominent loyalist as a guide, 
rode around the country, and from actual inspection de- 
cided how many soldiers each house could receive, and 
this number was chalked on the door. The only notifi- 
cation was: 'Madam, we have come to take a billet on 
your house.' If a house had but one fireplace it was 
passed by, as the soldiers were not intended to form part 
of the family. A double house for the officers or single 
house with a kitchen for privates was just the thing. The 
soldiers were quartered in the kitchen, and the inner 
door nailed up so that the soldiers could not intrude on 
the household. They, however, often became intimate 
with the family and sometimes intermarried. The Hes- 

sians were more sociable than the English soldiers, and 
often made little baskets and other toys for the children, 
taught them German and amused them in various ways, 
sometimes corrupting them by their vile language and 
manners. Any misconduct of the soldiers might be re- 
ported to their commanding officers, who usually did 
justice; but some offenses could not be proven, such as 
night stealing or damage done the house or to other prop- 
erty. As the soldiers received their pay in coin they were 
flush and paid liberally for what they bought, such as 
vegetables, milk, or what they could not draw with their 
rations. These soldiers were a safeguard against robbers 
and whaleboat men. Some had their wives with them, 
who acted as washerwomen, and sometimes in meaner 

" From a perusal of the orderly book of General De- 
lancey, it appears that he used every means to protect 
the persons and property of the inhabitants of Long 
Island from the outrages of British soldiers. They were 
not allowed to go more than half a mile from camp at 
daytime (and for this purpose the roll was called several 
times during the day), nor leave it under any pretext 
after sundown without a pass; but now and then they 
would slip out and rob. On the nth of June 1778 Mr. 
John Willett, of Flushing, was assaulted at his own house, 
at II o'clock at night by persons unknown but supposed 
to be soldiers from having bayonets and red clothes, who 
threatened his life and to burn his house. The general 
offered a reward of $10 to the person who should first 
make the discovery to Major Waller, and a like reward 
for the discovery of the person who robbed Mr. Willett 
on the 9th of June of two sheep, a calf and some poultry, 
as he was determined to inflict exemplary punishment 
and put a stop to practices so dishonorable to the King's 
service. Again, March 9th 1778, Mrs. Hazard, of New- 
town, having complained that the soldiers of the guard 
pulled down and burnt up her fence, that was near the 
guardhouse, the general at once issued an order to the 
officer that he should hold him answerable thereafter 
for any damage done the fences. So too if a soldier 
milked the farmers' cows, he should be punished without 
mercy; nor should he go in the hayfield and gather up 
new mown grass to make his bed of. Generally the 
farmers were honestly paid for whatever they sold. For 
instance, April 23d 1778, they were notified to call on 
Mr. Ochiltree, deputy commissary of forage at Flushing, 
with proper certificates and get payment for their hay." 

In January 1777 the American prisoners in New York 
were paroled and billeted on the people in Kings county. 
Of their situation there Colonel Graydon wrote: 

" The indulgence of arranging ourselves according to 
our respective circles of acquaintances was granted us, 
and Lieutenant Forrest and myself were billeted on Mr. 
Jacob Suydam, whose house was pretty large, consisting 
of buildings which appeared to have been erected at dif- 
ferent times. The front and better part was occupied by 
Mr. Theophilus Bache and family from New York. 
Though we were generally civilly enough received, it 
cannot be supposed we were very welcome to our Low 
Dutch host, whose habits were very parsimonious, and 
whose winter provision was barely sufficient for them- 
selves. They were, however, a people who seemed 
thoroughly disposed to submit to any power that might 
be imposed on them; and whatever might have been their 
propensities at an earlier stage of the contest, they were 
now the dutiful and loyal subjects of King George the 
III. Their houses and beds we found clean, but their 
living extremely poor. A sorry wash made up of a 
sprinkling of bohea and the darkest sugar, on the verge 
of fluidity, with half baked bread (fuel being very scarce) 



and a little stale butter, constituted our breakfast. At 
our first coming a small piece of pickled beef was occa- 
sionally boiled for dinner, but to the beef, which was soon 
consumed, there succeeded cleppers or clams; and our 
unvaried supper was suppaan or mush, sometimes with 
skimmed milk, but more generally with buttermilk blended 
with molasses, which was kept for weeks in a churn, as 
swill is saved for hogs. I found it, however, after a little 
use, very eatable, and supper soon became my best meal. 
The religion of the Dutch, like their other habits, was 
unostentatious and plain; and a simple, silent grace be- 
fore meat prevailed at the table of Jacob Suydam. 
When we were all seated he suddenly clapped his hands 
together, threw his head on one side, closed his eyes, and 
remained mute and motionless for about a minute. His 
niece and nephew followed his e.xample, but with such an 
eager solicitude that the copied attitude should be prompt 
and simultaneous as to give an air of absurdity to what 
might otherwise have been very decent." 

During the British occupation of Long Island illicit 
trade was carried on between the people here and in 
Connecticut by means of many ingeniously devised plans- 
Previous to the separation of the colonies non-impor- 
tation associations had existed, and the patriotic colonists 
had accustomed themselves to drinking sage and sassafras 
tea and wearing homespun. After the separation no 
motive of patriotism stood in the way of indulgence in 
the use of British goods, and with the facilities which the 
long strelch of the north coast, with its numerous estuarie?) 
inlets and harbors, and the narrow sound beyond, af- 
forded for smuggling, it is not surprising that Yankee 
shrewdness should elude the sleepy vigilance of govern- 
ernment officials, and the people of Connecticut come to 
be well supplied with goods that had been brought from 
New York ostensibly to supply the wants of loyal Long 
Islanders. All the ordinary devices of smuggling were 
resorted to, and even collusions were entered into with 
the so-called piratical whaleboat men, and stores were 
robbed and the goods taken across the sound, the owners, 
of course, sharing the profits of the adventure. In many 
cases government officials winked at this trade, because 
it supplied necessaries that were difficult to procure 
otherwise. In some instances it was believed they were 
secretly interested in the transactions. By reason of the 
long sound coast of Suffolk county and the secret rebel 
sympathies of many of its inhabitants a large share of 
this trade was done throught it. 

No chapter in the history of the American Revolution 
is more appalling or revolting to every human feeling 
than that which records the sufferings of the prisoners 
who fell into the hands of the British. In all cases of 
this kind the account which prisoners themselves give 
of their treatment should be taken with many grains of 
allowance, for they were very prone to exaggerate; but 
if the half of that which was related by American prisoners 
is true the inhumanity of their keepers was truly shock- 
ing. The capture of New York in September 1776 and 
of Fort Washington in November of the same year threw 
into the hands of the British a large number of prisoners, 
which, added to those already in their hands, swelled the 
aggregate to about 5,000 in the city of New York. To 
the confusion and embarrassment which this sudden 

accumulation of jjrisoners necessitated were added 
the negligence of the British commander and the brutal- 
ity of Provost Marshal Cunningham and his subordi- 

But if the condition ot the prisoners in New York was 
pitiable that of the seamen confined in the prison ships at 
the Wallabout was horrible. The crowding together of 
many human beings in the hold of a ship, even with the 
best means of ventilation and the utmost care for their 
cleanliness and comfort, is disastrous to the health of 
those so situated. If then, as was the case with these 
prisoners, they are compelled to breath over and over 
again the pestilential emanations from their own bodies 
and from the filth by which they are surrounded, and to 
subsist on food insufficient in (piantity and almost poison- 
ous in quality, it is not a matter of wonder that, as was 
the case with those confined in these ships, few survive 
their imprisonment. From the autumn of 1776, when 
the British came in possession of New York, during six 
years one or more condemned hulks were stationed at the 
Wallabout, in which were confined such American seamen 
as were taken prisoners by the British. The first of these 
was the "Whitby," which was moored in the Wallabout 
in October 1776. In May 1777 two other large ships 
were also anchored there, one of which was burned in 
October of the same year, and the other in February 
1778. In April 1778 the old "Jersey " was moored there, 
and the " Hope " and the " Falmouth "—two so-called 
hospital ships — ^were stationed near. Up to the time 
when these hospital ships were stationed there no phy- 
sicians had been in attendance on the sick in the prison 
ships. Rev. Thomas Andros, of Berkley, Mass., was a 
prisoner on the old "Jersey," and relates his experience 
and observation as follows: 

"This was an old sixty-four gun ship, which through 
age had become unfit for further actual service. She was 
stripped of every spar and all her rigging. After a battle 
with a French fleet her lion figurehead was taken away 
to repair another ship; no appearance of ornament was 
left, and nothing remained but an old, unsightly, rotten 
hulk. Her dark and filthy external appearance perfectly 
corresponded with the death and despair that reigned 
within, and nothing could be more foreign from truth 
than to paint her with colors flying, or any circumstance 
or appendage to please the eye. She was moored at the 
Wallabout Bay, about three-quarters of a mile to the east- 
ward of Brooklyn ferry, near a tide mill on the Long Isl- 
and shore. The nearest place to land was about twenty 
rods; and doubtless no other ship in the British navy 
ever proved the means of the destruction of so many 
human beings. It is computed that not less than eleven 
thousand American seamen perished in her. After it was 
next to certain death to confine a prisoner here the inhu- 
manity and wickedness of doing it was about the same as 
if he had been taken into the city and deliberately shot 
in some public square; but, as if mercy had fled from the 
earth, here we were doomed to dwell. And never while 
I was on board did any Howard or angel of pity appear, 
to inquire into or alleviate our woes. Once or twice, by 
the order of a stranger on the quarter deck, a^bag of 
apples was hurled proniiscuously into the midst of hun- 
dreds of prisoners, crowded together as thick as they 
could stand, and life and limbs were endangered by the 
scramble. This, instead of compassion, was a cruel sport. 



When I saw it about to commence I fled to the most dis- 
tant part of the ship. 

" On the commencement of the first evening we were 
driven down to darkness, between decks secured by iron 
gratings and an armed soldiery, and a scene of horror 
which baffles all description presented itself. On every 
side wretched desponding shapes of men could be seen. 
Around the well room an armed guard were forcing up 
the prisoners to the winches to clear the ship of water and 
prevent her sinking, and little else could be heard but a 
roar of mutual execrations, reproaches, and insults. 
During this operation there was a small, dim light ad- 
mitted below, but it served to make darkness more vis- 
ible, and horror more terrific. In my reflections I said 
this must be a complete image and anticipation of hell. 
Milton's description of the dark world rushed upon my 
mind: — 

" SIght<i of woe, regions of horror doleful. 

Shades where pe.'^ce and rest can never dwell." 

" If there was any principle among the prisoners that 
could not he shaken it was their love of country. I 
knew no one to be seduced into the British service. They 
attempted to force one of our prize brig's crew into the 
navy, but he chose rather to die than to perform any 
duty, and was again restored to the prison ship. 

"When I first became an inmate of this abode of 
suffering, despair and death there were about four hun- 
dred prisoners on board; but in a short time they 
amounted to twelve hundred, and in proportion to our 
numbers the mortality increased. All the most deadly 
diseases were pressed into the service of the king of ter- 
rors, but his prime ministers were dysentery, small-pox, 
and yellow fever. There were two hospital ships near to 
the old ' Jersey,' but these were soon so crowded with 
the sick that they could receive no more. The conse- 
quence was that the diseased and the healthy were 
mingled together in the main ship. In a short time we 
had two hundred or more sick and dying lodged in the 
fore part of the lower gun deck, where all the prisoners 
were confined at night. Utter derangement was a com- 
mon symptom of yellow fever, and, to increase the hor- 
ror of the darkness that shrouded us (for we were allowed 
no light between decks), the voice of warning would be 
heard, ' Take heed to yourselves! There is a madman 
stalking through the ship with a knife in his hand!' I 
sometimes found the man a corpse in the morning by 
whose side I laid myself down at night. At another 
time he would become deranged and attempt in the 
darkness to rise, and stumble over the bodies that else- 
where covered the deck. In this case I had to hold him 
to his place by main strength. In spite of my efforts he 
would sometimes rise, and then 1 had to close in with 
him, trip up his heels, and lay him again upon the deck. 
While so many were sick with raging fever there was a 
loud cry for water, but none could be had except on the 
upper deck, and but one allowed to ascend at a time. 
The suffering then from the rage of thirst during the 
night was very great. Nor was it at all times safe to at- 
tempt to go up. Provoked by the continual cry for leave 
to ascend, when there was one already on deck, the sen- 
try would push them back with his bayonet. By one of 
these thrusts, which was more spiteful and violent than 
common, I had a narrow escape of my life. In the 
morning the hatchways were thrown open and we were 
allowed to ascend, all at once, and remain on the upper 
deck during the day. But the first object that met our 
view was an appalling spectacle — a boat loaded with dead 
bodies, conveying them to the Long Island shore, where 
they were slightly covered with sand. I sometimes used 
to stand and count the number of times the shovel was 
filled with sand to cover a dead body; and certain I am 

that a few high tides or torrents of rain must have disin- 
terred them, and had they not been removed I should 
suppose the shore even now would be covered with huge 
piles of the bones of American seamen. There were 
probably four hundred on board who had never had the 
small-pox. Some perhaps might have been saved by in- 
oculation, but humanity was wanting to try even this ex- 
periment. Let our disease be what it would, we were 
abandoned to our fate. Now and then an American 
physician was brought in as a captive, but if he could ob- 
tain his parole he left the ship; nor could we blame him 
for this, for his own death was next to certain and his 
success in saving others by medicine in our situation was 
small. I remember only two American physicians who 
tarried on board a few days. No English physician or 
any one from the city ever, to my knowledge, came near 
us. There were thirteen of the crew ,to which I be- 
longed, but in a short time all died but three or four. 
The most healthy and vigorous were first seized with the 
fever and died in a few hours. For them there seemed 
to be no mercy. My constitution was less muscular and 
plethoric, and I escaped the fever longer than any of the 
thirteen except one, and the first onset was less violent." 

Alexander Coffin Jr., who was twice a prisoner on the 
old "Jersey," has related some of his experiences there. 
Of the firmness and patriotism of the American prisoners, 
even under these circumstances, he said: 

" Although there were seldom less than i,ooo prisoners 
constantly on board the 'Jersey' — new ones coming 
about as fast as others died, or were exchanged (which, 
by the bye, was seldom) — I never, in the two different 
times that I was on board, knew of but one prisoner 
entering on board a British ship of war, though the boats 
from the fleet were frequently there and the English offi- 
cers were endeavoring to persuade them to enter; but 
their persuasions and offers were invariably treated with 
contempt, and even by men who pretty well knew they 
should die where they were. These were the men whose 
bones have been so long bleaching on the shores of the 
Wallabout; these were the patriots who preferred death 
in its most horrible shape to the disgrace and infamy of 
fighting the battles of abase and barbarous enemy against 
the liberties of their country; these were the patriots 
whose names suffer no diminution by a comparison with 
the heroes and patriots of antiquity." 

The bodies of those who died on these ships were 
buried in the sand along the shore, on the slope of a hill, 
in a ravine, and in several other localities. The bones of 
many were washed out of the sand and were seen lying 
along the shore. In 1803 some societies began to agitate 
the subject of awarding funeral honors to the remains of 
these martyrs, but nothing was accomplished till 1808. 
The Tammany Society, which then embraced many Rev- 
olutionary patriots, took the lead in the work, and the 
corner stone of a monument to these heroes was laid 
April 13th of that year, on land donated by John Jack- 
son, Esq., near the Brooklyn navy yard. Their bones, to 
the amount of about twenty hogsheads, were collected, 
placed in thirteen capacious coffins, and on the 26th of 
May 1808 each coffin, in charge of one of the Tammanial 
tribes and escorted by eight Revolutionary soldiers as 
pall bearers, was borne to the place of sepulture, and all 
were, with solemn and imposing ceremonies, deposited in 
a common tomb. 

After the interment of these remains steps were taken 
toward providing funds to erect a suitable monument to 



tht memory of these martyrs, but the interest which was 
at first felt in the matter subsided, and at length the lot 
on which the vault was constructed was sold for taxes. 
It was purchased by Benjamin Romaine, who, to prevent 
its further desecration, fitted it up as a burial place for 
himself and family, and there, at his death, in 1844, he 
was entombed. After his death another movement was 
made looking toward the erection of a monument, and an 
association for that purpose was formed; but "yet there 
is no monument — no stone bearing the record of their 
patriotic devotion to principle, and their more than he- 
roic death." 

The self-sacrificing patriotism, the meritorious services, 
the pure, unselfish life, and the tragic death of General 
Nathaniel Woodhull render a brief sketch of him appro- 
priate here. He was born in 1722 at Mastic, in Brook- 
haven, received a sound education, and early displayed 
those mental traits that (jualified him for public useful- 
ness. In 1758 he entered the army in the French and 
Indian war of 1754-60, and held the position of major. 
He was at Ticonderoga under General Abercrombie, and 
was with General Bradstreet in the expedition against 
Fort Frontenac and the reduction of that fortress. He 
did important service in the expedition from Schenectady 
to the Oneida carrying place in the same summer, and in 
1760, having been promoted to the rank of colonel, he 
went in command of the 3d regiment of New York troops 
in the expedition against Canada. On the termination of 
hostilities he was discharged with the troops of the prov- 
ince and returned to private life. In 1769 he was made 
a member of the colonial Assembly from Suffolk county, 
and he continued a member of that body till the dissolu- 
tion of the colonial government in 1775. He was chosen 
a delegate to the Provincial Congress in May 1775, and in 
August of the same year was made president of that 
Congress, and acted in that capacity till August loth 1776. 
He was also, in August 1775, appointed brigadier-general 
of the militia of Suffolk and Queens counties. On the 
loth of August 1776 he obtained leave of absence from 
the Provincial Congress. On the 24th, two days previous 
to the battle of Long Island, he was ordered by the con- 
vention to take command of a force of militia and " use 
all possible diligence to prevent the stock and other pro- 
visions from falling into the hands of the enemy." He 
discharged this duty to the best of his ability with his 
meager force, driving beyond the reach of the enemy all 
the cattle that could be collected, at the same time making 
known to the convention his inability to maintain himself 
with the force at his command. The unfortunate issue 
of the battle of Long Island and the impracticability of 
sending the desired reinforcements will be remembered. 
In the hope of receiving these, however, and in accord- 
ance with his sense of honor and duty, he did not make a 
final retreat, but on the 28th ordered his troops to a point 
four miles east of Jamaica, where, in the afternoon, he 
attempted to join them. A thunder storm arrested him 
some two miles from this town, at the tavern of Increase 
Carpenter, and he was overtaken by a party of dragoons 
and infantry, guided by some tories. Wood says: " The 

general immediately gave up his sword, in token of sur- 
render. The ruffian who first approached him [said to be 
a Lieutenant Huzzy], as is reported, ordered him to say 
'God save the King.' The general replied 'God save us 
all;' on which he most cowardly and cruelly assailed the 
defenseless general with his broadsword, and would have 
killed him on the spot if he had not been prevented by 
the interference of an officer of more honor and humanity 
(said to be Major De Lancey of the dragoons), who ar- 
rested his savage violence." He was removed to Jamaica, 
his wounds were dressed, and with other prisoners he was 
confined till the next day in a stone church. He was 
then sent to Gravesend and confined with eighty others 
in a vessel that had been used for the transportation of 
live stock, with no provision for comfort or health. 
Thence he was removed to a house in New Utrecht. 
Here it was found his injuries necessitated the amputa- 
tion of his arm. Previous to the operation he sent for 
his wife, and made arrangements for the alleviation of 
the suffering of the xVmerican prisoners at his own ex- 
pense. Mortification soon succeeded the operation, and 
on the 20th of September he died. Wood says of him: 
" With personal courage he possessed judgment, decision 
and firmness of character, tempered with conciliating 
manners, which commanded the respect and obedience 
of his troops and at the same time secured their confi- 
dence and esteem." 




N the i8th of June 1812 a formal declaration 
of war against Great Britain was made by 
the United States. Allusion has elsewhere 
been made to the causes which led to this 
war, in which, as in the case of the French 
wars, Long Island was not the theater of active 

In the latter part of 1812 and early in 1813 British 
cruisers wer& stationed on the American coast. From 
the files of a paper called IVar, which was published in 
New York at the time, it appears that on the 19th of 
January 1813 a British 74, two frigates and a gun brig 
were stationed off the entrance to New York harbor, and 
on the 26th it was stated that this fleet had been aug- 
mented, and several prizes taken. Commodore Lewis, 
in command of the flotilla in New York harbor, attempted 
to go down, but was prevented by the ice. It was not 
till the 20th of March 1813 that the entire coast of the 
United States, with the exception of Rhode Island, 
Massachusetts, and New Hampshire, was declared in a 
state of blockade. 

In April of that year, it was stated that a British 74 
and several privateers were cruising in Long Island 



Sound, that they had captured a number of coasting ves- 
sels, and that " the naval force now in this harbor is 
sufficient either to capture or drive them off, but for 
some unaccountable reason the ' United States ' and 
'Macedonian' have been suffered to lie upward of 
three months at the navy yard entirely dismantled; our 
enemy when occasion requires can fit out a ship of war 
in three weeks, or even less time." 

In June 1813 the daring privateer "Governor Tomp- 
kins," of New York, came through the sound. Off 
Fisher's Island she was chased by the enemy's ;-quadion 
cruising there, but escaped. 

Prime relates that "in June 1813, while a British 
squadron under Commodore Hardy lay in Gardiner's 
Bay, a launch and two barges with 100 men attempted 
to surprise Sag Harbor in the night. They landed on 
the wharf, but, an alarm being quickly given, the guns of 
a small fort were opened upon them with such effect 
that they had only time to set fire to a single sloop, and 
retreated with so much precipitation as to leave a large 
quantity of guns, swords, and other arms behind them. 
The flames were speedily extinguished, and no other in- 
jury sustained." 

In September of the same year a flotilla of thirty gun- 
boats, under Commodore Lewis, passed through Hell 
Gate to Sands Point in quest of some armed vessels of 
the enemy that were cruising in the sound. The weather 
was not favorable for close action, and after a iew shots 
at long range the flotilla anchored; a frigate which had 
drawn away from its consorts returned, and the enemy's 
ships retired eastward. 

November i6th 1813 Admiral Warren, commanding 
the blockading squadron, issued a proclamation in which 
he declared a blockade of " all that part of Long Island 
Sound being the sea coast lying within Montaug Point, 
or the eastern point of Long Island, and the point of 
land opposite thereto, commonly called Plack Point, sit- 
uate on the sea coast of the main land; together with all 
the ports, harbors, creeks, and entrances of the East and 
North rivers of New York, as well as all the other ports, 
creeks, and bays along the coast of Long Island and the 
State of New York," etc. 

In 1813 the "Amazon," Captain Conklin, of Hunting- 
ton, the " Sally," Captain Akerly, of Cow Harbor, and 
the " Arago " and " Juno," Captain Jones, of Brookhaven, 
were captured in the sound by the British vessels "Acas- 
ta" and "Atalanta." During the same year a British fleet 
entered and remained some time in Gardiner's Bay. 

In May 1814 the sloop " Amelia," bound for Rhode 
Island, laden with rye, pork, and flour, was made a prize 
by a barge from the British ship of war " Bulwark." One 
of the owners of this sloop was, with two or three other 
men, suspected of treason. They were tried and acquit- 

In August of the same year a small schooner was chased 
on shore at Rockaway by the boats of the blockading 
squadron, and set on fire. The fire was extinguished, 
though those engaged in extinguishing it were several 
times fired upon. 

In 1814 the British vessels "Pomona" and "Dispatch," 
arriving off Setauket harbor, sent seven barges into 
Drown Meadow Bay, where they captured the vessels 
" Two Friends," " Hope," Herald," and " Mercantile," 
and burned the "Oneida," which were all anchored in 
the bay. 

It was believed that New York, which was then as now 
the commercial metropolis of the nation, would become 
a point of attack, and that the western end of Long Isl- 
and might become, as it had been in the Revolution, the 
theater of active hostilities. In view of this danger the 
citizen soldiery organized and prepared for possible emer- 
gencies; but beyond this the island did not become the 
scene of active warlike preparations till the summer of 
1 8 14. A large British fl"ct was tlicn concentrating near 
the Bermuda Islands, and in view of the possibility that 
this might be the objective point it was deemed exped- 
ient to take such measures as would prevent a repetition 
of the disaster of Augiibt 1776. By a letter received 
from John Lyon Gardiner, of Gardiner's Island, by 
Jonathan Thompson, collector of internal revenue of 
New York, the fact became known and was communi- 
cated to Governor Tompkins that such an attack was in- 
tended. The people aroused from the lethargy into 
which they liad been lulled by their hope of a favorable 
termination of the pending negotiations for peace. A 
committee of defense which had been constituted recom- 
mended measures for the protection of Brooklyn against 
attack by land, and issued an address calling on the citi- 
zens to organize and enroll for resistance to hostile 
attacks, and to aid, by voluntary contributions of labor 
and material, in the construction of defensive works at 
Brooklyn and elsewhere. The response to this appeal 
was made with alacrity. Citizens and associations, with- 
out distinction of party and social condition, at once 
offered their services. Stiles says: " The rich and the 
poor proffered their services, and mingled their labors on 
the same works in the purest spirit of patriotic emulation. 
Those who from any cause were unable to give their 
personal labor to the common cause voluntarily and 
liberally contributed of their means for the employment 
of substitutes, while many both gave and worked. Even 
the women and schoolboys caught the inspiration of the 
hour and contributed their quota of labor upon the 
works, and the people of the interior towns in the neigh- 
boring stales of Connecticut and New Jersey hastened 
to proffer their assistance in averting what was felt to be 
a common national danger." 

In addition to the labor of the different military or- 
ganizations the members of different societies and trades 
in various localities came in bodies and labored on these 
works. The tanners and curriers, the plumbers, the 
students of medicine, wire factory operators, founders, 
journeymen cabinet makers, fire companies, exempts 
members of churches, under the lead of their pastors, 
carpenters, parties of citizens in bodies from various lo- 
calities, large parties of Irishmen, colored people both 
from New York and Long Island, freemasons in a body, 
and even at one time a party of some two hundred ladies 



came in a procession and performed a few hours' 

At one time the committee of defense announced their 
want of several thousand fascines, and stated that patterns 
were left at Creed's tavern in Jamaica, and at Bloom's in 
Newtown. The answer to this appeal was the bringing 
to Fort Greene of a hundred and twenty loads of fascines, 
averaging twenty-five bundles to a load, by the citizens 
of Jamaica, headed by the Rev. Mr. Schoonmaker. 
" Mr. Eigenbrodt, the principal of the academy at Ja- 
maica, with his pupils, aided in cutting these fascines." 
The works were commenced on the 9th of August 1814 
and completed early in September. They were at once 
occupied by a large force from different localities, in- 
cluding a brigade of Long Island militia, 1,750 strong, 
under command of General Jeremiah Johnson, of Brook- 
lyn, subsequently well known as an antiquarian and his- 

In addition to these, fortifications were erected along 
the coast below Brooklyn. A block-house was located 
one-half or three-fourths of a mile north from Fort Ham- 
ilton, near the shore of the bay, on land then owned by 
Mr. Barkuloo. On the site of Fort Hamilton was an 
earthwork, and on that of Fort Lafayette was a log fort. 
A block-house was located on the shore of New Utrecht 
Bay, about midway between Fort Hamilton and Bath, 
near the residence of the late Barney Williams. From 
the fact of this block-house having been located there 
the place was long known as the "gun field." This 
block-house stood several years after the termination of 
the war. About one-fourth of a mile southeast from Bath, 
also on the shore of New Utrecht Bay, stood another 
block-house, on land owned by the late Egbert Benson 
and now the property of his heirs. In August 1776 the 
forces of General Howe were landed in the vicinity of 
where these last two block-houses stood, and they were 
probably erected in view of a possible attempt to land 
troops here during this war. Each was armed with a 
large barbette gun. They were built in the fashion of 
block-houses of those times, with a projection of some 
feet, twelve or fifteen feet above the ground, from which 
assailants could be fired on through loopholes from 
directly overhead. At Rockaway inlet another block- 
house was erected during the war. Boat's crews 
from the blockading squadron had entered through 
this inlet and committed depredations on the inhab- 
itants near the shore of Jamaica Bay, and to 
prevent a repetition of such attacks this block-house 
was built. Several regiments of militia were encamped 
in and about the works in the vicinity of Bath 
and Fort Hamilton during the continuance of hostil- 

It is not known that any hostile vessels came within 
Sandy Hook. The storm of war was averted, and Long 
Island was not made the scene of such strife as desolated 
it in 1776. Peace was concluded early in 1815, and the 
joy of the people here was testified by illluminations, 
bonfires, etc. 



. \_ .V/ Q.lO' I'M 

T first highways were established in the differ- 
ent towns according to the aj)parent necessi- 
ties of the people in those towns, without 
'.^^^1'^^ reference to the convenience of the people 
elsewhere. No thoroughfares were projected 
till a long time afterward, and the irregularity 
"Jto» of the roads was such that guides were necessary 
in some cases to conduct strangers from place to place. 
These roads were often facetiously termed cow paths 
because of their irregularity, which is still a notable fea- 
ture of the ordinary highways. 

In view of the urgent necessity which had come to be 
felt for better facilities for travel the Legislature in 1704 
enacted a law by which three commissioners in each of 
the counties on the island were appointed to lay out a 
road four rods in width from Brooklyn ferry to East- 
hampton. Twenty years later by another act of the 
Legislature commissioners were appointed "for better 
clearing and further laying out the roads on the island." 
By the action of these commissioners the direct road 
from Brooklyn to Easthampton was established. This 
road ran through the center portion of the island, and 
during many years it was the main thoroughfare between 
New York and the " east end." As time went on parallel 
roads were opened both north and south from this, and 
turnpikes were established between different localities. 
As late as 1764 the first post route was established 
through the island, and it was called the circuit. The 
mail was carried (on horseback) once in two weeks east- 
ward through the north part of the island, returning 
along the south shore. 

About the year 1847 what has been termed the Plank 
Roadia began to prevail through the country and it 
reached its height about 1850 or 1851. The level sur- 
face of Long Island afforded better facilities for the con- 
struction of these roads than existed in many regions, 
and within three or four years after the first was built 
they had greatly multiplied in all parts of the island and 
a new era of travel was tliought by some to have dawned. 
The impracticability of these roads, however, soon be- 
came apparent, and here as elsewhere the mania sub- 
sided almost as rapidly as it had arisen. The projection 
of new roads ceased and those which had been con- 
structed were abandoned or converted into turnpikes 
and then into common highways. Of the many that 
came into existence none remain as plank roads. 

Long Island has a railroad system which fully meets 
the wants of its inhabitants and affords ample facilities 
for pleasure seekers from abroad to visit the seaside 
resorts along its southern shore. The sole reliance of 
the roads on the island for support is on local patron- 



. age; none of them are parts of thoroughfares that open 
into regions beyond. 

The first railroad constructed on Long Island was that 
from South ferry in Brooklyn to Jamaica. This was 
opened for travel April i8th 1836. In the same year the 
Long Island company commenced the extension east- 
ward of this road, and in August 1837 it was in opera- 
tion to Hicksville. In 1841 it reached Suffolk Station, 
and on the 25th of July 1844 the first train of cars passed 
over it to Greenport, a total length of ninety-five miles. 

From Hicksville a branch was opened to Syosset in 
1854, and an extension comijleled to Northport in 1868, 
and thence a road was completed to Port Jefferson in 
1872. Branches were also constructed from jMineola to 
Hempstead and to Locust Point and from Jamaica to 
Far Rockaway. 

In 1869 the Sag Harbor branch was built, diverging 
from the main line at Manor Station, passing through 
the Hamptons and terminating at Sag Harbor. The 
road from Hunter's Point to Flushing was opened in 1854 
and it was subsequently extended to Manhasset. A road 
was also constructed from Hunter's Point to Whitestone. 
On the south side a road was opened from Jamaica to 
Babylon in the autumn of 1867 and extended to Patchogue 
in 1868. Branches of this road were aUo built. A. T. 
Stewart constructed a road to Garden City and this was 
extended to Babylon. Other roads and branches sprang 
into existence and a competition arose that was not con- 
ducive to the prosperity of the roads. 

A consolidation of these roads under the control of 
the Messrs. Poppenhusen by leases and otherwise was 
effected. , Lavish expenditures were made and much 
business was done, but the management was not success- 
ful, and in 1877 Thomas R. Sharp was appointed receiver 
of the consolidated corporation. 

In the latter part of 1880 a controlling interest in the 
Long Island Railroad passed into the hands of a syndi- 
cate of Boston capitalists, at the head of which is Austin 
Corbin, under whose management the road has come. 

Within a comparatively recent time several roads for 
the conveyance of passengers to and from the summer 
resorts on the south coast of Long Island have come into 



^rW^HATEVER may be the general impression 
'j'Kl of the value and fertility of the lands of 
w;\i"(j>w''^ Long Island, they do and will command a 
y^^'&i^ price far in excess of soils equally fertile 
1^^ '"""^^^ but which are not situated near a great 
f^^ market. Easy, cheap and uninterrupted water 
fei^ communication with a center of trade aggregating 
a population of nearly two millions will always make 

Long Island a place of peculiar interest to tillers of the 
soil. The vast and increasing demand of the city of 
New York for vegetables and fruits of a perishable na- 
ture, as well as the peculiar adaptation of the soil for 
their culture, has already made Kings and a large portion 
of Queens county one immense garden. Previous his- 
tories of the island are nearly silent upon this the chief 
business of its inhabitants. 

The early settlers of Long Island, coming as they did 
chiefly from the New England colonies, naturally followed 
•he same system of tillage and rotation of crops to which 
they had been accustomed. Probably the first settlers 
found sufficient cleared land for their purpose; as, ac- 
cording to early traditions, there was much cleared land, 
or land not covered with timber, besides the great plains. 
They very soon discovered that success depended upon 
the application of manures. As early as 1653 the first 
settlers, by the terms of the patent from the Dutch 
governor for the lands they occupied, were required to 
pay to the government one-tenth of the revenue arising 
from the ground manured. This tax for the town of 
Hempstead amounted in 1657 to one hundred schepels 
of wheat (the Dutch bushel of three pecks). In 1651 
Hempstead produced from the proceeds of the servants 
labor corn, beef, pork, butter, tobacco and staves, which 
were exchanged for liquor and merchandise. 

Cattle were imported for breeding as early as 1625, 
and a cow in New York was worth ;,^3o. The abundant 
grass on the plains, doubtless, turned the attention of the 
early settlers to the raising of stock. But as yet there 
were few or no fences; so herdsmen were hired by the 
town to take care of the cattle from the nth of May till 
the 23d of October, when the Indian harvest would be 
wholly taken in and housed. In 1667 the town of Hemp- 
stead hired Abraham Smith to keep the cattle from 
destroying the corn planted in the plain called "the 
field," and he was to have one and a half bushels per 
acre paid him for this service. So important was this 
office deemed that the conditions of agreement were 
entered at large on the town book. A half hour after 
sunrise, at the blowing of a horn, the owners of cattle 
drove them from their several pens into one common 
herd, when they were taken under the care of the cow- 
keeper and his dog, and driven on the plains. He was 
to keep them from going astray, or wandering in the 
woods, or getting on tilled land; to water them at some 
pond at reasonable hours; to drive them weekly to the 
south meadows, and then bring them home half an hour 
before sunset that they might be milked. For this ser- 
vice (in 1658) the hire was twelve shillings sterling per 
week in butter, corn and oats. The calves were cared 
for by another keeper, who was required to water them 
twice a day, drive them to the salt meadows once in two 
weeks, and put them in an inclosure at night to protect 
them from the wolves. After a while cowherds were 
dispensed with, and it was found necessary to fence the 
pasture lands. Thus Cow Neck in 1669 was fenced 
from Hempstead Harbor to Great Neck, as the turnpike 
now runs. Rockaway had in 1690 a fence running from 



the landing across to Jamaica Bay. Each proprietor'had 
the right to put cattle in the pasture ground in propor- 
tion to the length of fence he had made. At that time 
cattle were sold to butchers in New York, and exported 
alive to the West Indies. In 1658 cattle were bought on 
the great plains to be shipped to the colony of Delaware. 
In 1678 the city of New York consumed only four hun- 
dred beeves. 

Sheep were not introduced until a later date; in 1643 
there were not over sixteen in the whole colony of New 
York. In 1670 sheep were pastured on the plains, under 
the care of a shepherd, who had directions not to let 
them go over half a mile in the woods, for fear of their 
being lost or destroyed by wolves. Each proprietor had 
an ear mark for his own sheep, which was recorded in 
the town book. In 1737 the Neiv York Gazette says: 
" Vast losses have been sustained in this colony and 
those adjacent by the death of cattle for the want of 
fodder, and many persons have been almost ruined 
thereby. We hear from Long Island that five thousand 
head of cattle have been lost this winter, besides sheep 
and lambs innumerable." 

Corn, wheat, rye, oats, flax, wood for fuel, fat cattle 
and sheep were for nearly two hundred years, or until 
the beginning of the nineteenth century, the staple 
products of the island, and the chief source of income. 
During the Revolutionary war a tory advised a British 
minister to land the forces destined for the subjugation 
of the colonies on Long Island; "for," said he, "it is 
one hundred and thirty miles long, and is very fertile, 
abounding in wheat and every other kind of grain, and 
has innumerable black cattle, sheep, hogs etc.; so that 
in this fertile island the army can subsist without any 
succor from England. It has a fertile plain twenty-four 
miles long, with a fertile country about it, and is twenty 
miles from New York; and from an encampment on this 
plain the British army can in five or six days invade any 
of the colonies at pleasure. The spot I advise you to 
land is at Cow Bay." The suggestion was acted upon. 
The English army occupied Long Island, with New York 
city as its headquarters, for nearly seven years; and 
drew its supplies of fresh and salt hay, oats, straw, 
wheat, rye, corn, buckwheat and firewood from our 
island. For an encouragement to farmers to raise plenti- 
ful supplies of fresh provisions, vegetables and forage 
for the army, the British commandant forbade all per- 
sons from tresspassing, or breaking down or destroying 
fences, or carrying away produce from the owners. In 
1780 the requisition on Queens county was for four 
thousand five hundred cords of wood. 

Since the advent of the present century, and within 
the memory of many now living, radical changes have 
been made in the system of agriculture, in the crops 
produced, fertilizers applied, machinery employed, do- 
mestic manufactures and manner of living. There are 
many localities in Suffolk and a few in Queens county 
in which, from their peculiarity of position, primitive 
farming is still followed— that is, corn upon old sod, 
followed by oats the second year, which is succeeded in 

the' fall by 'cither wheat or rye with which clever and 
timothy seed are sown. Then good crops of hay are 
cut for from three to five years; it is then pastured one 
or two yeans, and the same routine repeated 

With the growth of New York and Brooklyn grew the 
demand for vegetables, milk, hay, straw and such articles 
of a perishable and bulky nature as cannot be profitably 
transported long distances. Hence we see that the area 
necessary for their production has extended, not only 
eastward over nearly two counties, but the country for 
miles around every harbor which indents the shores of 
Long Island, as well as near every depot of its railroads, 
has been put under contribution to supply the demand. 
Consequent upon this change the product of cereals is 
greatly reduced, and stock-raising is entirely abandoned 
as a source of profit. 

Nearly all the produce raised within twenty-five miles 
of New York is carted in with teams by the proprietors 
in the night. The largest part is sold at wholesale to 
dealers or middle-men, between midnight and daylight, 
chiefly in the vicinity of Washington market, which until 
recently was the center of the retail as well as the whole- 
sale trade. Three years ago, in consequence of the great 
throng of market wagons, which for years had greatly im- 
peded business in the lower part of the city, a market 
was established in the vicinity of West Twelfth street and 
Tenth avenue. Those who do not sell at wholesale re- 
main until daylight, when the retail trade begins. The 
grocers then come for their daily supply. Produce sent 
by water or rail is consigned to commission dealers. 

Twenty five years ago all the milk supplied by Long 
Island was produced within so small a distance from thq 
city that it was taken in in wagons. Market garden- 
ing becoming more profitable, the area of milk produc- 
tion was gradually extended eastward along the lines of 
railroad, until at the present time it has assumed im- 
mense proportions. Swill milk is still produced largely 
in the suburbs of Brooklyn; but that industry is by com- 
mon consent ruled out as an agricultural pursuit. 

The selling of hay was the first innovation upon the 
old system of stock raising as a source of income. The 
old theory that unless the hay and corn were fed upon 
the land its fertility would be reduced was soon exploded; 
and the wisdom of the new enterprise was demonstrated 
by the fact that the returns from the sale of hay were so 
much greater than from the sale of stock that the farmer 
could afford to buy stable manure, street sweepings, 
lime and ashes from the city to apply to his land. The 
benefits of liberal expenditures for these fertilizers in 
market gardening are still more apparent. Guano and 
artificial or manufactured fertilizers have been largely 
used with good results; but after being applied for a 
series of years their efficacy is so diminished that they 
are generally abandoned, and the more bulky articles 
named are resumed. 

On the margins of creeks along the south side of the 
island are immense shell banks left by the Indians; these 
clam or quahaug shells have been burnt and the lime used 
profitably. The fish called menhaden, however, has been 



most largely employed. Thompson, in his history of 
Long Island, published in 1839, estimated that a hundred 
million were annually taken for that purpose. He says: 
" The profusion of this species of fish and the consequent 
cheapness of the article will probably always insure its 
use in those parts of the island where they abound." But 
the establishment of factories for extracting oil from them 
has long since precluded their use, although the refuse is 
dried and sold under the name of fish guano. 

Whether the great plains have deteriorated in fertility, 
or whether by an improved system of husbandry it is more 
profitable to pasture cattle only on the farm, it is difficult 
to determine; but the fact is that, in place of hundreds of 
cattle and thousands of sheep which once subsisted upon 
its abundant grasses from May until October, it is now a 
rare occurrence to see even a drove of a dozen or two 
cows attended by a boy, and there are no sheep. 

Montauk Point is about forty miles long and contains 
nine thousand acres. It has been owned in common by 
about forty individuals in shares. It has never been 
tilled or used for any purpose other than pasturage, each 
owner being entitled to place upon it seven cattle or forty- 
nine sheep per share. 

There are more than one hundred square miles or 
seventy thousand acres of salt meadows bordering the 
bays and harbors of Long Island. From these marshes 
immense quantities of hay are taken, which with corn 
stalks is largely used for wintering young stock and dry 
cattle. There are three kinds of grasses growing upon 
them, distinguished by the names of sedge, salt and black 

The scarcity and advance in the price of farm labor, as 
well as the advantages attending their use, have caused 
the introduction of the best farm implements and agricul- 
tural machinery. Stones are used to some extent as fenc- 
ing material where they are available, but by far the 
largest part of the island is entirely destitute of stones 
large enough for the purpose. Chestnut timber is abund- 
ant on all the rolling woodlands, and furnishes the ma- 
terial for about all the farm fences. 

Why the attention of cranberry culturists has not been 
attracted to Long Island ere this it is hard to tell. The 
southern portion is watered for miles by numerous streams 
bordered by bogs now almost worthless, which could 
easily be converted into cranberry swamps. It is a well 
known fact that many a piece of marsh capable of being 
made to produce an annual profit of hundreds of dollars 
produces nothing now but coarse grass and bushes and a 
fine specimen of Long Island mosquito. 

The soil of the southern half of the island, beginning 
at the foot of the line of hills which divide it through its 
entire length, is alluvial, and of comparatively recent for- 
mation. Vegetable matter and loam are deficient, sand 
preponderating. The action of the water appears to have 
taken away a portion of its soluble minerals. The soil, 
being of light, friable character, is adapted to garden 
farming, whereas a clay soil by constant tillage becomes 
still more tenacious. 

The Hempstead plains, which, through a mistaken pol- 

icy, have until recently been held as public domain, are 
susceptible of remunerative cultivation. The soil, which 
is composed of black sand and vegetable mould, is a foot 
or more in depth. The hollows which cross the tract at 
regular intervals appear to have been ancient water 
courses, with but little and in some places no soil to cover 
the substratum of coarse gravel which appears to underlie 
the whole formation. There is another and still more ex- 
tensive tract extending eastward from the plains, reaching 
to tlie head of Peconic Bay, composed so nearly of pure 
sand as to be incapable of profitable cultivation by any 
process now known. Scrub oak and pines, with a little 
wiry grass, which usually dries up in the hot summer 
sun, are the only products. The northern and hilly or 
undulating half of the island has a soil rich in the mineral 
elements and phosphates essential to plant growth. Hence 
wheat, potatoes, cabbage and other strong growing crops 
are more successfully grown than on the alluvial portions 
of the island. 



HE first Steps toward the formation of the 
Long Island Historical Society were natur- 
ally taken by a native Long Islander, who 
had affinities by birth, marriage and resi- 
dence with each of the three counties. He pre- 
pared and caused to be widely distributed the 
following circular: 

Brooklyn, February r4th, 1863. 
Dear Sir: The time has arrived when the city of 
Brooklyn should found and foster institutions — religious, 
historical, literary, scientific, educational and humani- 
tarian — beyond the scope of former undertakings. As 
one of these a historical society associated with our 
peculiar geographical position naturally suggests itself. 
We propose to establish 


The threefold Indian, Dutch and English history of 
the island is full of interest, and there are doubtless con- 
cealed treasures in each department, which will be de- 
veloped by research and inquiry. By calling out the 
recollections of the living who will soon pass away, 
drawing public records and private writings from their 
concealment, having a fit place for the collection and de- 
posit of trophies, memorials and historic materials, and 
also for conventions and lectures upon historic topics, it 
cannot be doubted that much valuable knowledge will be 
saved and communicated which would otherwise be irre- 
trievably lost. 

It is proposed to establish, first, a library and repository 
of books, documents and manuscripts, memorials, trophies 
and pictures. For this purpose all persons are requested 
to favor us with any appropriate material in their posses- 
sion, either by gift or on deposit. 



Queens County. 

It is also proposed to encourage lectures upon historic 
and kindred topics. 

Without further developing our plans and objects in 
this circular, we invite your attendance at the rooms of 
the Hamilton Literary Association, Hamilton Building, 
corner of Court and Joralemon streets, Brooklyn (the door 
nearest the corner), on the evening of Tuesday March 3d 
1863, at 8 o'clock, to take measures to organize the 

Henry C. Murphy, ^ 

Alden J. Spoonek, ' I 

John GREENVvoon, [^ Kings County. 

John Winslow, | 

Joshua M. Van Cott, J 

R. C. McCormick jr., 
Henry Onderdonkjr, 

Henry P. Hedges, Suffolk County. 

At the time and place mentioned there was an unusual 
attendance of the educated and progressive citizens. 
Otlier meetings were held in the same place, which devel- 
oped a warm interest. The subject was debated in a be- 
coming spirit, the society was resolved upon, and appro 
priate committees were appointed to prepare an act of 
incorporation under the general law and a constitution 
and by-laws, and provide the requisite rooms. The or- 
ganization was ultimately effected, and rooms were se- 
cured under the Hamilton rooms, on the corner of 
Court and Joralemon streets. 

The first election of officers took place in these rooms 
in May 1863, the following full board being elected: 

President, James C. Brevoort; first vice-president, John 
Greenwood; second, Charles E. West; foreign correspond- 
ing secretary, Henry C. Murphy; home corresponding 
secretary, John Winslow; recording secretary, A. Cooke 
Hull, M. D.; treasurer, Charles Congdon; librarian, Henry 
R. Stiles. 

Directors. — Charles Congdon, Roswell Graves, Thomas 
W. Field, A. C. Hull, M. D., J. M. Van Cott, Ethelbert 
S. Mills. R. S. Storrs jr., D. D., Henry R. Stiles, M. D., 
A. N. Littlejohn, D. D., Charles E. West, LL. D., A. A. 
Low, George W. Parsons, Alden J. Spooner, John Wins 
low, S. B. Chittenden, Hon. John Greenwood, George A. 
Stephenson, Hon. Henry C. Murphy, William Poole, 
Henry Sheldon, J. Carson Brevoort, W. I. Budington, 

D. D., Elias Lewis jr., Theodore L. Mason, M. D., Henry 

E. Pierpont. 

Counsellors. — Kings County: Hon. John A. Lott, Francis 
Vinton, D. D., T. G. Bergen, F. A. Farley, D. D., Ben- 
jamin D. Silliman. Hon. James Humphrey. Queens 
County: William Cullen Bryant, Hon. John A. King, 
Richard C. McCormick, John Harold, L. B. Prince, Sol- 
omon D. Townsend. Suffolk County: Hon. Selah B. 
Strong, Hon. J. L. Smith, William S. Pelletreau, James H. 
Tuthill, Rev. E. Whitaker, Henry P. Hedges. 

Executive committee. — R. S. Storrs jr., D. D. (chair- 
man), J. M. Van Cott, Alden J. Spooner, E. S. Mills, 
George W. Parsons, Henry Sheldon, Simeon B. Chitten- 
den, Henry R. Stiles (secretary). 

The first annual meeting (second year) was held May 
5th 1864, at which all the above officers were re-elected 
and the first annual report was presented, which exhibits 

a beginning of great vigor and hopefulness. In this re- 
port Dr. Henry R. Stiles, the librarian, says: 

" The nucleus of a library, with which we commenced 
our operations on the 4th of June last, comprised about 
800 bound volumes and 1,000 unbound volumes and 
pamphlets. This collection, consisting chiefly of works 
relating to Long Island and American local history, 
family genealogies and newspapers, was contributed 
mainly by Messrs. J. C. Brevoort, A. J. Spooner, E. B. 
Spooner, Henry Onderdonk jr. and Henry R. Stiles. We 
then occupied two apartments, one used as a lecture- 
room; the other and smaller of the two was shelved as a 
library room, having, as we then modestly thought, ample 
accommodations for the next two years. We soon found, 
however, that we had quite underestimated the liberality 
of our friends; for so large was their sympathy, so active 
their co-operation, and so steady the influx of their gifts 
— never intermitting for a single day, it might almost be 
said for a single moment — that it soon became evident 
we should need tnore book room. At this point in our 
history (in September 1863) the receipt of nearly 1,100 
valuable volumes from the trustees of the former City 
library fairly overwhelmed our slender accommodations, 
and obliged us to extend our borders by securing three 
large and commodious apartments adjoining the library." 
These claims for additional space, made by the natural 
history and museum department as well as the library, 
soon compelled the occupation of the entire third stories 
of the two large buildings which front on Court and 
corner on Joralemon street, comprising eight ample and 
convenient rooms, there being one reading room espec- 
ially for ladies, with cosey alcoves for books and appro- 
priate spaces for a large collection of valuable pictures. 
In these rooms the collections remained until removed to 
the society's own building. Even to this space had to be 
added, for the annual courses of lectures, the large lec- 
ture room of the Packer Institute, near at hand on Joral- 
emon street; and at times the Athenaeum, Atlantic av- 
enue and Clinton street. For additional space for the 
lectures the society for several years latterly has occupied 
the Second Presbyterian Church, Clinton and Fulton 
streets; and for some of the lectures of 1880-81 the beau- 
tiful auditorium of the First Baptist Church, Pierrepont 
and Clinton streets. 

The society having been greatly favored in the accum- 
ulation of the materials of history, a spirit sprung up 
among the members of individual and mutual labor on 
works of local history. The principal of these were: 

A History of Brooklyn, in three volumes, by Henry R. 

The Wallabout Series of Memoirs of the Prison Ship?, 
with annotations by Henry R. Stiles. 

Journal by two Labadists, Dankers and Sluyter, of a 
voyage to New Netherland from Holland in 1679-80. 

History of the Battle of Long Island, by Thomas W. 

The Campaign of 1776 around New York and Brook- 
lyn, including particulars of the Battle of Long Island, 
by H. P. Johnson. 

Sketch of the first settlement of Long Island, by Silas 
Wood; reprinted with biography and address by A. J. 

History of Brooklyn, by Gabriel Furman; reprinted 
with biography by A. J. Spooner, and notes by H. R. Stiles. 
Revolutionary Incidents in Kings, Queens and Suffolk, 
by Henry Onderdonk jr., of Jamaica. 



. Dr. Stiles resigned his office of librarian, and was suc- 
ceeded by George Hannah, who has served since July 
ist 1865. 

The collections in books and objects of art and curios- 
ity increased so largely as to make an irresistible appeal 
for the always contemplated building; and about three 
years ago the board resolved upon a determined effort. 
An active committee was appointed, which prosecuted 
the work with zeal and success. In November 1877 it 
was reported that $100,000 had been subscribed. Plans 
were solicited, and those of George B. Post, a New York 
architect, were preferred. Under his care the building 
has proceeded, and it was formally taken possession of, 
with appropriate ceremonies and speeches, Wednesday 
January 12th 1881, in the lecture room of the new build- 
ing. Samuel McLean was chairman of the building com- 
mittee. The number of subscribers to the building fund 
was exactly 300. The amount subscribed was $137,684. 
The cost' of the building was $121,250. The three lots 
on which it stands cost in 1867 $32,500, on which $20,- 
000 was then paid by subscribers, leaving a mortgage of 
$14,500; this was paid off on the delivery of the building, 
and a balance of $2,000 paid to the society. The society, 
like the Academy of Music and the Mercantile Library, 
has demonstrated the high-toned intelligence and liberality 
of the "City of Churches" in whatever concerns its re- 
ligious, moral or social welfare. Among the benefactors 
of the society (much too numerous to mention all, or even 
the leading contributors) should be named the two sisters 
Thurston, who gave $2,000 for a department of the his- 
tory of Egypt and the Holy Land, and Miss Maria Gary, 
who subscribed $2,500 to found a department of American 
biography. An unknown giver donated $2,000 as the 
nucleus of a permanent fund for increasing the library. 
The principal addition to this fund has been Mr. Seney's 
gift of $50,000, while he also gave $12,000 for immediate 
expenditure in books, and $25,000 for binding books. 
There are other invested funds for special departments. 

The society is now established and fully equipped in its 
new and superb building, Clinton and Pierrepont streets, 
Brooklyn. The number of books in the library is about 
30,000, with about an equal number of pamphlets. To 
these there has been a large addition of rare and valuable 

books in every department from the splendid donations 
made for such purpose. 

The museum and natural history department is ar- 
ranged in the spacious upp;r hall of the building, and is 
under the competent and energetic care of Elias Lewis jr., 
whose reputation as a naturalist and scientist is well known 
on the island. The collections have since the removal 
been furnished with appropriate cases for their full display. 

For all the privileges of the library, museum and lec- 
tures the fees are $5 for initiation and the same amount 
annually; life membership $100. There are over 1,300 
annual and life members. 

At the last election for officers of the society the fol- 
lowing officers were chosen: 

President, Rev. Richard S. Storrs, D. D., LL. D.; first 
vice-president, Hon. Henry C. Murphy, LL. D.; second 
vice-president, Hon. Joshua M. Van Cott; foreign corre- 
sponding secretary, Hon. Benjamin D. Silliman; home 
corresponding secretary. Rev. Charles H. Hall, D. D.; 
recording secretary, Chauncey L. Mitchell, M. D.; treas- 
urer, A. W. Humphreys; librarian, George Hannah; 
curator, Elias Lewis jr. 

Directors. — Rev. Richard S. Storrs, D. D., LL. D.; 
Hon. Henry C. Murphy, LL. D., Samuel McLean, Alfred 
S. Barnes, Rev. Charles H. Hall, D. D., James R. Taylor, 
Henr y E. Pierrepont, A. Abbott Low, Henry Sheldon, 
Walter T. Hatch, Alexander M. White, Bryan H. Smith, 
Hon. Simeon B. Chittenden, Hon. Benjamin D. Silliman, 
J. Carson Brevoort, LL. D., Hon. Joshua M. Van Cott, 
Edwards S. Sanford, Rev. Alfred P. Putnam, D. D., Elias 
Lewis jr., Chauncey L. Mitchell, M. D., John S. Ward, 
George I. Seney, Joseph C. Hutchinson, M. D., A. W. 
Humphreys, Henry D. Polhemus. 

Councillors. — Kings county: Alden J. Spooner, Rt. Rev. 

A. N. Littlejohn, D. D., Hon. J. S. T. Stranahan, Abraham 

B. Baylis, Peter C. Cornell, David M. Stone, Hon. John 
Greenwood, Rev. Frederick A. Farley, D. D., Prof. Darwin 
G. Eaton, George L. Nichols, Rev. N. H. Schenck, D. D., 
Hon. Joseph Neilson. Queens county: Henry Onder- 
donk jr., William Floyd Jones, John A. King, Benjamin 
D. Hicks, Henry W. Eastman. Suffolk county: James 
H. Tuthill, Hon. J. Lawrence Smith, Hon. John R. Reed, 
Rev. Epher Whitaker,William Nicol, Samuel B. Gardiner. 





\^;j^ROM the first settlement of the towns till the 

English conquest in 1664 minor offenses 

~^;t^ were tried in the town courts, without ap- 

peal; but graver cases were appealable to 
the Dutch governor in New Amsterdam. 
In 1665 Richard Nicolls, the English governor, 
ordered a convention to assemble at Hempstead, 
which promulgated " the duke's laws," a written copy of 
which remains on file in some of the towns to this day. 
In 1683 the General Assembly repealed some of the ob- 
jectionable laws, and appointed town courts to be held 
monthly and a court of sessions to be held annually at 
Jamaica; also a yearly court of oyer and terminer. At 
this session of the Assembly Queens county was created 
from what had been Yorkshire. In 1691 the courts of 
common pleas and general sessions were organized more 

Most of the court records have been dispersed or lost. 
A few tattered volumes may be yet found in the clerk's 
offices of the several towns. A volume of the minutes of 
the common pleas and general sessions from 1720 to 
1774 is still preserved in the county clerk's office. Judge 
Lewis Morris has left a volume of his minutes of the su- 
preme court and oyer and terminer from 1722 to 1746. 

The judges were pompous. Those of the supreme 
court wore red silk gowns, flowing wigs of powdered 
hair, breeches buckled at the knee, stockings and shoes 
fastened on with very large silver buckles. They had a 
high sense of their dignity. A body of soldiers at the 
beginning of a court escorted the judges from their 
lodgings to the court-house, attended with much com- 
pany, in great pomp, with trumpets and other music be- 

fore them. One Samuel Bownas having (in 1702) 
preached against the sacraments and baptism of the 
Church of England, the chief justice, John Bridges, had 
a desire to have him indicted for that offense. He 
charged the grand jury, having first called over their 
names, and sent them out to find a true bill against him. 
Bownas had taken the precaution to lay before the jury 
some minutes of his proposed defense, and when they 
returned into court they presented the bill against him 
indorsed " Is^/iorainus." The judge was very angry and 
demanded their reasons. A grand juror answered, "We 
are sworn to keep our deliberations secret." The judge 
was nettled and' replied: "Now Mr. lVise/>ian speaks! 
You are not so sworn, and I have a mind to lay you by 
the heels [that is, put you in the stocks] and fine you." 
The grand juror replied, " Neither grand nor petit 
jurors are to be menaced, but are to act freely and to the 
best of their judgment." Now the judge, finding he had 
not children to deal with, began to flatter, and requested 
the jury to take back " the bill " and resume considera- 
tion on it. Next morning the judge asked the foreman, 
" How find you the bill ?" Answer: " As yesterday." 
The judge then charged the jury with obstructing justice. 
The clerk then by order of the judge called over the 
jurors singly to show their reasons. Some refused to say 
more than " That's our verdict "; others said, " How 
unreasonable for the court to try to perjure the jurors by 
revealing their secrets !" The jury stood 15 to 7. This 
angered the judge so that he adjourned the court for six 
weeks, ordered the prisoner to be kept closer than before 
and threatened to send him to London. In October 
1703 the i)risoner was again put on trial; the sheriff 
called 18 men for a grand jury, but they too came into 
court with their bill signed "Ignoramus," which made 
some of the lawyers say, by way of a joke, that they had 
got into an ignoramus county. The prisoner was led 
into court and discharged. 

In 1702 the governor ordered the attorney-general to 
take measures in the supreme court for the removal from 



office of Justices John Talman and Jonathan Whitehead 
for speaking disrespectfully of the Holy Scriptures. In 
1719 some inhabitants of Jamaica complained to the 
governor of " the evil doings " of several of the justices 
of the peace, and " pray that they may be ousted from 
office. They are: (i) Jonathan Whitehead, who is a 
common pleader for money at the petty courts of justice, 
whereby he makes jQ(30 per year, and is a card-player 
also. He daily vexes and teases the people of Newtown 
(for a debt which he says they owe him) before petty 
justices' courts, and once tried to rescue a prisoner out 
of the officer's hands. (2) John Smith, who would not 
notice informations made against one John Turaer for 
speaking treasonaHle words against the king, and where 
he was sole judge has given a contrary judgment, once 
for the plaintiff and again for the defendant. (3) John 
Clement favored Whitehead, a brother justice, in a case 
where the defendant, refusing to pay an unjust assess- 
ment, was tossed from town to town to wait on 9 courts 
successively. (4) William Cornell has out-braved the law 
and taken upon himself in his petty justice's court to 
give judgment on a case of ^3, expressly against the 
letter of the law, and has been indicted for robbing per- 
sons of their fish and clothing. (5,1 John Hunt has been 
an instrument of oppression to his poor neighbors in 
Newtown. He once summoned a man before him for an 
act done out of the county, referred it to arbitration, then 
resumed the action, and cast the defendant. Again, 
upon the accidental breaking of a shoe-buckle in his 
presence, he called a court and gave judgment against 
the defendant for six shillings damages and three dollars 
costs, without allowing him time to prepare his defense 
He has also assumed the office of constable, and sum- 
moned a man to appear before himself in his own court, 
gave the plaintiff four shillings more than his debt, and 
allowed six shillings to himself, there being no evidences. 
And to crown all they have, after agreement in cabal, 
unitedly and arbitrarily turned out our church wardens, 
fined each and given out executions against them with- 
out signifying their sentence, and have also invaded the 
privileges of the vestry in giving away the people's money 
without the vestry's consent." The justices were not re- 
moved from office. 

In 1773 Governor Tryon by a writ of supersedeas re- 
moved Samuel Smith, of Jamaica, from his office of jus- 
tice of the peace. 

In 1705 Roger Mompesson, chief justice, held a court 
in Jamaica and sentenced one Samuel Wood to be burnt 
on the cheek, near the nose, with the letter T (signifying 
thief) for stealing money and goods from John Marsh. 

In 1724 the judges of the supreme court ordered 
Richard Bradley, attorney-general, to prosecute the 
justices of Queens county for the insufficiency of their 

In 1702 some people of the county complained to the 
General Assembly of the erection of a court of chancery, 
with its exorbitant fees and arbitrary orders. In this 
court the Rev. Joshua Bloomer entered a suit for the re- 
covery of his salary. The governor, being chancellor, 

awarded him his salary from the day of his induction, 
1769 to 1774, each party to pay their own costs. 

In 1727 Adam Smith, for scandalizing Justice Johannes 
Van Wyck, was fined 20 shillings. In 1744 Ephraim 
Cheeseman at the court of sessions covered his head 
with his hat and refused to take the oath, under pretense 
of being a Quaker; but as he had no certificate thereof 
he was committed to prison and fined three shillings and 
costs. In 1733, Justice James Dickinson coming into 
court and telling them that they (the judges) would not 
do him justice, the sheriff was ordered to take him 
into custody. On his submission and petition he was 

In 1729 one Jacob Forman was tried for counterfeit- 
ing. The court ordered the ronstnble to keep the jury 
from meat and drink, fire or candle, till they agreed. 

In 1742 one Abraham Shulter pleaded guilty to his in- 
dictment and the court ordered him fifteen lashes on his 
naked back immediately. 

Before the present century Queens county had no dis- 
trict attorney, but one from New York performed that 
duty. The more eminent lawyers also resided in New 
York. Among them were Jacob Regnier and Major 
Bickley, 1710; John Chanlers, 1723; Dongan, Rice, Kelly, 
Bragg, William Smith, 1727; Lodge, Lurturg, 1730; Ben- 
jamin Nicolls, Anthony White, 1740; Crannel, 1753; 
Duane, Emmot, 1757; Reade, 1758; Burnet, Alsop, 1760; 
Benjamin Kissam, 1762; McKesson, 1769; Joseph Reid 
jr., John Jay, 1770; Willetts, DePeyster, 1772; Helme, 
Murray, 1772. 

The practitioners in the inferior courts were residents 
in the county, such as Samuel Clawes, father and son, 
1710-53; Peter Chook, 1687; Slos and Whitehead Hicks, 
1760; Slos and Daniel Jones (who finally rose to em- 
mence), 1760; Riker, 1763; Abner Skinner, Eliphalet 
Wickes, B. F. Thompson, William H. Barroll, Thomas C. 
Pinckney, 1825; W. T. McCoun, Wessel S. Smith, &c. 

In the early settlement of the county crimes of a deeper 
dye were unknown. The settlers were a sort of com- 
munists. They early took measures to keep interlopers 
and strangers of unknown character out of their bounds, 
no sojourner being allowed to stay over a day and a night 
unless his host would become surety for his Pood behavior 
and save the town from any expense on his account. By 
degrees, however, bad men got among them. They had 
also slaves, who being ignorant and brutal, and sometimes 
overworked and ill-treated, became lawless. The over- 
seers of the towns could inflict the milder punishments, 
but an appeal could usually be taken (under the Dutch) 
to the director-general in New York. Under the English 
government courts of civil and criminal jurisdiction were 

There was no jail in the county before 1670, and crim- 
inals were sometimes sent to New York for imprison- 
ment. For smaller offenses the punishments were speedy. 
Offenders were banished, whipped, set in the stocks or 
pillory, and sometimes branded or "stigmatized" with a 
hot iron. For slaves the punishments were more severe. 
In New York for murdering the whites they were broken 



on the wheel, suspended alive in an iron case by chains 
to a gibbet and left to starve. We will now give some 
instances of the peculiar punishments inflicted by our 
ancestors in Queens county: 

January 8th 1856 the court sentenced John Smith, of 
Newtown, for stealing pigs, to be beaten severely with 
rods, and then to be m.xrked and banished. July 5th 
1667 Thomas Etherington, of Newtown, was sentenced 
to sit for two hours in the stocks, for stealing two 
hens; and his wife for her misbehavior to sit two 
days at the same, on the next monthly court day. In 
1668 — "If John Jacobson don't return the goods he 
stole he shall be turned out of Newtown." October 
4th 1671 William Hubbs was sentenced to a fine of 
;^5 or to an infliction of ten stripes for hog steal- 
ing. In 1672 Andries, a slave of William Lawrence, was 
given 39 stripes and branded on the foreheaS with a 
hot iron for stealing some linen at Jamaica. January 
15th 1764 John Jennings, for abstracting law papers, was 
set in the stocks for two hours, with a paper pinned on 
his breast, signifying his crime. February 9th 1674, there 
being no "lock-up" at Flushing, the court sent one 
James, " a dangerous fellow," to New York to be kept in 
prison there. July 14th 1694 the town of Newtown 
voted that a pair of stocks be set up. They got worn out 
by exposure to the weather, and April 3d 1711 it was 
again voted to build a pair of stocks for the town's use. 

William Howard was chosen "negro whipper" of 
Oyster Bay from 1717 to 1722. John Taylor was chosen 
"town whipper" from 1733 to 1737; James Rosell from 
1738 to 1740; William Ingram in 1741, and in 1733, at 
town meeting, John Baker was chosen whipper "for 
Hempstead and the bounds thereof." December 4th 
1727 David Wallace and David Wilson, for passing 
counterfeit bills, were sentenced to stand in the pillory at 
Jamaica one hour, then to be placed in a cart so as to be 
publicly seen with a halter about their necks, brought to 
the public whipping post, and there to receive, the former 
thirty-nine lashes, the latter twenty-eight stripes; after 
which they were to be imprisoned, the former six months 
and the latter three months. April 4th 1727 Newtown 
voted that William Tallier should be the "general 
whipper "for the town. February 20th 1755 Quamino, 
a slave, having threatened a witness, the court ordered 
him twenty lashes on his bare back. January i8th 1772 
Hempstead paid Benjamin Hall jT^i for making a pair of 
stocks for the town's use, and in May 1784 paid ^£2 is. 
for building another pair. April 4th 1772 Joseph Price 
was chosen whipper for the town of Jamaica. In 1773 
the town of Hempstead ordered a " cage " to be erected 
as a place of confinement for lesser criminals. April 6th 
1784 the town of Oyster Bay voted that one or more pair 
of stocks be erected where the justices thought necessary. 
The town of North Hempstead voted in 1785 that stocks 
be erected at the public expense, and in 1806 that stocks 
be erected at William and Dobson Allen's inn, Manhasset. 
November loth 1788 the county court sentenced John 
Green for horse stealing to receive thirty-nine lashes on 
his naked back " this afternoon, and thirty-nine more 

to-morrow, and then to depart the county." November 
8th 1790 David Devoe, for stealing a horse worth ^5, 
was sentenced to recei\e immediately thirty-nine lashes 
on his bare back, " and the like infliction every forty- 
eight hours until he shall have received one hundred and 
fifty six lashes, and then to depart the county." January 
nth 1 79 1 John Beilard, of Newtown, was whipped. 
June iith 1791 there was paid Jonah Hallett, sheriff, 
_£,\\ 8s. " for executing a wench Nelly and whipping 
sundry persons." April 4th 1797 it was voted in town 
meeting that a " cage " be erected in Jamaica. October 
1 2th 1808 there was paid Nicholas Wyckoff, sheriff, 
$12.50 as the expenses of executing Benjamin Tuin. John 
Williams, constable, was paid $1.50 for attending said 
execution. The last whipping noted on the record oc- 
curred October 6th 1810. 

February 2nd 1708 an Indian " Sam " and a negress, 
slaves of William Hallett jr., of Newtown, for the mur- 
der of their master, his wife and five children, were burnt 
at the stake at Jamaica, and put to all torments possible 
for a terror to others. Water in a horn fastened to a 
pole was reached to their mouths to allay their thirst 
and so prolong their sufferings. Two more negroes 
were executed as accessories to the crime. December 
17th 1714 Deborah Gryce was executed at Jamaica for 
causing the death of her infant child, and January ist 
1 7 15 a free negro woman was executed for the same 
crime. December 30th 1726 Samuel, a negro slave of 
John Foster, was hanged for burglary. September 15th 
1733 Edward King, a tinker, was hanged for killing Wil- 
liam Smith on the road near Flushing, by a stab in the 
breast with a knife. October 13th 1740 Richard Combs 
was hanged for burglary in robbing the house of John 
Hinchman, in Jamaica, of money and goods. November 
2nd 1784 William Guthrie and Joseph Alexander were 
hanged at Jamaica for robbing the house of Thomas 
Thorne, on the east shore of Manhasset. October 15th 
1790 Nellie, a slave of Daniel Braine, was banged for 
setting fire to the house of J. Vanderbilt, town clerk of 
Flushing, whereby all the town records were consumed. 
October 25th 1793 Absalom, a negro, was hanged for a 
robbery and assault on Miss Elizabeth Mercier on the 
highway in Newtown. September 8th 1808 Benjamin 
Tuin was hanged for killing Adam Gordon with a hoe at 
Jerusalem; both colored; cause jealousy. March 12th 
1853 Thomas Atchison was hanged for the murder of 
Rulef Voorhies, of Hempstead. January 15th 1875 
Lewis Jarvis and Elbert Jackson, blacks, were executed 
for the murder of Jackson Jones at Jerusalem. Decem- 
ber loth 1875 William Delancy was executed. 

It is not easy to ascertain when the first court-house 
and prison was erected, as for many years after the 
settlement of the towns the higher grades of crime were 
tried and punished in New York. In 1674 the court of 
Flushing, for want of a jail or " lock-up," sent one James, 
" a dangerous fellow," to New York for safe-keeping 
there. For minor offenses the towns had " a cage " for 
brief imprisonment. 

In January 1666 it was ordered that a sessions-house 



and prison be built in Jamaica, and that ^lo be levied 
on the several towns for that purpose. The people of 
Jamaica agreed to keep it in repair for 21 years, on con- 
dition of being allowed to worship in it on Sundays. 
The contractor, William Hallett, failed to perform his 
contract, and in 1669 the court decided that the building 
must be completed by next Christmas day or he be fined 

In 1702 Samuel Bownas, a Friend, was imprisoned here 
for preaching against the Church of England. He com- 
plained of being put in a small room made of logs, which 
had been protested against as an unlawful prison. His 
friends, however, furnished him with a very good bed 
and all things necessary to life. 

In 1708 divers of the principal inhabitants of Queens 
county petitioned the General Assembly for the enact- 
ment of a law to repair or build anew the County Hall 
(as it was then called) and the common jail. 

In 1 7 1.0 an act was passed to enable the supervisors to 
sell the old hall and prison, and to confirm the purchase 
of new ones. The proceedings seem to have been dila- 
tory, for in 1720 a bill was brought into the Assembly to 
empower the justices of the county to sell the hall and 
jail in Jamaica, and build another where they should 
think most convenient. In 1723 they were authorized 
to merely repair the old buildings; but in 1724 another 
bill was introduced in the Assembly to enable the justices 
to finish and complete the building already erected. It 
was not a perfectly secure prison, for in 1738 two prison- 
ers broke jail, and were advertised very minutely. One, 
William Wiggins, had gray hair and a very long visage. 
He wore a homespun coat, old sheep-skin breeches and 
a broad-brimmed beaver hat. The other, Amos Lang- 
don, was slow of speech, had on a gray worsted coat, old 
leather breeches, dog-skin shoes and a narrow-brimmed 
beaver. George Reynolds, under sheriff, offered ^13 re- 
ward for their recovery. 

In 177 1 Thomas Willett, sheriff, gave notice that two 
Jews, Levi Moses and Theodorus Benjamin, having been 
imprisoned many years for debt, broke jail. The jail 
was much used for the imprisonment of debtors. Joseph 
Smith and Nathaniel Pearsall lay there many years. 
Though they offered to give up all their property, their 
creditors were inexorable. They finally (1741) petitioned 
the General Assembly for relief. Negroes found roam- 
ing around the country without a pass were also liable to 
be taken up and put in jail. Thus in 1762 William 
Watts arrested a negro fellow in the meadows near Ja- 
maica, who probably spoke either Spanish or French, for 
he would not speak English. In 1764 Daniel Hewlett 
put a negro man in jail who said his master's name was 
Joseph Hendricks. " The owner may have him (if he 
don't get out of jail) on paying for trouble and charges." 
He wore a hat with no brim, old stocking-leggins, blue 
breeches and no shoes. 

During the Revolutionary war the British commander 
tore down the old court-house and carried off the ma- 
terials to construct barracks and huts for the soldiers 
stationed in and around Jamaica, so that at the peace in 

1783 there was no place for confining prisoners. They 
were kept under a guard of militia temporarily and then 
sent off to New York for safe keeping. Very considera- 
ble expenses were incurred in thus escorting prisoners 
to and from the city by a body of mounted militia. 

The old stone Presbyterian church was used as a court- 
house in 1784, when two robbers were sentenced to be 
hanged at Beaver Pond. In that year the agitation of 
the site of a new jail and court-house had been com- 
menced. The eastern people petitioned the Legislature 
to have it set at the west end of Hempstead Plains; the 
western people prayed that any future building might be 
at or near the old site in Jamaica. The Legislature, 
taking all the petitions into consideration, decided 
(March 31st 1785) on a geographical center, and that 
^2,000 should be raised by the supervisors to build a 
court-house and jail within a mile of the " Windmill 
Pond " at or near the house of Benjamin Cheeseman, 
near the south bounds of North Hempstead; " and that 
till it be completed courts shall be held at Jamaica." 
The judges of the court of common pleas were author- 
ized to superintend its erection with good economy. 
The bill of Judge Timothy Smith for such superintend- 
ing from May 13th 1785 to June 2nd 1787 was at the rate 
of ;i^5o for six months; and yet the taxpayers of that day 
thought he was unnecessarily spinning out the job ! 
What would they have said could they have witnessed 
the process of the erection of the present one ? 

February 8th 1787 the sheriff petitioned the Legislature 
for an act to remove the Queens county prisoners from 
the jail in New York to the jail just completed in Queens 

In 1790, February 9th, the first capital trial was held 
here before Judge Robert Yates, when, on motion of 
Aaron Burr, attorney general, two negro slaves, Nelly 
and Sarah, for arson, were sentenced to be hanged on 
Friday, October 15th, at some public place in the neigh- 
borhood of the court-house. 

In 1798 the sum of ^200 was raised for completing 
the court-house. 

On court days there was usually considerable excitement 
about the house and grounds. Farmers and others otten 
made a holiday of it. Many resorted thither to transact 
business and meet acquaintances. Stands and booths for 
the sale of oysters, cake and beer, and other refreshments 
abounded. Hilarity went beyond due bounds, according 
to a complaint made to General Jay by Cadwallader D. 
Colden, assistant attorney general (January 29th 1799), 
wherein he says: " The court of Queens county is at all 
times the least orderly of any court I ever was in. The 
entry of the court-house is lined on court days with the 
stalls of dram sellers and filled with drunken people, so 
as to be almost impassable." About 1825-27, when the 
sheriff was prohibited from selling liquor in the court- 
house, he evaded the law by erecting a shed against the 
front of the building, and so sold liquor and passed it 
through a window into the court-house. 

On Sunday night, January 18th 1801, Walter Dunlevy, 
who was sentenced to fourteen years' imprisonment in 



the State prison for manslaughter, was rescued from this 
jail by his confederates. Two armed men came to the 
bedside of Willett Lawrence, under sheriff, bid him keep 
silent at his peril, took the key and let out the prisoner, 
and then locked in the sheriff. Dunlevy was discovered 
on a ship bound for Europe, and put for safe keeping in 
the Bridewell at New York. 

Political meetings, fairs and other public gatherings were 
often held at the court-house, and the New Market race 
course was near it till 182 1; but latterly the opening of 
the North Hempstead turnpike and several railroads had 
made other places of more convenient access. There 
were formerly three inns or houses of entertainment, viz.: 
Daniel Seely's, who also kept a blacksmith shop; Cheese- 
man's, and that of the incumbent of the court-house. As 
the prisoners were then few there were several spare rooms. 
He also prepared dinners on court days. 

The lack of accommodations on court days provoked 
great deal of dissatisfaction among the judges and law- 
yers, and after a great deal of maneuvering and jobbery 
it was decided that a court-house and jail should be 
erected at Long Island City. The new edifice was form- 
ally turned over to the board of supervisors March 29th 
1877. The Legislature had, in 1872, appointed commis- 
sioners to build it and appropriated $150,000; but in 1875 
the Legislature voted $100,000 additional, and put 
the building in the hands of the supervisors to complete 
it. The edifice is three stories high, of Roman architect- 
ure, built of brick with granite trimmings. The interior 
trimmings are hard wood oiled. The first floor contains 
the sheriff's and supervisors' rooms, with spacious vaults 
and also reception rooms. On the second floor is the 
court-room, and at the sides are the judges' rooms, wait- 
ing rooms, and rooms for the jurors, grand jury and dis- 
trict attorney. The jail is in the rear. It will accommo- 
date 200 prisoners. The entire cost of the building was 
^276,000, with an addition of $2,500 for gas fixtures and 
furniture. The building was formally occupied by the 
sheriff in April 1877. 

We close this sketch of the civil history of the county 
with lists of its officers and representatives in legislative 

County Judges. — A court of common pleas was estab- 
lished for the county in 1691. The judge was assisted 
by tv.'o or more justices. Judges were appointed as fol- 

Thomas Hicks, 1691; John Coe, 1699; Thomas Wil- 
lett, May 1702; John Coe, July 1710; Thomas Willett, 
1723; Isaac Hicks, 1730; David Jones, 1734; Isaac 
Hicks, April 6th 1738; James Hazard, 1740; Thomas 
Hicks, November 23d 1748; John Lloyd, February 14th 
1784; Benjamin Coe, March 5th 1793; John W. Sea- 
man, March 13th 1806; Cary Dunn jr., January 26th 
1809; Effingham Lawrence, April 23d 1818; James 
Lent, February 5th 1823; Singleton Mitchell, May 2nd 
1829; Benjamin W. Strong, April 8th 1834; David S. 
Jones, January 17th 1840; Henry I. Hagner, April i8th 
1843; Isaac E. Haviland, March 5th 1846; William J. 
Cogswell {TL'ice Hagner, deceased), 1849; Morris Fosdick, 
November 1849; Elias J. Beach, November 1857; John 
J. Armstrong (^the present judge), November 1865. 

Surrogates. — Probate of wills was formerly vested in 

the court of assizes and courts of sessions. In 1692 the 
governor had this prerogative. In 1721 a surrogate was 
lirst appointed for Queens county. The incumbents 
have been as follows: John Bridges, January 4th 1721- 
John Messenger, October 23d 1735; Samuel Clowes jr.' 
November 23d 1748; Thomas Braine, 1754; Samuel 
Clowes, 1759; Edward Dawson, April 23d 1767; James 
Robinson, February 5th 1784; David Lamberson jr., 
February 24th 1816; John D. Ditmis, June 6th 1820; 
John W. Seaman, February J4th 182 1; Nicholas 
Wyckoff, March 4th 1826; Henry I. Hagner, April 8th 
1834; William J. Cogswell, appointed September 7th 
1849, vice Hagner, deceased; Morris Fosdick, November 
1849; William H. Onderdonk, November 1865; James 
\V. Covert, November 1869; Alexander Hagner, No- 
vember 1873; Garret J. Garretson (appointed in place of 
Hagner, deceased), May 1880; Charles De Kay Town- 
send, November 1880. 

County Superintendents of Common Schools (office created 
April 17th 1843, and abolished March 12th 1847). — 
Picrpont Potter, 1843; Timothy Titus jr., October 6th 

School Commissioners. — Benjamin W. Downing, April 
1856. Prior to 1857 school commissioners were ap- 
pointed by the supervisors; since then they have been 
elected by the people. Queens county was divided into 
two districts. The commissioners have been as follows: 
— ist District: Benjamin W. Downing, 1858; Charles W. 
Brown, James W. Covert, William H. Peckham, Eugene 
M. Lincoln, Andrew T. Provost, Charles E. Surdam; 
2nd District: Daniel Clark, 1858; Dr. William D. Wood, 
Isaac G. Fosdick, Garret J. Garretson, Isaac G. F'osdick. 

Sheriffs. — Counties were first erected in 1683. Sheriffs 
for Queens county have been appointed or elected as 
follows: Thomas VVillett, 1683; John Coe, December 
13th 1689; John Lawrence, January 19th 1691; John 
Jackson, March 21st 1691; John Harrison, December 
I St, 1692; John Lawrence, 1698; Peter Berrian, 1699; 
Zachariah Mills, 1700; Thomas Hicks, 1702: Thomas 
Cardale, 1703; Thomas Jones, 1704; Elbert VVillett, 
1705; Thomas Cardale, 1706; Thomas Willett, 1707; 
Cornelius Willett, 1708; William Creed, 1709; John 
Everett, May 6th 1710; Alexander Baird, 1712; Benja- 
min Hicks, 1718; Samuel Willett, 1720; Benjamin Hicks, 
1723; Thomas Hicks, 1727; Adam Lawrence, 1735; 
Henry Hicks, December 15th 1738; Adam Lawrence, 
1744; John Van Wyck, 1747; Adam Lawrence, February 
loth 1753; Thomas Willett, 1770; Uriah Mitchell, F'eb- 
ruary 4th 1784; Jonah Hallett, February ist 1788; Dr. 
Daniel Mirema, February 4th 1792; John Fleet, Febru- 
ary 4th 1796; John B. liicks, l*"ebruary 7th 1800; James 
Mitchell, August nth 1801; Nicholas Wyckoff, February 
22nd 1806; John B. Hicks, March 15th 1810; Jonathan 
Howard, F"ebruary 8th 181 1; John B. Hicks, March 12th 
1813; Jonathan Howard, February i3ih 1815; Richard 
Cornell, February 9th 1819; Bernard Bloom, July loth 
1819; Samuel Mott, F'ebruary 12th 1825; also elected in 
November 1822, and the following in November of the 
years mentioned: John Simonson, 1825; Samuel Mott, 
1828; John Simonson, 1831; Thomas Tredwell, 1834; El- 
bert Tredwell, 1837; Jonathan T. F'urman, 1840; John A. 
Searing, 1843; Isaac Willetts, 1846; Robert S. Seabury, 
1849; George S. Downing, 1852; Bernardus Hendrickson,- 
1855; Joseph Curtis, 1858; Jacob Piatt Carll, 1861; 
William Durland, 1864; George Durland, 1867; Armstead 
C. Henry, 1870; Charles A. Sammis, 1873; Benjamin F". 
Rushmore, 1876; Alonzo B. Wright, 1879. 

County Clerks were formerly clerks of the common 
pleas, of the sessions and of the higher courts. Since 
1 82 1 they have been chosen at the November elections. 



Clerks of Queens county have been designated as follows: 
William Nicoll, 1683; Andrew Gibb, June 20th 1688; 
Daniel Denton, December 20th 1689; Andrew Gibb, 
March 24th 1691; James Clement, deputy. December 
16th 1693; Joseph Smith, July 1710; Andrew Clark, i 722; 
Thomas Jones, February 28th 1757; Whitehead Hicks, 
deputy, 1757; Samuel Clowes, April 30th 1781; Robert 
Hinchman, November 1783; Abraham Skinner, February 
4th 1764; Daniel Kissam, March 12th 1796; Walter 
Burling, June loth 1812; Edward Parker, June 6th 1820; 
Samuel Sherman, February 4th 1821; Samuel Sherman, 
1822 (P. Potter, vice Sherman, resigned); John Simonson, 
1836; Abraham D. Snedeker, 1842; Abraham D. Snede- 
ker, 1845; John C.Smith, 1848; Martin I.Johnson, 1851; 
Monroe Henderson, appointed vice Johnson, deceased, 
March 29th 1855; Stephen L. Spader, 1855; Elisha B. 
Baldwin, 1858; Jonah T. Hegeman, 1864; Robert Bur- 
roughs, 1867; John H. Sutphin (the present incumbent), 

District Attorneys. — The office was created in i8oi. 
Before that time the attorney general or his assistant of- 
ficiated in our courts. Nathaniel Lawrence took the po- 
sition February i6th 1796, and Cadwallader Colden Jan- 
uary i6th 1798. In and after 1818 the county had its 
own prosecuting ofificer, taking the office as follows: Eli- 
phalet Wickes, 1818; William T. McCoun, 1821; Benja- 
min F. Thompson, 1826; William H. Barroll, May 3d 
1836; Alexander Hadden,i842; John G. Lamberson, June 
16th 1847; William H. Onderdonk, 1853; John J. Arm- 
strong, 1859; Benjamin W. Downing (the present attorney) 

County Treasurers: John Bowne, 1683; Daniel White- 
head, 1884-89; William Lawrence, 1700; Cornelius Wil 
left, 1714; Benjamin Hicks, 1723; David Jones, 1732; 
Thomas Hicks, 1747; John Willett; Valentine H. Peters, 
1757; Daniel Kissam, 1759; George Townsend, 1783; Mar- 
tin Schenck, 1787; John M. Smith, 1793; Judge William 
Ludlum, 1800; Silvanus S. Smith, 1817; Lawrence Denton, 
1825; Piatt Willets, 1836; Robert Cornwell, 1848; Lewis 
W. Angevine, 185 1; Thomas H. Clowes, 1854; Lewis W. 
Angevine, 1857; Charles A. Roe, 1867; George W. Ber- 
gen, 1872; G. Edward Carll, 1875; Francis B. Baldwin, 

Members of Assembly. — Before the Revolution (1691- 
1775): Thomas Cornell, 1737-59, 1761-64; Benjamin 
Hicks, T725-37; Isaac Hicks, 1716-39; Thomas Hicks, 
1701, 1702; Thomas Hicks 2nd, 1759-61; John Jackson, 
1693-1716; David Jones, 1737-61, (speaker) 1745-52; 
Daniel Kissam, 1764-75; Nathaniel Pearsall, 1691; John 
Robinson, 1691-83; Zebulon Seaman, 1759-75; Jonathan 
Smith sen., 1701, 1702; John Tallman, 1701, 1709, 1710; 
John Townsend, 1709, 1710; John Treadwell, 1691; 
Daniel Whitehead, 1691, 1701-3; Jonathan Whitehead, 
1704-9; Thomas Willett, 1701, 1710-25. 

From the Revolution to the present constitution (1777 
-1847): Benjamin Birdsall, 1775-83; Stephen Carman, 
1788, 1819; Samuel Clowes, 1789-96; Benjamin Coe, 
1777-1806; Whitehead Cornell, 1788-98; Lewis Cornwall, 
1796, 1797; Isaac Denton, 1800; John D. Ditmis, 1802, 
1804; Daniel Duryea, 1786; Philip Edsall, 1777-82; John 
Fleet; 1812-14; Jonah Hallett, 1800, 1801; Isaac Hicks, 
1792, 1793; John D. Hicks, 1820-23; Elias Hicks, 1839; 
Jarvis Jackson, 1826,1827; Thomas B. Jackson, 1833-35; 
Elbert F. Jones, 1845; Henry F. Jones, 1829; Samuel 
Jones, 1786-90; William Jones, i8i6"-26; John A. King, 
1819, 1840; Benjamin T. Kissam, 1820-23; Daniel Kis- 
sam, 1796, 179; Daniel Kissam, 1808, 1819; D. 
Whitehead Kissam,- 1786; Daniel Lawrence, 1777-83; 
John W. Lawrence, 1841, 1842; Joseph Lawrence, 1784, 
1785; Nathaniel Lawrence, 1791-96; Francis Lewis jr., 

1788; Dr. Samuel L. Mitchell, 1791; Abraham Monfoort, 
1800 03; Jacobus Monfoort, 1808; Robert Moore, 1798, 
1799; William Mott, 1798, 1807; Timothy Nostrand, 1822; 
Hendrick Onderdonk, 1784; William Pearsall, 1796, 1798; 
Harry Peters, 1794; Joseph Pettit, 1800-2; Samuel Riker, 
1784; Colonel John Sands, 1784, 1785; John Schenck, 
1787-91; Henry O. Seaman, 1803-8; John W. Seaman, 
1806-8; John L. Skidmore, 1798, 1801; Abraham Skinner, 
1784, 1785; John M. Smith, 1796-99; Wessell S. Smith, 
1847; Richard Thorne, 1787; Nathaniel Tom, 1781-83; 
Dr. James Townsend, 1784-87; William Townsend, 
1808-11; Thomas Tredwell, 1820-31; John Willis, 1846; 
Solomon Wooden, 1814, 1815; Samuel Youngs, 1794; 
Samuel Youngs, 1843, 1844. 

From 1847 to date: Francis H. Baldwin, 1870; George 
E. Bulmer, 1877-81; B.Valentine Clowes, 1880; Town- 
send D. Cock, 1870, 1880; Isaac Coles, 1862; Obadiah 
J. Downing, 1866; Charles T. Duryea, 1863, 1864; Henry 
B. Hall, 1862; John S. Hendrickson, 1858; David R. 
Floyd Jones, 1877, 1878; John Keegan, 1878; Edward 
A. Lawrence, 1858, 1859; Henry S. Lott, 1863; Charles 
McNeill, 1864, 1865; John B. Madden, 1868, 1869; James 
Maurice, 1851, 1866; Robert L. Meeks, 1859; James M. 
Oakley, 1871-75; Alvin T. Payne, 1876; James B. Pear- 
sall, 1869, 1870; AVilliam E. Pearse, 1879; John Pettit, 
1850; L. B. Prince, 1871-75; James Rider, 1855; John 
A. Searing, 1854; Francis Skillman, 1867, 1868; Sylvanus 
S. Smith, 1852, 1853; Wessell S, Smith, 1848, 1849; John 
S. Snedeker, 1850; Seaman N. Snedeker, 1856; Stephen 
Taber, i860, 1861; John D. Townsend, 1861; William 
Turner, 1865; William B. Wilson, 1867; William Jones 
Youngs, 1878, i88c. 

State Senators. — 1777 to 1846: De Witt Clinton, 1799- 
1802, 1806-11; Henry Cruger, 1793-96; John D. Ditmis, 
1817-20; Elbert H. Jones, 1813-15; David R. Floyd 
Jones, 1844-47; Henry Floyd Jones, 1836-39; Dr. John 
Jones, 1777, 1778; Samuel Jones, 1791 99; John A. King, 
1823; John Lawrence, 1788-90; Jonathan Lawrence, 
I777-79' i79°-95; Andrew Onderdonk, 1797; John 
Schenck, 1793-96, 1799-1806; John I. Schenck, 1828-31; 
Samuel Townsend, 1784-90. 

From 1847 to date: John Birdsall, 1880, 1881; William 
Horace Brown, 1850, 1851; Townsend D. Cock, 1872, 
1873; Monroe Henderson, 1862, 1863; John A. King, 
1874, 1875; Edward A. Lawrence, i860, 1861: James M. 
Oakley, 1878, 1879; L. Bradford Prince, 1876, 1877; 
James Rider, 1856, 1857. 

Delegates to the Provincial Congress and Convention: 
Jacob Blackwell, Joseph French (declined), Thomas Hicks, 
Rev. Abraham Reteltas, Jonathan Lawrence, Daniel 
Rapelye, Joseph Robinson, Benjamin Sands, Waters 
Smith, Richard Thorne, Nathaniel Tom, Dr. James 
Townsend, Samuel Townsend, Cornelius Van Wyck, 
John Williams, Zebulon Williams. 

Delegates to Constitutional Conventions. — x8oi, to fix the 
number of senators and assemblymen: De Witt Clinton, 
James Raynor, John Schenck, John W. Seaman. 1821, 
to amend the constitution: Elbert H. Jones, Rufus King, 
Nathaniel Seaman. 1788, to ratify the federal constitu- 
tion: Stephen Carman, Samuel Jones, Nathaniel Law- 
rence, John Schenck. 1846, John L. Riker. 1867, to 
revise the organic laws of the State: Solomon Townsend. 
1872, constitutional commission, John J. Armstrong. 

United States Senators. — John Lawrence, appointed 
November 9th 1796; De Witt Clinton, appointed Febru- 
ary 9th 1802; Rufus King, appointed February 2nd 
1813, and January 3d 1820. 

Representatives in Congress. — Thomas B. Jackson, 1837- 



41; John Lawrence, 1789-93; John W. Lawrence, 1845- 
47; James Lent, 1829-33; Samuel Riker, 1807-09, 1813- 
15; George Townsend, 1815-19; Dr. James Tovvnsend, 
'791-93; Luther C. Carter, 1859-61; James W. Covert, 
1877-81; John A. King, 1849-51; lames Maurice, 
1853-55; Stephen Taber, 1865-69; Dr. William W. Valk, 
1855-57; Perry Belmont, 1882-84. 

Presidential Electors. — 1860, William C. Bryant (at 
large), John A. King latter also in 1872); 1876, Parke 

Governor, John Alsop King, 1857, 1858. 

Lieutenant Governor, David R. F. Jones; also secretary 
of state i860, 1861. 



^-■^TT and long after the settlement of Queens 

Trr^-nm county education was left to take care of 
^^jy itself. No public recognition of its utility or 
I any act enforcing or encouraging it is any 
where recorded. The teachers, or " masters " 
as they were then called, were usually single 
men from the " old country," England, Scot- 
land or Ireland. They were itinerants, hired for a 
quarter or so in one place and then passing on to another. 
Too often they were given to drink and kept " blue 
Monday." They were usually good penmen and arith- 
meticians. Grammar, geography and history were not 
then thought of. They were professors of the " three 
R's," Reading, 'Riting and 'Rithemetic. The alphabet 
was taught the tyro by naming the letters in the column 
from A to Z, the master pointing to each with his pen- 
knife, and boxing the ears of dunces who could not re- 
collect the names after being told a score of times. In- 
deed one or even two quarters were often spent before 
the learner had mastered the alphabet. The child was 
next put to joining letters, as a-b, ab; b-a, ba; and thus 
he went on in his spelling book for a quarter more, wear- 
ing out the leaves as he proceeded. If he was not a dull 
fellow at the end of a year he began to read, and then 
school life was more enjoyable; but the memory was 
cultivated to the neglect of the understanding, and that 
for long years after; and in some schools almost to the 
present time. 

In these days of academies, union schools, high schools 
and institutes the modern schoolboy loses the chance of 
those pleasant reminiscences of schoolboy days that 
have been the theme of many a sentimental story. The 
poetry, the romance is all gone save in a very few se- 
questered nooks of our county. In olden times the 
school-house was the least pretentious of all buildings. 
No idea of ornamentation or embellishment of any kind 
seemed to occur to our forefathers in the erection of 

churches and school-houses, yet around them cling many 
pleasant and happy memories. Money paid out for 
education was paid too often grudgingly. It was felt, 
like other taxes, to be a grievance that could not be 
avoided. The school-houses then were not painted in- 
side or out, nor were the walls or ceiling plastered. The 
wide old-fashioned fire-place was after a while supplanted 
by a close Dutch stove, which strove — sometimes in vain 
— to overcome the cold that rushed in with the wind 
through many a crevice in the floor and wainscot. The 
wood for fuel was supplied in a loose way. Usually each 
parent in rotation carted a load, which the larger boys 
were expected to cut up as wanted from day to day. 
The smaller boys carried it in. The fire was started in 
the morning by the first comer, who borrowed the coals 
in a foot-stove from the nearest house. In cold weather 
the boys huddled around the stove till nearly noon, when 
the room would begin to get comfortably warm. In 
winter, when thelarger boys (some of them 19 or 20 years 
old) attended school, the larger girls staid at home; but 
in summer they went to school with the smaller boys. 
The girls were required to sweep the school-room about 
once a week; and once a month (or not so often) there 
was a grand scrubbing time, the boys bringing the water 
and the girls cleansing the floor with brooms. Two boys 
with a pail suspended from a stick between them usually 
troubled some neighboring well for water twice a day. 

The marked peculiarity of those days was the respect 
and deference with which cliildren were taught to treat 
their " superiors " or elders. As soon as a respectable 
person was seen approaching on the road the boys and 
girls arranged themselves in distinct rows by the road- 
side and "made their manners " to him, who returned 
the salutation with an inclination of the head and an ap- 
proving smile, often adding some pleasant words. One 
of the by-laws of the academy at Jamaica (in 1792) re- 
quired that " when the tutor or any gentleman comes in 
or goes out of the school-room, every scholar shall rise 
up with a respectful bow; and they shall treat all men, 
especially known superiors, with the greatest modesty and 

The boys sat separately, but usually recited in one 
class, so far as classes were formed (which was chiefly in 
spelling and reading' ; for in those days classification was 
hardly attempted and not so much needed as at i)resent, 
for the circle ofknowledge was confined mostly to reading, 
writing and arithmetic. But the limited range of the 
sciences was the cause of their being well taught. The 
old proverb said: " Beware of a man of one book." As 
school books were not various there was but little choice, 
and thus one book was a text book for successive gener- 
ations of children. Indeed, one girl, who went to a 
boarding school in Brooklyn in 1812, afterward went to 
Oyster Bay Academy and found the same text books used 
in both schools. 

The elementary book used was the primer (eo named 
from the Latin /r/V/w/vV/j, first book),_but_as that had a 
scanty supply of spelling lessons, and led the learner too 
abruptly from spelling to reading (and was originally in 



tended for a book of religious teaching'. Dilworth's spell- 
ing book. took its place. Thomas Dilworth's speller was 
a good book in its day, bat after the Revolutionary war 
Noah Webster's spelling book was gradually adopted; 
not that it was better, but because it was American. 
Dilworth was a pious teacher at VVapping, in England, 
about 1740. He was the author of a system of book- 
keeping and an arithmetic also, which after a 30-years 
struggle was supplanted by Nathan Daboll's arithmetic. 

Arithmetic was not taught in classes, but each scholar 
plodded on by himself and when his slate was full of 
sums he showed it to the master. They were then copied 
into a " ciphering book." Originally the teacher alone 
had the printed arithmetic, which was therefore called 
the " Schoolmaster's Assistant," as it supplied him with 
examples and their solutions or answers. After a while 
the scholars gradually for convenience bought their own 
arithmetics, which relieved the teacher of the labor of 
setting the scholar's sums on a slate. In many cases the 
master wrote out the wording of the sum in the ciphering 
book, and when the scholar had performed it correctly he 
copied the figures into the ciphering book. 

The reading books were more varied. After the easy 
lessons of the spelling book had been well learned there 
came the Psalter, Testament and Bible. The Old Testa- 
ment was for more advanced readers. The other books 
were: the Child's Instructor, the Young Gentleman and 
Lady's Monitor; then came the American Preceptor 
and Lindley Murray's series of readers, viz. the Intro- 
duction, the English Reader and the Sequel. Noah 
AVebster published a Grammatical Institute of the 
English language in three parts, the spelling book, reader 
and grammar. Only the first kept its ground. 

The " spelling class " was a feature of those days. All 
the scholars were arranged or stood in a long room and 
" went up and down " according as they spelled. The 
practice seemed to produce good spellers and fed the 
ambition of the school as nothing else did. 

The " old country " masters were succeeded by those 
from New England, who if not so good arithmeticians 
were of a more religious turn of mind, and introduced 
some novelties, such as writing compositions, the study of 
English grammar and elocution. Some of these knew 
enough of music to start singing schools and could take 
part in a prayer meeting. In this way many had the 
entree into respectable farmers' families. 

School usually commenced at 8 o'clock in summer and 
9 in winter, and, with a noon spell of one hour, was let 
out at 4 p. M. An intermission or recess during school 
hours was not yet in fashion. When a boy wished to go 
out of doors he said to the master: " May I go out?" He 
then passed out, first turning a " block " that hung by the 
door, marked on its opposite sides "In, " " Out." 

Grammar was not taught in those days intelligently, for 
the master did not comprehend the science. He set the 
pupil at memorizing the words all the way through the 
book. The nature of parsing or analyzing was a mystery 
to him. The scholar often could recite the words of his 
grammar by heart, and there his knowledge ended. There 

was a treatise on grammar by questions and answers 
printed at the end of Dilworth's & Webster's spelling books 
but written on the basis of Latin grammar. In the stat- 
utes of the academy at Jamaica, in 1792, it is ordered 
that "the text book for English grammar shall be Web- 
ster's, to be read or repeated by tneinory.'" 

Navigation (as well as surveying) was taught in some of 
those old common schools, for many of the young men in 
those days went to sea, some as supercargoes and some 
as sailors; some studied medicine, sailed to the West 
Indies, practiced there till they accumulated a fortune, 
and then returned home. 

Latterly geography was taught, but almost always 
without maps or globes, or if maps were to be found in 
the books they were of one color, very small and indis- 
tinct in boundaries. The ponderous and clumsy octavos 
of Guthrie and Salmon were the first text books used. In 
time they were superseded by Morse's. Dwight's geog- 
raphy by questions and answers was used, and did good 
service as a reading book. Next came in succession 
Willett's grammar of geography, Woodbridge &: Willard's, 
where the pictorial element was found to be valuable. In 
1792 the use of globes (a pair having been imported from 
London), book-keeping, oratory, logic and chronology, 
with Blair's " rhetorick," Stone's Euclid, Martin's ge- 
ometry, and Warden's mathematics are named as subjects 
of stjudy in the academy at Jamaica. 

The sports of schoolboy days were ball playing, tag, 
puss-in-the-corner, playing horse, racing, jumping, hop- 
ping, pitching quoits, tetering, ?kating, sliding on the ice, 
running down hill on sleighs and snowballing, for then 
we had notable snow storms. The roads were drifted full, 
and the fences covered with snowbanks drifted in grace- 
ful curves and fantastic forms by the fickle winds. 

The girls in summer had their innocent sports too. At 
noon-spell, if they did not saunter over the fields apd 
along the hedges for flowers and berries, they would play 
" keeping house and returning visits." They had their 
" baby houses," enclosed with a row of stones, as may be 
seen on the roadside even at this day in remote districts. 
They also joined in some of the gentler sports with the 
boys. When it rained they made "mud pies " along the 

The school-boy at his studies sat on an oaken bench 
without back, swinging his feet to and fro for want of a 
foot rest. The master kept a hickory whip or some 
pliant twig lying on his desk, which was usually applied 
across the back or shoulders. Some had a long, broad 
ruler called a " ferule," which being smartly .slapped on 
the palm of the hand left a stinging sense of pain. The 
more civilized punishments, such as standing on one leg, 
holding out a billet of wood at arm's length, wearing a 
fool's cap, committing some lines to memory, or deten- 
tion after school hours had not yet come in vogue. 
Pulling the hair, pinching the ear, or giving a fillip with 
the middle finger were favorite punishments with some 

There were then no steel pens, no ruled paper, no 
ready-made writing books. The master had to keep a 



sharp knife to make, mend and nib the pens made from 
goose-quills; also a leaden plummet and ruler to rule the 
writing books. Each writer contributed a penny to buy 
a paper of Walkden's famous ink powder, which, mixed 
with a gill of vinegar and three gills of rain or river 
water, made a pint of ink, which was distributed in pewter 
or earthen inkstands. 

Beside these common schools, which were pretty 
evenly dotted about the country, there were in the more 
thickly settled villages classical and boarding schools, 
where boys could learn the higher branches of education 
and be prepared for college. Such were kept at Hemp- 
stead by the successive rectors of the Episcopal church 
from 1760 to 1816, and at Newtown and Jamaica also. 
Parish schools were supported at irregular periods by the 
help of the British Society for Propagating the Gospel 
in Foreign Parts. In these the church catechism was 

Thus, while the well-to-do people had their children 
well educated, it is to be supposed the poorer classes 
grew up in ignorance. Yet some of them who could 
neither 'read, write nor cipher managed their business 
very well and prospered, for we know of one who filled 
the office of sheriff very creditably, and that recently. 

After the Revolutionary war academies were incor- 
porated on the island — one at Easthampton in 1784, one 
at Flatbush in 1787 and one at Jamaica in 1792. The 
last was named Union Hall, from being built by a joint 
subscription of Newtown, Flushing and Jamaica. At 
Oyster Bay an academy was established in 1802, with 
Marmaduke Earle as principal. In 1806 Hamilton Hall 
was opened in Flushing; in 1818 Christ Church Academy 
was erected at Manhasset. In 1828 the Flushing Insti- 
tute was started by the Rev. Dr. Muhlenberg. That was 
followed in 1840 by St. Paul's College; in 1838 by St. 
Thomas Hall, under Rev. Dr. Hawks, and in 1839 by 
St. Ann's Hall for girls, under care of Rev. Dr. 

For female education the facilities were limited. 
There were indeed " dames' schools " scattered here and 
there, under irresponsible teachers and usually short- 
lived. They taught the smaller children of both sexes, 
sewing and needle-work being sometimes added. But 
for a thorough education the girls had to resort to the 
public schools or academies and be classed with the boys. 
The richer sort either had teachers in their families or 
sent their daughters to select boarding schools in New 
York or Brooklyn, where they could learn dancing, 
music, drawing and embroidery, with all other accom- 

The first female academy in Queens county was estab- 
lished at Jamaica in 1816, under Mrs. Barnum and Miss 
Bartlette, and it has continued to this day. Since then 
privale schools for girls have rapidly spread throughout 
the county. 

In 1813 the towns of Queens county were divided into 
school districts, with trustees who raised a sum at least 
equal to that given by the State for the support of a 
qualified teacher. The supervision of the schools was 

cumbersome, each town selecting three school commis- 
sioners and three inspectors. The teacher by conniv- 
ance was often allowed (or soon forced; to take the school 
" on his own hook." 

In 1843 the ofifice of county superintendent of com- 
mon schools was created. Pierpont Potter held the 
office till October 6th 1845, when Timothy Titus jr. suc- 
ceeded him. In 1856, the office of county superintendent 
having been abolished, commissioners of common schools 
were elected. Soon after the county was divided into 
two districts. 

The Queens County Sunday-school Association was 
formed in 187 1. The present officers are: President, 
A. H Downer; corresponding secretary, Joseph Bern- 
hard; treasurer, Adam Seabury. 




HE county of Queens has been of old famous 
for its two race-courses, New Market and 
Beaver Pond. Daniel Denton before 1670 
says : " Toward the middle of Long Island 
lyeth a plain 16 miles long and 4 broad, where you 
shall find neither stick nor stone to hinder the 
horses' heels, or endanger them in their races; and 
once a year the best horses in the Island are brought 
hither to try their swiftness, and the swiftest rewarded 
with a silver cup, two being annually procured for that 
purpose." A London book (1776) says: "These Plains 
were celebrated for their races throughout all the Colonies 
and even in England. They were held twice a year for 
a silver cup, to which the gentry of New England and 
New York resorted." 

The first course was established on Salisbury Plains, 
near the present Hyde Park station. Governor Nicolls 
in 1665 appointed a horse-race to take place in Hemp- 
stead, " not so much for the divertisement of youth as for 
encouraging the bettering of the breed of horses, which 
through great neglect has been im])aired." Governor 
Lovelace also appointed by proclamation, about 1669, 
that trials of speed should take place in the month of 
May in each year, and that rubscriptions be taken and 
sent to Captain Salisbury, of all such as were disposed 
to run for a crown of silver or the value thereof in wheat. 
This course, named New Market (and in 1764 called 
" the new course ") from one in England, was in the 
course of years (perhaps in 1804) removed under the 
same name to a large level field east of the old court- 
house, and there continued till about 1821, when horse- 
racing was transferred to the Union course, on the 
western borders of Jamaica, after the passing of an act 
by the Legislature allowing of trials of speed in Queens 




county for a term of years, during the months of May 
and October. In 1S34 the time was extended for 15 
years more, the racing to be between April ist and June 
15th and from September ist to November 15th yearly. 
This course, over a mile in circuit, was on a level sur- 
face, with a nearly oval track. Connected with it was 
a jockey club of above 250 members, who contributed 
1^20 each yearly to the "jockey club purses." This 
course was afterward owned by the "Union Associa- 
tion," capital ;|ioo,ooo, formed upon the act of the 
Legislature of August 2nd 1858. 

On the 27th of May 1823 was run over this course a 
match race of four-mile heats for ^20,000 a side, between 
"Eclipse," 9 years old, bred by General Nathaniel Coles, 
of Dosoris, and carrying 126 pounds, and " Sir Henry," 
4 years old, carrying 108 pounds, bred in North Carolina. 
" Eclipse" won in three heats. It is supposed that ;<§2oo,ooo 
was lost and won on the exciting occasion, and that from 
forty to sixty thousand people were at the race. On May 
loth 1842 there was another match for ^20,000 a side on 
this course, between the Virginia horse " Boston," 9 years 
old, and carrying 126 pounds, and the New Jersey mare 
" Fashion," 5 years old, and carrying 1 1 1 pounds. " Fash- 
ion " won in two heats. From fifty to seventy thousand 
spectators were computed to be present, including a 
great many ladies. 

There was a trotting course formed in 1825 at Centre- 
ville, a mile southeast of the Union course. A railroad 
now runs through it. Here on October 4th 1847 "Albany 
Girl " was matched for $250 to perform 100 miles in har- 
ness in 10 consecutive hours. She broke down after 
traveling 97 J^ miles in 9}^ hours. 

May 31st 1854 the National Association or " National 
Racecourse," with a capital of ^250,000, was formed ; 
and November 26th 1855 the " Fashion Association " was 
formed at Newtown, under the act of the Legislature for 
improving the breed of horses, passed April 15th 1854. 

The " Fashion course " was broken up in 1865 by hav- 
ing the Flushing Railroad pass through it. 

There was a famous race-course of a mile in length 
around Beaver Bond in Jamaica. The date of its first 
establishment seems unknown ; but it was before 1757, 
for in thai year, on June 13th, the New York subscription 
plate was run for and won by Lewis Morris junior's 
horse " American Childers." These races were held 
spring and autumn yearly till or after the close of the 
last century. 

There were other inferior race-courses; one at New- 
town (1758), one (1781) at Timothy Cornell's Poles, 
Hempstead, and another at Captain Polhemus's, New 
Lots, 1778. There were also several races of the 
"Huckleberry Frolic " in Hempstead, and they are con- 
tinued to this day. 

We annex some old advertisements which will show 
something of the spirit and tastes of the earlier sporting 

1750, y//«<r 4th. — On Friday last there was a great 
horse-race on Hempstead Plains, which engaged the at- 
tention of so many of the city of New York that upwards 

of seventy chairs and chaises were carried over Brooklyn 
ferry the day before, besides a far greater number of 
horses. The number of horses on the plains, it was 
thought, far exceeded one thousand. — N. Y. Postboy. 

1758, N'oveiiiber loth. — A purse of ;^io is to be run 
for at Newtown on December 5th, the best of three heats, 
one mile each. Entrance, one dollar, to be paid the day 
before the race to Daniel Betts. — A^. Y. Mercury. 

1763. — New York Free Masons' Purse of $100 to be 
run for April 25th, the best two of three heats, each heat 
three times round Beaver Pond, Jamaica, each horse to 
carry nine stone weight and to be entered with Mr. 
Thomas Braine, paying 30s. entrance. The entrance 
money to be run for next day — the whole to be under 
the inspection of three Free Masons. — New York Mer- 

1764. — To be run for, Apii! 12th, on the new track on 
Hempstead Plains a purse of ^50, the best of three four- 
mile heats, each horse carrying nine stone and paying 
50s. entrance or double at the post. On Friday a purse 
of ;^20 and upwards, free for half-bred horses only, six 
years old and under, carrying eight stone, the best of three 
two-mile heats. Horses to be entered with Mr. John 
Comes, Jamaica. Not less than three reputed horses to 
start, and to be subject to the King's plate articles. 
Judges will be appointed to terminate all disputes. -^iV. Y. 

1764. — New Market Races — To be run for, over the 
new course, Monday October 8th, a purse of ^50, free for 
any horse carrying nine stone, the best of three two-mile 
heats. On Tuesday a purse of ;^2o, free for any horse 
bred in the province of New York. Entrance at Mr. 
John Combs, Jamaica. Certificates, under the hands of 
the breeders, must be produced, of the ages and qualifi- 
cations of the horses that run on Tuesday. — N. Y. Mer- 

1764, October 9th. — Purse, ;,^5o. — Races at New Mar- 
ket, by Mr. Smith's bay horse "' Hero," Mr. Thome's 
grey horse "Starling," and Mr. Leary's bay horse "Old 
England." All imported from England. " Starling " ^ 
gained the first and second heats with ease. — N. Y. Mer- 

1765, March 25th. — To be run for round Beaver Pond, 
at Jamaica, Thursday May 2nd, a piece of i)late of ^20 
value, free for any horse bred in this government, carry- 
ing ten stone. The horses to start at the distance-post 
and run twice round, and as far as the Tree the third 
round, for each heat — the best two of three heats. The 
entrance money to be run for next day by all but the 
winning and distanced horses. Entrance with John 
Comes I OS., or double at the post. — Ne-ii' York Mercury. 

1768. — New Market Races, Friday October 21st; purse, 
_;^5o. The best of three four- mile heats, free for any 
horse. Saturday, a purse of ;^5o for four-year-old 
horses; 50s. entrance. Horses to be shown and entered 
at the starting post the day before running, in presence 
of the judges. Disputes will be decided by a majority of 
the subscribers present. The winning horse each day to 
pay 50s. to put the course in order. No less than three 
reputed horses to be allowed to start, at 12 o'clock each 
day. — N. Y. Mercury. 

i']']i, September 12th. — The purse of ^100, by the 
Macaroni Club, was run for at New Market last Monday, 
by Mr. Delancey's horse " Lath " and Mr. VVaters's horse 
" Liberty," which was won with great ease by the former. 
As a field could not be made the next day for the purse 
of ^$0, the matter was postponed until the next season. 



1772. — Races — The Macaroni purse of ^100, at New 
Market, June 2nd, was won by Captain Delancey's 
"Bashaw," beating Mr. Richard Thome's mare " Rain- 
bow," and Mr. Waters's "Slouch." The ^50 purse, next 
day, was won by Mr. Waters's liorse " King Herod," who 
beat Captain Dehxncey's filly. — ^V. Y. Gazette. 

1778, October 14th. — The races at Captain Polhemus's, 
New Lots, are changed to Jamaica. Purse, 20 guineas. 

1779, Jamaica Races, October 26th. — 20 guineas, 3 heats; 
around Beaver Pond course twice to each heat. 

1779, November 6th. — New Market Races, Hempstead 
Plains, on Wednesday; a purse of 20 guineas; the best 
of three two-mile circular heats, free for any horse ex- 
,cept " Dulcimore." Also a bet of 100 guineas, one two 
mile heat, "Cyrus" and " Doctor." A match between 
the noted horse " Dulcimore " and the roan gelding 
" Kettlebander," for 400 guineas, two miles. God save 
the King! 

1 781, March 14th. — Fifty Joes to be run for by 
" Eclipse " and " Sturdy Beggar," at Captain Tim. Cor- 
nell's Poles, Hempstead Plains, a single two-mile heat. 

1782, October 19th. — To be run for around Beaver 
Pond, a purse of ^50; the best two in three one-mile 
heats, free for any horse except " Mercury," " Slow-and- 
Easy " and "Goldfinder." One guinea entrance, to be 
paid at the sign of the King's Arms, Jamaica. 

1783, June 28th. — To be run for Wednesday next 
around Beaver Pond, a purse of 100 guineas by the noted 
mare "Calfskin " and the noted horse "Lofty," of Bos- 

1783. — A matcii for 200 guineas. May 29th, over New 
Market course, Hempstead Plains, between John Talman's 
" Eclipse " and Jacob Jackson's " Young Slow and Easy," 
the best two in three four-mile heats. 

1785, May 5th. — New Market Races— \<!'\\\ be run for, 
on June 4th, the Hunters' subscription purse and sweep- 
stakes of ten guineas each. June 6th — a whip to be run 
for, presented by the sportsmen of the army and navy, 
and the name of the winning horse to be engraved on it, 
No horse that has not been a fortnight in training on 
Hempstead course can run. 

1785, October 19th. — Last Friday were the sweepstakes 
over Beaver Pond, Jamaica. Heats one mile by 
The black horse " Ariel," . . . . i i 
Bay mare " Matchless," - - - - 3 2 
The gelding "Sloven," - - - - 4 3 

The horse " Brilliant," - - - - 2 4 

The second heat was admirably disputed and won by 
a neck, from the mare, which was the proud winner a 
few months ago. 

1786. — Far Rockaivay Races, Wednesday September 
6th, at 3 p. M., on that convenient and spacious ground 
(a mile course) near Jacob Hicks's inn. ^2o,the best three 
of two-mile heats. The next day a J^\o purse, the best 
three of one-mile 'heats. No crossing, jostling or foul 
play countenanced, or if detected the rider will be pro- 
nounced distanced. J. H., from a wish to gratify a num- 
ber of gentlemen who visit his house, particularly sports- 
men, is induced to set on foot so noble and manly a 
diversion, and wishes the same principle may excite gen- 
tlemen to contribute to the purse. 

1794, October 8th. — The Beaver Pond races took place 
on Tuesday last. Six horses ran for the purse of ;^ioo. 
" Polydore," of New York, took the first and second heat 
and purse. On Wednesday a purse of ^50 was run for 
by seven horses, and taken by " Young Messenger," from 

New Jersey, over " Gold Toes," of New York, who won 
the first heat. On Thursday a purse of J^d,"] los. was 
run for by six horses, and taken by " Red Bird." 
There were between two and three thousand spectators 
and no accident happened. — N. Y. Journal. 

1795, October 31st — At the New Market course, on 
Wednesday last, was a match race for .fisoo by Mr. Sea- 
bury's horse " Polydore " and Mr. Allen's mare "Virginia 
Nell." The latter won. They ran the two four-mile 
heats. The running was equal, if not superior, to any 
before. " Polydore " has traveled too much of late. — 
.V. Y. Journal. 




HEN first visited by Europeans Queens 
county appears to have been well wooded, 
with occasional clearings, except that 
Hem])stead Plains, 16 miles long and 4 
broad, were covered with a luxuriant 
growth of wild grass and a humble shrubbery of 
oak and other forest trees that were mere dwarfs 
in stature, Denton, writing in 1670, says: " The greatest 
part of the island is very full of timber, as oaks white 
and red, walnut trees, chestnut trees, maples, cedars, 
saxifrage, beech, birch, holly, hazel, with many sorts 
more. For wild beasts there is bear, deer, wolves, foxes, 
raccoons and great store of wild fowl, as turkeys, heath- 
hens, quails, partridges, cranes, ducks, brant, widgeons, 
pigeons, teal, geese of several sorts; and on the south 
side lie great store of whales, grampuses and seals." 
Two-thirds Qf the Indians had already become extinct. 

The cutting down of trees has in several places dimin- 
ished and even dried up the primitive streams. The 
felling of trees and clearing up woodlands being often 
done in an irregular and wasteful manner, the several 
towns soon found it necessary to enact sundry regula- 
tions. To illustrate their way of proceeding it will be 
necessary to make some extracts from the old records. 

In selling land to the early settlers the Indians at Ja- 
maica stipulated that one thing to be remembered by the 
whites was that they should not cut down trees " wherein 
eagles do make their nests." In 1656 it was ordered 
that " whosoever fells trees in the highway shall remove 
them." All persons 16 years of age and upwards were 
required in 1674 to cut down brush about the town or 
forfeit 5 shillings each time. In 1691, August 5th, " it 
is ordered that the brush be cut off 4 days in the year by 
every landholder, under pe^nalty of 3 pence a day for de- 

At Oyster Bay the town voted (June 30th 1684) that 
the townspeople turn out and "cut the brush, and that 
there be a forfeit of 5 shillings per day for each man de- 
fective." In 1686, February 13th, the town ordered that 



" no trees be cut down or felled in the streets or com- 
mon, under 5 shillings penalty for each tree; but any one 
may lop a tree growing before his door or by his fence, 
that may be an annoyance, provided he don't kill the 
tree." November loth 1693 "trees, saplings, brush- 
wood fallen or cast upon or across the road (whereby 
people are forced to turn out of the road, many in much 
danger) are to be cleared off in 3 days; then to be cleared 
off entirely in 20 days after the date of such annoyance, 
under penalty of 20 shillings for every tree." 

In Newtown January 30th 1668 the town voted that 
any inhabitant might fall timber for his own use in unin- 
closed land; but none should cart wood or timber for 
strangers to the water side, the forfeit being 10 shillings 
per load. December 2nd 1676, the town ordered that 
" no one shall transport timber except fire-wood out of 
the town." In Hempstead it was voted in 1708 that " if 
any person should girdle or peel the bark of any stand- 
ing tree on the undivided lands he shall pay 6 shillings 
in money," and in 181 2 a committee was appointed " to 
prevent undue waste of timber and trees standing on the 
common lands." 

The forest trees were cut down not only for timber for 
framing buildings and fuel; but also, after the erection 
of saw-mills, staves and heading were shipped to the West 
Indies to make molasses, rum and sugar hogsheads; clap- 
boards, shingles, boards and planks were in demand for 
building purposes; ship timber was needed for the ship 
yards in New York and Long Island. Immense quantities 
of wood were sent by market-boats to New York, where 
it was the chief fuel till the introduction of anthracite 
coal, about 1825. Indeed the persistent clearing off of 
woodlands threatens to dry up our streams and change our 
climate. The wasteful consumption of wood in the wide 
open fire-places of our ancestors can hardly be conceived 
of by the present generation, who sit in close rooms kept 
warm by patent stoves day and night. 

The destruction of the native growth of timber has 
been one of the causes promoting the nursery business, 
which has grown to such remarkable dimensions. The 
different nurseries are treated of in the histories of their 
localities. The advantage of so many nurseries in this 
county is perceived in the large number of superior var- 
ieties of apples and pears, and still more in the general 
planting of shade and ornamental trees. Few counties 
can compare with Queens in beautiful parks and door- 
yards, and no house is deemed complete unless sur- 
rounded with handsome shade trees and evergreens, in- 
terspersed with flowering shrubs and beds of flowers. 
There are few desirable shade trees indigenous to the 
local forests. A few ash, elm, tulip and liquidamber or 
sweet gum trees are found in the woods, but the chief 
supply must come from other parts, as the native oak, 
chestnut and hickory will rarely repay transplanting. 
The best variety that is adapted to the soil of the middle 
States, enduring winter's cold and summer's drouth, is 
the Norway maple. Leaving out early in spring, bearing 
pretty yellow flowers, it holds its leaves perfect until the 
late autumn frosts gradually disrobe it. The next is the 

silver or white maple, of quick erect growth, which is 
more planted than any other. Sycamore and sugar maple 
in suitable soil thrive well. The noble American elm — the 
classic tree of New England— and basswood or American 
linden have their admirers, and none are of more rapid 
growth or more symmetrical than the tulip tree. Passing 
on to the evergreens, it is remarked by strangers how 
many evergreens are planted on Long Island. The pines, 
erect and widespreading, intermixed with Norway 
spruces, enliven many a winter home and rob stern win- 
ter of its bleakness. Few are the country houses around 
which the eveegreens, in hedge or windbreak, do not defy 
the northern blast. There is no hedge more beautiful than 
the hemlock, properly trimmed. Arbor vittes, both Ameri- 
can and European, -are largely planted for this purpose. 
Evergreens are often planted in August and September, 
but most prefer April and May. Unlike deciduous trees, 
their leaves evaporate moisture continually, and if it is 
very dry soon after they are planted they often perish, 
with all the care generally bestowed in their planting. 
Many flowering trees are now planted. The varieties of 
hardy trees of this description are numerous. The 
Chinese magnolia in full bloom is magnificent; the horse- 
chestnuts, both white and red, please the eyes of all; the 
flowering thorn, cherry, peach and plum, with the grace- 
ful new weeping willows, help to make a pleasing variety, 
and the purple beech pleasingly contrasts with all these 
if arranged in good taste in regard to effect and color. 



HERE were three series of fairs established in 
succession in Queens county. The first was 
in 1693, after the English custom: "To 
remedy the inconvenience of a want of cer- 
tain market days, and that trade may be bet- 
ter encouraged, the General Assembly of the 
colony of New York enact that a public and open 
market be held at Jamaica every Thursday for sale or 
barter, in gross or retail, of cattle, grain, victuals, provis- 
ions and other necessities, and of all sorts of merchandise, 
from 8 o'clock a, m. till sunset, wilhout payment of toll." 
A fair at Jamaica, beginning on the first Tuesday in 
May and the third Tuesday in October, and continuing 
four days, was also established. A governor and ruler of 
the fair was to hold a court oi pypowdcr (as it was called) 
" to limit out an open place where horses and other 
cattle may be sold," to appoint a toll gatherer to take 
nine pence for every horse sold, and to enter in a book 
its mark and color, and the name and dwelling place of 
the parties to the bargain. 

In 1728 the fair opened on May 6th and continued 



four days, during which there were exposed for sale a 
variety of goods and merchandise and several fine horses. 
A lion also was on show to enhance the interest of the 
occasion. We know nothing further of the success or 
continuance of this fair, e.xcept that in May 1774 John 
Rapelye was governor and superintendent, and that 
Robert Brooks was clerk of two fairs for Queens county, 
to be held at Jamaica on the first Tuesday in May and 
the third Tuesday in October, each to continue four 

A meeting for the formation of an agricultural society 
for Queens county was held at the old court-house near 
Mineola on November nth 1817. Of this Lewis S. Hew- 
lett was chairman and John I. Cromwell secretary. Its 
object was to improve the method of farming, the raising 
of stock and rural economy. To the committee were 
added Garrett Laton, Major William Jones and Henry O. 
Seaman. The society was organized June 21st 1819, by 
electing Rufus King president; Effingham Lawrence, 
Singleton Mitchell and AVilliam Jones, vice-presidents; 
Rev. David S. Bogart, corresponding secretary; Thomas 
Philips, recording secretary, and Daniel Kissam, treas- 

The first exhibition was held at the court-house on the 
first Tuesday in November 1819. Premiums to the 
amount of $200 were awarded for corn, potatoes, ruta- 
baga turnips, cloths, cattle, sheep, swine, and one four- 
year-old gelding. No imported animal was exhibited. 
In 1820 more persons were assembled at the fair than on 
any previous occasion. Premiums were awarded (among 
others) to Rufus King for the best milch cow, to Joseph 
Onderdonk for rutabagas, and to Townsend Cock for his 
celebrated horse " Duroc." 

In 182 1 the exhibition list was increased, and premiums 
to the amount of $369 were awarded for potatoes, wheat, 
rye, flax, barley, carpets, mittens, stockings, etc. To 
Henry Covert $10 was allowed for a garden plough and 
machines for planting beans and sowing turnip seed; and 
to Garrett Laton ^10 for the most cloth made in one 
family, viz.: 202 yards of woolen and 363 yards of linen. 
There was a varied display of domestic animals. At the 
last fair in 1822 specimens of cotton were exhibited by 
Colonel Leverich, of Newtown. Tunis D. Covert, of 
Jamaica South, raised 60 hills, and Daniel C. Coles, of 
Oyster Bay, raised cotton sufficient to make 20 yards of 
muslin. In addition to the usual articles, kidney pota- 
toes, working oxen, Indian corn and linen sheetings were 
on exhibition. The premiums reached the sum of ^263.50. 
An address was delivered by Judge Effingham Lawrence, 
who was introduced to the audience assembled in the 
court-house by a few prefatory remarks from Rufus 
King, president of the society. This was the last meet- 
ing of the society. It failed from a lack of interest in the 
farming community. 

The present Queens County Agricultural Society 
originated at a meeting of the executive committee of the 
New York State Agricultural Society, held at William 
Niblo's in New York city July 21st 1841, when a com- 
mittee was appointed, of the following persons, to solicit 

donations and new members to the society, and to make 
arrangements for the organization of an agricultural so- 
ciety for Queens county: New/own, Grant Thorburn, 
Garret Cowenhoven; Flushing, John W. Lawrence, Ef- 
fingham Lawrence; North Hempstead, Singleton Mitchell, 
Robert W. Mott; Oyster Bay, John Wells, Albert G. 
Carll; Hempstead, John Bedell, Edward H. Seaman; 
Jamaica, William R. Gracie, John Johnson. 

On October 2nd 1841 a meeting was held at the court- 
house. Singleton Mitchell was called to the chair and 
Albert G. Carll appointed secretary; when it was unani- 
mously resolved that " it is expedient to form an agricul- 
tural society in this county," and that a committee of one 
person from each town be appointed to report a consti- 
tution. The chair appointed Robert W. Mott, John G. 
Lamberson, Effingham Lawrence, Thomas B. Jackson, 
John Johnson and Albert G. Carll. On October 9th 
1841 the society was organized, with the following offi- 

Effingham Lawrence, president; George Nostrand, 
William Henry Carter, Thomas B. Jackson, Piatt Wiilets, 
Singleton Mitchell and George D. Coles, vice-presidents; 
Albert G. Carll, corresponding secretary; John G. Lam- 
berson, recording secretary; Daniel K. Youngs, treasurer. 

The first circular was issued March 21st 1842, with 
this appeal to the people of the county: "We ask ycu to 
unite with the society and give it your encouragement; 
and not let it be said that the farmers of Queens county 
have not sufficient spirit to keep an agricultural society 
in existence." 

Arrangements were made to hold the first fair on 
Thursday October 13th 1842, at Anderson's hotel, in 
Hempstead, and Vice-Chancellor McCoun was invited to 
deliver the address. On the appointed day a procession 
of the Hempstead band, clergy, orator, officers and mem- 
bers of the society and citizens generally was formed 
and marched from the hotel to the Methodist church, 
which was well filled. An ode composed by William 
Cullen Bryant was sung, prayer made and the address 
delivered. The receipts for the year, including ^91 given 
by the State, amounted to $338, of which about $250 
was awarded in premiums. 

The second fair was also held at Hempstead, October 
17th, 1843, over 6,000 persons being present, and another 
of Bryant's odes was sung under a tent erected in the 
yard of the hotel, which proved much too small for the 
proper display of the flowers, grain, fruits and needle- 
work. The receipts were ^368.85, including 1^91 from 
the State; about $350 was paid in premiums. Daniel 
S. Dickinson addressed the people, standing in a wagon 
drawn up to the door of the tent. At a sumptuous din- 
ner, got up by Anderson, the orator was welcomed to 
Queens county and his health proposed in an eloquent 
speech, which was happily responded toby the lieutenant 

The third fair was held at Jamaica October loth 1844. 
The trustees and teachers were thanked for the use of 
Union Hall Academy, where fruits, vegetables, domestic 
articles and works were displayed. The receipts, includ- 



ing$9i from the State, were ^410.12. Gabriel Inirman 
gave the address in the Presbyterian church. The cattle 
grounds were on Union Hall street. 

The fourth fair was held at Hempstead, October 
9th 1S45. A large tent and shed were erected on a lot 
opposite the Episcopal parsonage. Owing to the rainy 
weather the receipts were only $201.81, including ^91 
from the State. Henry W. Piatt exhibited 56 varieties 
of apples and Jacob Williams 6t. Some specimens of old 
continental money and an inksland used by William 
Penn were on exhibition. J. S. Skinner made the ad- 
dress in the open air. 

The fifth fair was held at Flashing, October 9th 1846, 
when and where the American Institute, of New York, 
held a plowing and spading match. There was a band 
of music from Governor's Island. The performers and 
delegates rode through the village in a wagon tastefully 
decorated ,and drawn by 36 yoke of oxen. The exhibi- 
tion tent was decked with flowers from Flushing's far- 
famed nurseries. Dr. Gardiner gave the address in the 
Reformed church. The receipts were $349.20. Book 
premiums were now first given. Stock was allowed to be 
sold after the exhibition was over. 

The net receipts for 1847-8 were only $175. The fair 
of 1849, at Flushing, somewhat improved the finances, 
the receipts being $445.27; but many premiums remained 
unpaid, and a voluntary subscription had to be taken up 
to pay them. 

A tent only 50 feet in diameter contained nearly all 
the articles exhibited at Hempstead in 1850. The cattle 
were put in a field near the place of exhibition and the 
horses were shown on the turnpike. The receipts were 
$591.66, there having been a large accession of members, 
especially from Jamaica. The fairs were held by turns 
at Hempstead, Flushing and Jamaica. 

In 1852, September 2g,th, the fair was held at Flushing. 
The delegation from the American Institute and invited 
guests rode from the steamboat wharf to the fair grounds 
in a wagon drawn by 56 yoke of fine oxen, with music, 
under escort of Bragg's horse guards and the Hamilton 
rifles. The premiums consisted of 231 books, 300 dip- 
lomas, 33 silver cups, 7 silver medals, and 6 silver butter 
knives, together with cash premiums, amounting in all 
to nearly $800. The receipts were $445.27. There was 
a plowing match and a fine display of flowers and 
fruits. The horses, decendants of " Eclipse," " Messen- 
ger," " Engineer," " Mambrino," " Abdallah," iVc, were 
of truer form and points than those at the State fair. 

In 1853 premiums were offered for the best loaf of 
wheat and rye bread made by a girl under 21 years of 
age; also for cheese, quinces, cranberries, honey, silk, 
&c. There was a plowing match for four premiums. 
On the last day of the fair there was an auction sale of 
stock (registered in a book), horses, sheep, swine and 
farm implements. No fine-wooled sheep had been ex- 
hibited for years. 

In 1854 there were three premiums offered for the best 
butter made by a girl under 21. Badges and four tickets 
of admission to the grounds were furnished each member 

on the payment of $1; the price of single tickets was 
i2j^ cents. Those not members wefe required to pay 
$1 on entering articles for premiums. In 1861 ladies' 
needle-work was admitted free. 

The receipts for the first 10 years were $4,101.59; for 
the second 10 years $19,096.11. During the succeeding 
4 years the gross receipts were $20,071.51; and the fairs 
were held on ground fenced in, with increased facilities 
for the display of stock and other articles. 

On November 30th 1857 the society, having greatly in- 
creased its membership and improved its finances, was in- 
corporated, in order that it might hold real and personal 
property without taxation, and occupy an equal position 
of respectability with its sister societies in the State; its 
object being to encourage and improve agriculture, hor- 
ticulture and the mechanic arts. The corporators were 
John Harold, John Bedell, Joseph Tompkins, William 
T. McCoun, Samuel T. Jackson, Beniamin W. Doughty, 
Jeremiah Valentine, Urir.h MitchLlI, Samuel L, Hewlett, 
and James P. Smith. A service of plate was presented 
to John Harold. 

At the fair of 1857 the ))resident of the society, John 
A. King, and William T. McCoun rode through Jamaica 
to the sound of music, in a wagon drawn by 13 yoke of 
oxen, followed by another drawn by 10 yoke of oxen. 

On July ist 1858 there was an interesting trial of 8 
mowing machines on the farm of Valentine Willis, near 
Mineola, amid a large concourse of spectators. The first 
premium wa^ given to the Buckeye mower, the second 
to Jerome's combined mower and reaper. 

At the fall fair held at Flushing September 22nd 1858 
there M^ere 28 premiums offered for farm implements. 
The wagons containing the committee of reception and 
invited guests and Shelton's brass band were drawn by 
about 50 yoke of oxen through the principal streets of 
the village, to a " lo-acre lot of Thomas Legget junior, 
which was enclosed with a high board fence. A quarter- 
mile track was graded and roped in for the exhibition of 
horses. A large tent was erected on a gentle eminence. 
On the grounds were 7,000 persons. The receipts were 
$1,405.72, including $659.72 for tickets sold. The pick- 
pockets reaped a harvest in a small way. Simon R. 
Browne exhibited 20 of his fine horses, and E. A. Law- 
rence a fat ox weighing 2,500 pounds. Gabriel Winter 
contributed a floral temple. Drawings by pupils of the 
Whitestone school were on exhibition, also Duryea's corn 
starch; ground almonds and peanuts were grown by 
George Lawrence. The local committee assumed all the 
expenses of the fair, amounting to $800. 

In 1859 the fair was held in a ten-acre lot at Hemp- 
stead, and 5,000 persons were present. Three premiums 
were offered for the best trotting horse and 7 premiums 
for carriages, market wagons and harness. Two market 
wagons attached together, covered with a canopy of 
sheaves of corn, wheat, &c., and drawn by 15 yoke of 
cattle, with banners and music, brought in a delegation 
from Flushing. About 100 cattle were on exhibition 
and nearly as many horses. Jacob Williams exhibited 
80 varieties of apples and pears, and Isaac Hicks 87. 

FAIRS OF 1860-73. 


On September 19th i860 the fair was held on land 
of B. N. Creed at Jamaica. There were 8,000 spectators. 
Premiums were offered for trotting horses and stoves; 
and ^10 each for essays on the agricultural history of 
Queens county, on horses and on the potato and its dis- 
eases. Ladies' needle-work and fancy work was now ad- 
mitted free and admission tickets given the exhibitors. 
The horses " Enterprise," "Jupiter," and " Abdailah " 
received premiums. Mr. Burgess showed 140 varieties 
of flowers. Isaac B. Lewis had the greatest variety of 
vegetables and a pumpkin of 140 pounds. 

At the fair of 1861 a single admission was fi.xed at 15 
cents; carriage $2; no horses to be hitched on the 
grounds. The officers now wore crimson rosettes and 
the judges white badges. 

In 1862 the fair was held on the Fashion course, New- 
town. Admission tickets were raised to 25 cents, and a 
police force was employed. Premiums were offered for 
the best specimens of writing from any public school in 
the county. Premiums were offered for shorthorns, 
Devons, Herefords, Ayrshires and Alderneys, and other 
than thoroughbreds. S. R. Bowne offered a special pre- 
mium of ^100 for the best stallion; and the Flushing 
Railroad Company $100 for the best trotter in harness, 
driven by the owner; ^20 for the best trained saddle 
horse, and $250 for the best pair of road horses. 

At the annual town meeting in Hempstead on April 
3d 1866 a paralellogram of 40 acres of plain lands near 
Mineola was voted to the society for a nominal sum; but 
to revert to the town when it ceases to be used by the 
society for the promotion of agriculture. This vote was 
legalized by the Legislature April 23d 1867. 

On June i8th the board of managers met to consider 
plans and estimates for the proposed improvements. 
The secretary, John Harold, presented plans of buildings, 
which were adopted. On July 26th the first post was set 
and work fairly begun. Digging post holes, grading, 
carting lumber, etc., were so hurried on by voluntary 
labor that the grounds in about seven weeks were ready for 
the fair held September 27th and 28th 1866, when there 
were 170 entries of horses, and trials of speed took place 
on the oval half-mile track on Thursday, Friday and 
Saturday afternoons. 

The gross receipts for the first four years of perma- 
nent location at Mineola were $50,317.23, of which $9,- 
500 was borrowed on interest. In addition to the volun- 
tary labor and donations $24,000 was expended in con- 
struction. The cost of the hall was ,$8,115.32; of the 
stalls, stables, etc., $9,809.47; of trees planted, $116.22. 

The first horticultural exhibition was held on Friday 
June 2ist 1867. A premium of $10 was offered for the 
best collection of vegetables by a market gardener. 
There were premiums also for strawberries, flowers, 
spring vegetables and house plants in pots. Forty pre- 
miums were awarded. The net proceeds of the ladies' 
festival amounted to $846.75. 

At the fall fair $15 was offered for 40 varieties of 
apples and the best 20 varieties of pears. 

The premium list kept steadily extending so as to em- 

brace a greater and greater variety of articles. Figs, 
oranges and lemons were now added to the list. On 
June 23d 1869 a horticultural show was held of flowers, 
floral designs, etc. There were 120 varieties of roses 
from T. VV. Kennard, of Glen Cove; also fine grapes, 
lemons, oranges, bananas, and exotics from Brazil. There 
were fine roses from William A. Burgess; roses and cut- 
flowers from Isaac Hicks & Sons; Barbarossa grapes 
from Mrs. Brownson, and 48 seedling strawberries from 
E. H. Bogart. In 1870 hand lawn-mowers were on ex- 
hibition. The ladies held a festival, the net proceeds of 
which ($758.76) were applied toward liquidating the debt 
of the society. 

The fall fair of 1869 was the best so far held in regard 
to articles on show and numbers in attendance. There 
were 118 entries of cattle, for which $365 in premiums 
was awarded; 161 of horses, for which $450 was awarded; 
70 of sheep; 206 of poultry, for which $172 was 
awarded; 88 of articles for the table, for which $50 was 
awarded; 265 of needle-work; 280 of manufactured 
articles; $101 was awarded for swine; $70 for vege- 
tables; $130 for carriages; $281 for fruits and flowers 
The receipts from all sources were $8,785.56; the ex- 
penditures were $8,690.62. The total amount of the so- 
ciety's indebtedness was $1,500. 

At the fall fair, 1870, $2,049 "^"^^^ P^'^ o^'^ '" premiums. 
The Long Island Railroad usually conveyed articles to 
and from the ground free of charge. The fee for life 
membership was raised from $10 to $25. The entrance 
fees and carriage tickets amounted to $3,622.73; from 
rent of ground and buildings $980.85 was received. 

At the horticultutal show on June 14th 1871 Allen & 
Co. exhibited a miniature garden, laid out with walks and 
terraces, blooming with choice flowers, and having a 
fountain in the center. Varieties of fine strawberries 
were exhibited by Messrs. Seaman, Bogart & Snedeker, 
and hot-house grapes by Mr. Bronson. There was paid 
in premiums $233. The remaining grounds were now 
fenced in with locust posts, rails fastened on hitching- 
posts for tying over 400 teams, and a well was dug for 
watering horses. The cost of these improvements was 
$728.93. At the fall fair, besides the usual articles, there 
were shown endless varieties of wines, cordials, bread, 
cakes, jellies, pies, preserves, pickles, canned fruits, etc., 
etc. The vegetables required for their proper display 
nearly 200 feet in length of table room. For premiums 
$2,624 ^^'^s paid. 

For the fall fair of 1872 premiums were offered for 
thoroughbred shorthorned cattle, Devons, Herefords, 
Ayrshires and Alderneys, for grade and native cattle, 
working oxen, working horses, matched and saddle 
horses, muies and ponies; foreign and native grapes* 
quinces, plums, peaches, cranberries, blackberries, figs, 
oranges, lemons, melons, knitting, netting, crochet and 
fancy work, paintings, musical instruments, etc. 

At the horticultural show in 1873 there was a trial of 
hand lawn-mowers. The premiums paid at the fall meet- 
ing amounted to $2,541. The judges complained of a 
lack of correct pedigrees of cattle and horses, the answers 



from the competitors being loosely given— that it was a 
" Mjssenger" mare, or a " Bellfounder," " Hambletonian," 
"Almack," "Abdallah " or " Eclipse," or simply a thor- 
oughbred mare. " Messenger " was imported in 1797 and 
died on Long Island in 1808. 

In 1874 a new grand stand was erected, stabling ac- 
commodations were increased, and the track was im- 
proved, at a cost of ^8,482.32, and the society yet had a 
debt of ^2,oco. At the fall e.vhibition there were 130 
entries of cattle, 189 of horses and 63 of sheep. In swine 
the Berkshire took the lead. Nearly all the different 
breeds of poultry were represented. A gold medal was 
given A. Corbet, of Hicksville, for his chicken-incubatoi 
and artificial mother. For the bench show of dogs there 
were 120 entries. There was the largest show ever 
made in the county of farm implements; ^3.814 was paid 
out in premiums. 

In 1875 two days v.-ere allowed for the horticultural 
show. There was a grand plowing match; a bench 
show of dogs; the American game of base ball was played 
by amateurs, residents of the county, for a silver ball 
given by the society; ^2,397 was paid in special premiums. 

In 1876 there was a balance of 5^3,007.23 in the 
treasury. At ihe horticultural exhibition was held a 
" ladies' festival," which made a handsome contribution 
to the funds of the society. A base ball tournament at- 
tracted much attention, as well as the display of horses. A 
few of the Montauk and Shinnecock Indians were present 
as visitors. The crowning feature of the occasion was 
the Centennial exhibition of relics of olden times, such 
as old books, documents of every kind, Indian deeds, 
newspapets, old-fashioned implements of household and 
kitchen furniture, antiquated dresses, needle-work, swords, 
etc., etc. The variety was endless and gave unbounded 
pleasure to the curious. 

At the fall fair the show of horses exceeded all pre- 
vious years. Potatoes were injured by the Colorado 
beetle. Fertilizers were put on exhibition. The receipts 
from life members were $1,130; and $3,689 was paid in 

The total exhibits for 1877 were 2,700. The premiums 
■reached the sum of $3,813; the sum of $2,000 was de- 
posited in a savings bank, leaving a cash balance of 
$2,036.32 in the treasurer's hands. 

In 1868 a dining hall was built. The premium list em- 
braced 643 first prizes and rose to the sum of $4,487.90. 
From the ladies' agricultural fete $1 13.90 was realized; 
from annual carriage tickets $440; from rent of stands 
$866.49. The interest of the horticultural show was en- 
hanced by an exhibition of school work, such as compo- 
sitions, maps, drawing, penmanship, etc., which occupied 
one wing of the hall, and received 24 premiums. The 
novel feature of the fair was lacrosse, polo and hurdle 
jumping by the Queens county hunt. The old grand stand 
was razed and the site seeded and set with shade treee. 

In June 1879 there was a field trial of mowing ma- 
chines. The proceeds of the ladies' festival, $533.74, 
were deposited in a savings bank. The appropriation 
from the State was $221.81. A custodian was appointed 

to be in constant daily attendance on the grounds through- 
out the year; the track was widened and remodeled , drive- 
ways and paths were laid out and graded, and additional 
shade trees planted. At the fall fair there was a mule 
race. For a large number of premiums for grain and 
vegetables there was no competition. An automatic 
reaper and binder was shown. The school exhibit was 
discontinued after this year. There wi re 16 competing 
teachers and 143 pupils. 

On the night of October 29th 1880 ninety-two horse- 
sheds were burned. An insurance of $600 covered about 
half the loss. The contract for rebuilding them 24 by 
150 feet, for $1,150, was awarded to H. C. Robinson, of 
Jamaica. At the fall fair the dining hall was better man- 
aged than heretofore. The ladies' festival committee had 
a credit of $831.06 in the Roslyn Savings Bank. The 
premiums paid out were $4,322, being $700 less than the 
previous year. The balance in the treasury was $2,177.- 
64. The army worm, potato beetle, cabbage worm and 
an early drought made a bad season for farmers' produce. 
The pleuro-pneumonia scare prevented the usual show of 
cattle. Dorsetshire and Yorkshire swine were exhibited 
by Mr. Belmont. There were also native and seedling 
grapes, a unique display of taxidermy and Jersey marl 
and artificial fertilizers. Premiums for a plowing con- 
test at the summer exhibition were offered to the amount 
of $30, and $50 for bicycling. There were five com- 
petitors for the former and ten for the 'latter. 

The horticultural exhibition Tuesday and Wednesday 
June 8th and 9th 1881 was too early for the backward sea- 
son. William A. Burgess had the most roses, including the 
Mareschal Neil; Albert Beng had a great variety of cut 
flowers; T. D. Cook had three cauliflowers; Mr. Barnum 
had the greatest variety of vegetables raised by one ex- 
hibitor: J. H. Van Nostrand had peas in pod, cabbage, 
lettuce, etc.; E. P. Roche had over 70 varieties of straw- 
berries, one plant bearing over 200 berries. There were 
cheeses from the creamery in Roslyn. 

The fall fair was held September 27th, 28th and 29th; 
E. J. Jerome was superintendent of the hall. The fourth 
annual fete was held on the evening of September 8th. 

The presidents of the society have been as follows: 
Effingham Lawrence, 1841-44; Singleton Mitchell, 1845; 
William T. McCoun, 1847, 1856; John A. King, 1848; 
D. R. F. Jones, 1858; Edward A. Lawrence, i860; Daniel 
K. Youngs, 1861; John C. Jackson, 1863, 1874; Samuel 
T. Taber, 1866, 1869; Peter C. Barnum, 1868; Charles 
H. Jones, 1870; Robert Willets, 1873; Horatio S. Parke, 
1876; Thomas Messenger, 1877; George T. Hewlett, 
1878; Townsend D. Cock, 1879. 

Recording secretaries: John G. Lamberson, 1842: Ed- 
ward H. Seaman, 1843; John H. Seaman, 1854; Robert 
Willets, 1855; J. Howard Rushmore, 1877. 

Corresponding secretary, Albert G. Carll, 1841. 

Secretary and treasurer, John Harold, 1850-72. 

Treasurers: Daniel K.Youngs, 1841; William Ketcham, 
1846; John Harold, 1850; Benjamin D. Hicks, 1873; 
Roswell Eldridge, 1876; Samuel Willets, 1878; James 
R. Willets, 1881. 







N the Southern States taking their first meas- 
ures for withdrawing from the federal Union 
Queens county generally raised a dissenting 
voice. Whenever a "peace meeting" was 
advertised it was at once put down. The 
peacemakers and friends of the South were 
called "snakes," "copperheads," " secesh " and 
the like, and there were occasional family feuds growing 
out of a diversity of opinion. There were many patriotic 
meetings and visible signs of popular opinion, such as 
flag-raisings, which inflamed and fed the war sentiment. 

When the men were about leaving their families and 
setting out for the seat of war " soldiers' aid societies " 
and "home relief associations " were formed to provide 
for the families of absent soldiers. Hospital supplies and 
clothing were sent to the Sanitary Commission at Wash- 
ington. Even the " Friends " were active in a cause that 
held out liberty to the slave. 

A camp of instruction, called "Winfield Scott," was 
formed on Hempstead Plains and barracks for " Camp 
WoodhuU " were set up in Doughty's Grove, near Queens. 

All sojourners from the South were put under sur- 
veillance and espionage; and resident citizens of doubt- 
ful standing were waited upon by rough-hewn patriots 
and forced to hurrah for the Union in order to escape 
rude handling. A Union war meeting was held at New- 
town, when a huge coffin mounted on wheels was trundled 
through the streets, labeled " Newtown Secession died 
out August 29th 1861;" southern rebels and northern 
traitors were alike denounced. 

There were so many calls for men to suppress the re- 
bellion that volunteers were at length hard to be got and 
a draft had to be resorted to. The board of enrollment 
included Colonel Rose, who died January 12th 1864 and 
was succeeded by Captain James A. Fleury as provost- 
marshal. William T. McCoun was commissioner, Drs. 
Prior, Ordronaux and Richardson were in succession 
examining surgeons. The first draft for Queens county 
was set down for July 15th 1863, the quota being 1,603; 
but was put off till September 2nd. owing to the Irish 
anti-draft riot which broke out at Jama'ca on the even- 
ing of July 14th. Its purpose was to stop the draft which 
was to commence on the morrow. Rumors of intended 
violence were rife during the day, and some friends of 
order felt disposed to arm themselves in defense of gov- 
ernment, but timid counsels prevailed, and the village 
was left at the mercy of the rioters. About dusk they 
began to collect. A. Hagner and H. W. Johnson ex- 
horted them to observe the laws. This was not to their 
taste and some one cried out, " Now for the clothing." 
At once they went to the building where the government 

property was stored, with intent to destroy it. They, how- 
ever, contented themselves (on the entreaty of some 
leading Democrats) with taking out some boxes of cloth- 
ing, which they broke open, piled in heaps and set on 
fire. The largest pile, which they derisively called " Mount 
Vesuvius" was about ten feet high. The woolen did 
not readily burn, and much of it was carried off by Irish 
women for their family use. The loss was 33.446.28. It 
consisted of 210 knit shirts, 80 pairs stockings, 30 trow- 
sers, 59 knapsacks, 400 haversacks, 389 blankets, 153 
canteens and 523 blouses. The mob next proceeded to 
McHugh's hotel, where they drank freely without cost. 
The provost-marshal's office was then forcibly entered 
and furniture broken to pieces. The wheel and papers 
had been removed that afternoon to a place of safety, and 
Colonel Rose with the other officers had fled away. 

Another draft began September 24th 1864, the quota 
being 852. As much as $600 was offered for a recruit. 
Queens county paid for war purposes ^r, 275, 380. 82. 

With the exception of the Flushing battery (see his- 
tory of Flushing) no military organizations were formed 
in Queens; but volunteers joined existing organizations 
in this and other States. 

We append a record by towns of Queens county's 
volunteers, compiled from official rolls at Albany and 
from_ other sources. Besides the abbreviations which will 
be recognized as indicating the different ranks and arms 
of the service, k. is used for killed, w. for wounded, d. 
for died, and pro. for promoted. 


Henry Appel, 29th N. Y. ; re-enlisted in 7th N. Y.; 
shot on picket duty April 4th '65. George Arnett, con- 
struction corps. General Sherman's army. William Atch- 
ly, 15th N. Y. bat. Richard Atchly, U. S. frigate 
"Sabine." Baker, 5th reg. Excelsior brigade ; 
re-enlisted May '64. William E, Balkie, 34th N. Y. bat.; 
pro. lieut.; w. four times. Peter Bayerle, 15th N. Y art; 
30 days. Frederick Beardsley, sergt., T33d N. Y. Peter 
Becker, 15th N. Y. art. John Bell, U. S. ship "Susque- 
hanna; ist class fireman. John Bergen, 9th N. Y. ; w. in 
arm at Fredericksburg. Jacob Bernshiemer, 15th N. Y. 
art.; 30 days. John C. Blane, 15th engineers. Hiram 
E.Bonner, 21st C. M.b.; disabled by protracted marches; 
,A.ugust 15th '62. Cornelius Brett, 15th N. Y. S. M. 
Alonzo Brown, 145th N. Y. Anthony Brown, 15th en- 
gineers; pro. Corp. and mail agent. Robert S Browne, 
7th N. Y. S. M. Moses E. Brush, sergt. 34th N. Y. bat.; 
pro. lieut. Alfred Buckbee. 15th N. Y. engineers. George 
Buckbee, 15th N. Y. Alfred S. Buckbee, 15th N. Y. ; 
pro. sergt. Thomas Cassidy, 79th N. Y.; missing at 
Gettysburg. Thomas Childs, 15th engineers. Daniel 
Collins, 37th N. Y.; pro. corp. Michael Conly, N. J. 
William Conners, 15th N. Y. S. M.; at Fort Richmond. 
Edward Cortes, 147th N. Y. bat. Henry Conners, 3d 
N. Y. John Connor, k. at Fredericksburg, '62. Ed- 
ward Connor, 15th engineers. Daniel Cordier, 15th N. 
Y. art. James C. Cornell, battalion L, 2nd cav. ; pro. sergt. 
November 15th '63. William Cornell, 139th N. Y. ; k. 
at Cold Harbor, June '64. William Corroy, 1st lieut., 
17th N. Y.; pro. quartermaster in Sherman's army. 
George Dalwyck. 68th N.Y.; pro. cajitain. Peter Daniels. 
William Dark. Charles Davids; re-enlisted in May '64. 
5th reg. Excelsior brigade. Badford Degroot; w. at 
Gettysburg. Andrew Deckers, 34th N. Y. bat.; w. May 




i2th '64. James L. Denton, 5th N. Y. inf., N. Y. city; 
transferred to 146th N. Y. May 5th '63. Joseph H. Den- 
ton; w. at (lettysbiirg and Pine Knob. Jeremiah Deon- 
den, 2nd N. Y. W. C. Dermoody, 67th N. Y.; k. at 
Spottsylvania Court-house May 12th '64. James E. Dil- 
lon, seaman. Joseph Dickinson; \v. at Willianiburg. 
Warren Dodge, 67th N. Y. bat.; pro. corp. ; transferred 
to 65th N. Y. bat. William Doremus, 2nd N. Y. bat. 
John Dougherty, 63d inf.; k. at Antietam. John 
Doughty, 34th N. Y. Tliomas Doyl. 64th N. Y. Felix 
F. Doyle, 19th N. Y. Theodore Drink, 5th N. Y.; pro. 
sergt. John F. Egner, engineer. Jacob Ehm, 15th N. Y. 
art. Thomas Elliott, capt. T3th N. Y. M.; on duty at 
Fort Richmond. James Ellis, 15th N. Y. engineers ; 
pro. corp. John Fanning, Rhode Island. James Fre- 
ley, 69th N. Y.; d. December 31st '62, at Alexandria, 
Va. Michael Feeley, 15th N. Y. S. M. William H. H. 
Field. 15th N. Y. engineers; d. at Alexandria September 
12th '6^. George Field, 15th engineers; general's staff, 
New York city. John Fink, 15th (Queens county) art.; 
called out 30 days to garrison Fort Richmond, New 
York harbor. Charles Fisher, 3d Rhode Island; pro. 
sergt.; w. Ranee Fitzner, 54th N. Y. inf. William 
Flood, 15th engineers; pro. quartermaster. Wihiam 
Fogarty; re-enlisted May '64, 5th reg. Excelsior brigade. 
George Oscar Fowler, 67th N. Y. bat. George H. Fow- 
ler; d. of typhoid fever January ist '63, at Fredericks- 
burg, 15th N. Y. engineers. Asa A. Fowler, 
sergt.; k. at Fredericksburg, December 13th '62. 
Charles J. Freggang, 15 th N. Y. S. M. Louis 
Fritz, 6th N. Y. Washington Fowler ; w. at Spott- 
sylvania Court-house ; died June 7th '64. John 
Garoay, 29th N. J.; transferred to 74th N. Y. 
Alonzo Garretson, lieut., 2nd cav. ; pro. 2nd lieut.; 
d. of disease. Charles Glaser, 15th N. Y. art.; 30 
days. William Gleason, 67th N. Y.; w. at Spottsyl- 
vania Court-house. Robert Graham. John Gray, lands- 
man on the "Mound City." James Grier, 74th N. Y.; 
pro. loth N. Y. Michael Griffin, 25thN. Y. bat. Albert 
Griffin, 34th N. Y. art.; pro. 3d corp. and sergt. Jacob 
Habel, 15th N. Y. art. William H. Hamilton, ist lieut., 
2nd N. Y. Edwin Harris, engineer. Seth Harpell, 5th 
reg. Excelsior brigade; k. at Gettysburg July 2nd '63. 
Stephen Harris, 6th N. Y. art. Charles A. Harris, 34th 
N. Y. art. Philip Hartoung, 74th (Sickles brigade); w. 
in left leg. Martin Hawbeil, Sickles brigade. Charles 
Hawbeil, 1st cav. Basil H. Hayden, 55th inf., Co. A; 
pro. corp. John Hearry, 35th N. Y. b.; pro. orderly 
sergt. George Helmsley, 15th N. Y. engineers. Frank- 
lin H. Herr, 34th cav. Charles Hicks, 9th N. Y. John 
Hicks, Rhode Island colored regiment. Daniel Higgins, 
15th N. Y. engineers; pro. corp., serg., 2nd and 1st. lieut. 
Charles Horstman, 133d (Metropolitan); pro. corp. 
George Iduntsman; d. Oscar C. Jackson, 165th N. Y.; 
pro. capt. in 4th U. S. colored cav. Gilford Jackson, 
nth Rhode Island bat. James Jackson, Rhode Island; 
discharged for sickness. Thomas Jackson, 41st U. S. 
James Johnson, U. S. gunboat " Naugatuck." George 
P. Johnson, sailor, gunboat " Naugatuck "; pro. quarter- 
master; on duty in the Narrows. John J. Johnson, 15th 
engineers; pro. ist lieut. May 31st '64; later rank brevet 
capt. Samuel Johnson, on ships " Adirondack " and 
" Louisville "; discharged as boatswain's mate of gunboat 
"Sampson." Daniel S. Johnston, battalion L 2nd cav.; 
pro. corp. L. S. Johnston, battalion L 2nd cav.; prisoner 
16 months. William H. H.Johnston, 13th N. Y. Robert 
Johnston, 15th N. Y. S. M.; at Fort Richmond. David 
Johnston, 15th N. Y. S. M. Isaac R. Jones, 9th N. Y.; 
pro, Corp.; taken prisoner at Gettysburg and exchanged. 
Cornelius Kelley, 15th N. Y. engineers Jacob Kerrer, 
signal corps. Patrick Kicrnan, 34th N. Y. bat.; pro. 

corp. in February '64. James Kiernan, 74th N. Y. ; 
prisoner a year. Herman Knappe, 38th N. Y.; pro. 
lieut. Frederick Knecht, 75th N. Y. Washington Knights, 
sergt. 5th reg. Excelsior brigade; k. at Gettysburg. Jere- 
miah Lawrence, 12th III. cav. ; re-enlisted in engineer corps, 
Co. B. John A. Leek, 15th engineers; general's staff. 
John Leonard, 74th N. Y. James Lewis, 6th N. Y. cav. 
Ebtnezer O. Lewis; w. at Williamsburg. Charles R. 
Lincoln, ist lieut., 2nd heavy art. William Ludwig, 34th 
bat.; w. May 12th '64, Wilderness. George Lynch, 12th 
N. Y.; transferred to 5th (Duryea's); prisoner in Rich- 
mond 4 months; re-enlisted. James A. Macdonald, 37th 
N. Y. Thomas McCready; k. at Williamsburg. Wil- 
liam McGowen, landsman on the " Wabash." John 
Mahai, 5th regiment Sickles brigade. Augustus 
Malitan. Robert McPherson; re- enlisted May '64 
in the 5th regiment Excelsior brigade. Patrick 
Maloon, 29th N. Y. Michael Manning. Edward 
Marks, 112th N. Y.; pro. ist sergt.; transferred to 3d 
N. Y. as hospital guard. Charles R. Martin, gunboat 
■' Lenapee," cabin boy. John Martin, w. '62 at Freder- 
icksburg. Joseph R. Merritt, surgeon, in charge of U. S. 
ship "Enterprise." Charles Metzger, 15th N. Y. art- 
Charles Michel, sergt. U. S. sloop " Ossipee." Frederick 
.Vluller, ist Del. George R. Miller, 17th N. Y. Louis 
Miller, 34th N. Y. art.; pro. corp. Charles H. Miller, 
34th N. Y. art.; pro. quartermaster sergt.; discharged for 
physical disability Feb. 25 '65. Wilson T. Mitchell, 3d 
N. J.; w. twice. John F. B. Mitchell, ist lieut. 2nd N.Y. 
cav.; pro. capt. Charles Munson, 27th Conn. David 
Munson, 6th N. Y. art. Martin Nex, k. at Williamsburg. 
P. B. Nichols, 139th N. Y.; w. at Cold Harbor June '64. 
Peter D. Noe, 74th N. Y. Frederick W. Obernier, 46th 
N. Y. bat. John Omerhavser, sergt. 15th N. Y. S. M. 
Henry Parks, 15th N. Y. John H. Pell, 5th N. Y.; pro. 
capt. 4th N. Y. August Pfropfe, 15th N. Y. art.; 30 
days. George Plitt, 15th N. Y. art. William Plost, 2nd 
N.Y. bat.; disabled by a fall. Silns Post, 15th engineers; 
general's staff. Edward and John Poole, 14th Rhode 
Island. William Prince, 9th N. Y.; commissioned ist 
lieut. in 159th Jan. i '64; lieut. of ordnance in General 
Sheridan's corps; capt. Mar. 31 '65; w. twice; discharged; 
joined regular army Feb. '64; d. Dec. 18 '80. Christian 
Prireth, 15th N. Y. art.; 30 days. George H. Quarterman, 
capt. 74th N. Y.; pro. major 5th reg. Excelsior brigade 
May 5 '62; served twelve years in State militia; w- at 
Williamsburg. Harris H. Rapayice, 165th cav.; pro. asst. 
steward. Daniel Reinkeimer, 15th N. Y. art. Michael 
Reena, 74th N. Y., "Excelsior brigade" John Revels, 
8th Penn. cav.; w. in right arm and hip. Philip Rober, 
15th N. V. S. M. Charles Robinson, 15th N. Y. engineers. 
Thomas Robinson, capt. 34th N-. Y. bat. Graham Rob- 
inson, 22nd N. Y. Charles A. Roe, 67th N. Y. bat. 
Thomas Roe, 6 ist N. Y. ; drummer. Jacob Roemer, 
lieut. 34th N. Y. bat.; pro. capt. Dec. 2 '64; pro. major; 
w. four times. Carl Rudwick, 34th N. Y. bat. William 
Rudwick, 34th N. Y. bat.; pro. corp. John Russell, 
sergt. i2thU. S. inf.; in regular service 15 years, including 
Mexican war. William J. Ryerson, 34th N. Y. bat.; pro. 
Corp.; w. William W. Sands, sergt. 6ist N. Y.; w. in 
leg at Fredericksburg, '62. Levi Saumons. Patrick 
Savage, w. at Fredericksburg, '62. Jacob Schafer, 61 st 
N. Y. Peter Schafer, ist. N. Y. bat. Adolf Schmid, 
2nd lieut. 45th N. Y.; pro. capt.; k. at Chancellors- 
ville. Otto Schrader, sergt. 2nd N. Y. independent 
bat.; transferred to hospital July 23 '6;^. Leopold 
Schreiber, 15th N. Y. art.; 30 days. Charles Schroeder, 
34th independent bat.; pro. capt.; died in service. 
Henry Schulz, 15th N. Y. art. Franklin Schuiz, 79th N. 
Y.; k. in '6;^ at Fort Anderson. David Schulz, 71st N. 
Y. Willington Schyler, nth R. I. bat. John Schyler, 



4th U. S. inf. John Scott, 74th N. Y.; w. John Shultz, 
15th N. Y. S. M. James S. Sidney, corp. 15th N. Y. 
S. M.; on duty at Fort Richmond. Charles Smith, 5th 
reg. Excelsior brigade; \v. at Wapping Heights and 
Gettysburg. Charles 1). Smith, 5th reg. Excelsior 
brigade; d. September 14 '63, of wounds received at 
Gettysburg. Joseph B. Smith, sergt., 170th N. Y.; i)ro. 
lieut. March i '64. Thomas Smith, 15th inf.; pro. 
capt.; drowned at Fort Richmond. George G. Smith, 
nth U. S. cav.; pro. corp. heavy art. Alfred Smith, 
15th engineers. George D. Smith, 2nd division 25tli 
army corps. George P. Smith, 15th engineers. Samuel 
Smith, sailor on revenue cutter station. Theodore A. 
Smith, sailor. John Smith, 5th N. Y. heavy art. James 
P. Smith; k. at Williamsburg. William C. Smith, 67th 
N. Y. ; pro. orderly sergt, and transferred to 
65th N. Y.; w. at Wilderness January '64. John 
Snyder, 34th N. Y. bat. John Snyder, 26th N. 
Y. William H. Snyder, 74th N. Y.; w. in both 
thighs at Cold Harbor, June 3 '64. Edwin A. Snyder, 
2nd Penn. reserve. Frank Somers, 63d N. Y. Louis 
Spanengberg, 20th N. Y. bat. Thomas C. Spilletts, 
sergt., 5th N. Y. art. John Stader, 15th N. Y. art. Jo- 
seph Starkings, gunner's mate, gunboat " Sanford." 
Michael Straner, 15th N. Y. art.; in garrison at Fort 
Richmond. Henry Stebbins, 15th N. Y. S. M. William 
H. Steele, sergt.; pro. ist lieut. and capt. William J. 
M. Steele; injured in spine. Joseph Stillwago, lieut. 
15th N. Y. M.; served at Fort Richmond. Alexander 
Stuter, 52nd N. Y.; d. at Salisbury, in October '64. 
William H. Terry, sergt. 40th N. Y.; k. October 7 '64, 
before Richmond. Frank Texido, loth N. Y. city; 
served time and re-enlisted August '64. Henry Thomas, 
U. S. gunboat " Crusader." David Thompson. John 
Thornill, 5th N. Y. art.; pro. corp. Wallace Thurston, 
sailor. Charles W. Townsend, sergt.; k. at Port Hudson, 
'63. John Townsend, 6ist; drummer boy; pro. corp., 
2nd lieut. and ist lieut. Albert Townsend, 2nd cav.; 
pro. ist lieut. Fanning C. Tucker, 7th N. Y. M.; pro. 
capt. 103d N. Y. Louis Tucker. William Tucker. 
John H. Van Wyck, colored regiment. P^.ichard Vedders, 
34th N. Y. bat. Jeremiah Vandeberg, 176th N. Y.; w. 
at Brashear City. La., in 1863. Thomas Wallace, 34th 
N. Y. bat. David B. Waters, 15th N. Y. S. M. Thomas 
W. Webb, 15th N. Y. S. M. Charles B. Westcott. 
Thomas White. Daniel Williams, 74th N. Y.; taken 
prisoner; w. at Spottsylvania. Charles Wilson, corp. 
158th N. Y.; w. at Gettysburg, Pa., and Pine Knob, Ga. 
John Wirtz, nth Conn.; pro. sergt.; re-enlisted in 3d N. 
Y. independent bat. Walter Wood. James Wood, 37th 
N. Y. bat.; pro. 3d sergt.; w. at Wilderness, May -5 '64. 
John Wren, gunner on the " Neptune." Robert C. 
Wright, 5th reg. Excelsior brigade; k. near Ajjpomat- 
tox Court-house. Israel Youngs, 15th N. Y. en- 
gineers. William F. Youngs, 5th reg. Excelsior 
brigade, sergt.; w. at Wapping Heights. Frederick 
Zimmerman, sergt. 3d N. Y. cav.; pro. 2nd. lieut. 


Henry Abrams junior, 128th N.Y. Levi Abrams, 158th 
N. Y. ; lost leg before Petersburg. William Abrams, ist 
N. Y. Gilbert Abrams. 40th N. Y,; k. at Fair Oaks. 
Medadoc Alfeno, 47th N. Y. William AUum, 102nd N. 
Y. A. J. Bagot, 2nd art. Frank Baker. Alfred Bald- 
win. Jacob, Selah, Stephen and Valentine Baldwin, 
119th N. Y. Moses A. Baldwin, lieut. 119th N. Y.; k. 
at Mill Creek Gap. Treadwell Bedell; k. at Pine Knob, 
Ga. Abram Bennett, marine, taken prisoner and par- 
oled on the " Pacific." E. Birdsall, 127th; w. twice in hip. 
George BithmuUer, 3d reg. Excelsior brigade; \v. in arm 

at Gettysburg. George H. Bowker, flag officer, navy. 
Sydney Bowker, 5th N. Y. light bat. Elijah Brower, 
2nd U. S. art; missing in battle before Richmond. James 
V. Burdett, ngth N. V. Halstead Burnett Walter 
Byers, Siraonick. Henry Camps, color sergt., nyth N. 
Y.; k. at Gettysburg. Benjamin Carman, ist N. Y. 
John Carman, 159th N. Y. John Carmen, ngth N. Y., 
Co. H. William Carmen. iigthN. Y. Frederick Car- 
penter, 98th N. Y.; re-enlisted. Segust Carpenter, 121st 
N. Y. Benjamin Carpenter. George Carpenter, 4th N. 
Y. art. Tredwell Chesser. Charles Cleck, ngth N.Y. 
Edward Clowes, 2nd N. Y. cav. John Combs, 119th. 
George W. Conaway, 48th N.Y. Isaac Conway, 3d reg. 
Excelsior brigade; w. at Gettysburg. John J. Coombs, 
132nd N. Y. Michael Cooney, 2nd N. Y. Samuel 
Cooper, 119th N.Y. Edward Cooper. John Cornelius, 
ngth N. Y. ; pro. sergt. John H- Cornelius, 139th N.Y. 
John H. Cornell, 158th N. Y.; pro. sergt. Edward and 
Nicholas Cornell, T58th N. Y. Nelson Cornell, 13th N. 
Y. bat. Evert Cornell, shij) " Tallapoosa." John Cor- 
nell, ship " Itasca." Daniel Cornwell, ngth. Samuel 
D. Cornwell, loth N. Y. cav. John Cosgrove, Lincoln 
cav. Charles Coss. William and Enery E. Coster, 14th 
Rhode Island, Co. L. W. Covert, 4th art. Bedell 
Covert, 4th art. George Craft, ist Maryland. A. De 
Mott, ii6th N. Y. Benjamin Denton, 158th N. Y. 
Benjamin Dermott, ngth N.Y. Samuel De Witt, ngth. 
Joseph Dosher, 25th N. Y. cav.; pro. com. sergt. James 
Darsey, ngth N. Y. Joseph Doxey, 48th N. Y.; dis- 
charged for sickness. Alexander Dunlap, navy. Moore 
Dunlap, 5th 111. cav. John V. Dunn; k. in Wilderness. 
John Duryea, 102nd N.Y. R. C. Duryea, capt. 5th art.;k. 
at Fort Pickens '62. Tunis Dykeman, 102nd N. Y. 
George Elders, 2nd N. Y. cav. Theodore Evans, Riker's 
Island. Matthew Finnecane, 15th N. Y. engineers. 
Herbert Fryer. John M. Gardiner, ist N. Y. art. 
Jonathan Gardner, 4th N. Y. John Gilbert; w. at Brandy 
station, Va., June 6 '63. Thomas F. Gilbert, 119th N. 
Y. Ephriam Granger, 139th N. Y. William J. Hall, 4th 
N. Y. bat. John Hart. Lewis Hanshback, 15th N. Y. 
art. Samuel Harnard, 4th N. Y. art.; pro. corp. 
Henry Hedges. Joseph Hedges; d. at Atlanta July 25 '64. 
Epenetus Hendrickson; w. at Brandy Station, Va., July 
6 '6^. John Henderson, 28th N. Y. Eliphalet Hen- 
drickson, adjt. Joseph, Peter and John Hendrickson, 
158th N. Y. Daniel Hendrickson, 90th N. Y. N. J. 
Hewlett, ngth N. Y. George Hewlett, 119th N.Y.; pro. 
sergt. B. Hewlett, 38th N. Y. Thomas Hicks, 78th, 
Co. B. Harmon Hicks, ngth N. Y.; k. at Nashville. 
William H. Hoemen, 95th Penn. Lewis Hohorst, 
173d N. Y. Thomas Horan, 43d N. Y. David V. Hor- 
ton, 1 2th N. J. Simon and Jacob Hubug, 139th N. Y. 
George Hubug, 54th N. Y. Peter Hubug, 69th N. Y. 
Franklin Hubs, 145th N. Y. C. J. Hultse, ist art. W. 
E Hultse, 158th. H. Hultse, 90th. Richard Hultz. 
158th, Co. D. James M. Jackson, Philadelphia. Lewis 
Jackson. Lewis Jackson, nth R. I. Dr. Edgar Jackson, d. 
May '64. Henry Jackson. Chas. Jackson, 20th U.S. Morris 
Jackson. Gilbert, Sands and John Jackson, 20th U. S. 
Andrew Jackson, 158th N. Y. Richard Jackson, 5th N. 
Y. John Jackson, 119th N. Y. Charles Jackson, ist N. 
Y. mounted rifles. Lewis Jarvis, 14th Rhode Island. 
Edward Jarvi.s, 71st N. Y. Samuel Jarvis, 20th U. S. 
colored. Lorenzo Johnson, ship '"Unadilla." Charles N. 
Johnson, 26lh colored regiment. Frank Johnson, 20th 
reginient. C. Johnson, 119th; w. in lung. Thomas and 
Epenetus Johnson. 1st N. Y. mounted rifles. Edward and 
William F. Johnson, 139th N. Y. Abram Johnson. Sam- 
uel Jones, 165th N. Y. Albert Jones, 127th N. Y. 
George Keep. Barney Kelley, ngth N. Y. Edward H. 
Kellogg, 39th N. Y. b.; pro. 2nd lieut. James Leaman, 



Chris. Lenikens. 47th N. Y. Henry Lemkens, 158th N. 
Y. John Lemkens, 119th N. Y. Josiah Lewis, N. Y.; 
pro. sergt. Smith Lewis, 159th N. Y. William Lock- 
wood, 129th N. Y. L. Losee, ship "Catskill." W. H. 
McNiel, 13th cav.; pro. ist lieut. John McGuire. J. T. 
Magee, 139th; teamster. William McConnard, 139th. 
Cornwell McMana. James McCarty, 129th N. Y. Eu- 
gene V. AL-irsh, IT 9th N. Y. ; w. at Mill Creek Gap. Abram 
N. Martin, navy, 2nd class fireman. James G. Martin, 
4th N. Y. heavy art. V. Matthews, 158th. Augustus 
Matti, ship "Newbern." H. Mead, 4th art. A. W. Mead, 
4th art.; pro. sergt. J. R. Mead, 139th. John Miller, 
9th N. J. John Miller, 20th U. S. colored. ' — Morrell, 
71st N. Y. Wilson Moore, 5th reg. Excelsior brigade; w. 
at Gettysburg. Martin Mott, 11 8th N.Y. Dandridge Mott, 
119th N. Y.; k. at Pine Knob, June i6lh '64. Cyrus 
Mott. Joseph Mott, 4th art.; captured at Ream's Station, 
Aug. 19th '64. Richard D. Mott, 5th N.Y. George 
Mott, ist N.Y. John E. Mowbray, ship 'Ariel"; pro. 
corp George W. Murray, 7th N. Y.; re-enlisted Oct. 
15th '61, ist N. Y. M. R.; pro. 2nd lieut. Dec. 30th '64.. 
— Murray, 71st N. Y. Joseph Myers, 87th N. Y. 
Charles Neebe, 40th N. Y. Charles Noon, 75th N. Y. 
Martin Noon. John Noon. William Noon; w. at Brandy 
Station, Va., June 6th '6;^. John W. Nostrand, isSth 
N. Y. Theodore Nostrand, 119th N. Y. Francis O'Riley, 
5th art. William and John H. Pearsall, 139th N. Y. 
Bates Pearsall, T5th N. Y. Hallet Pearsall, 90th N. 
Y. Lewis Pettit, 158th, Co. D; w. in neck, Feb. 
29th '64. Alanson Pettit. William H. Pettit, 73d N. 
Y., Co. A. William H. Place, 5th N. Y. heavy art.; 
pro. sergt. Thomas Place, ist N. Y. mounted rifles. 
Joshua Place; pro. sergt. Walter Plumb; taken pris- 
oner at Gettysburg. Mordecai Post, 28th art; pro. 
sergt. Martin Post, navy, on the "Santiago." Isaac J. 
Post, 4th N. Y. art. William R. Powell, ist N. Y. mounted 
rifles; pro. Corp.; shot in abdomen in '62. William Pray; 
pro. clerk -of quartermaster's d'eparlment. Henry Rad- 
ford, irgth N. Y.; captured at Gettysburg: confined at 
Belle Isle, Richmond. C. F. Ray nor, ii9lh N. Y.; miss- 
ing before Richmond. A. J. Raynor, i39ih. Elijah Ray- 
nor; d. at White House, Va., June 2nd '64. James B. 
Raynor, 4th art.; transferred to ship "Ariel;" pro. mate. 
William H. Raynor, 158th N. Y. Trcdwell Rempser, 
48th N. Y.; pro. corp. Isaac Renyon, 7th N. Y. 
Al!)ert Rhodes, 95th. W. William Rhodes, 119th. 
John Rider, 129th N. Y. William H. Ricer, 40th 
N. Y; k. in Wilderness, May '64. James Ritchie, 
145th N. Y. Charles D. Robins, 102nd N. Y. Jere- 
miah Robins, 15th N. Y. Richard Robins, 3d N, J. 
cav. Jacob RoLbins. Josej^h Russ, 25th N. Y. cav. 
George Ryerson, 127th N. Y. John Ryker, iiglh N. Y. 
William H. Seaman, 119th; pro. ist lieut. Davis Seaman, 
T39th. George Seaman, 158th N. Y.; died in service. 
Diniel Seaman, 119th N.Y. 'I'homas Settle, 139th N. Y. 
Henry Shaw, 158th N. Y. David Shaw, loist N. Y. 
James Shaw, i58ih N. Y. John Skiliskorn, 7cth N. Y.; 
k. at Williamsburg. Charles Smith, 139th N. Y. Josiah 
Smith, 4th N. Y. A. J. Smith, ist N. Y.; transferied to 
13th cav. Asa Smiih, missing before Richmond. J. H. 
Smith, 56th. Charles Smith, 4th art. M. Smith, corp., 
ship "Ariel." E. R. Smith, ;58th; taken prisoner July 
5 '63, at Newbern, N. C. W. H. Smith, 139th; d. '62. 
Thomas V. Smith, Harris cav.; pro. lieut. Charles E. 
Smith, 2nd N.Y. cav. John H. Smith, 119th N. Y.; w. 
Henry Smith, 133d N. Y.; w. in foot at Spottsylvania 
Court-house; Chauncey Smith, 119th N. Y.; transferred 
to loth Rhode Island reserve bat.; veteran. Samuel 
Smith, w. at Gettysburg. Gershom Smith, Co. F 75th 
N.Y. Moses Smith, ii9ih N. Y.; missing at Pine Knob, 
Ga. John Smith. John Southard, 64th. E. B. South- 

ard, 119th; w. at Gettysburg, Pa., and Pine Knob, Ga. 
Charles Southard, 119th N.Y. John F. Speedling, 119th 
N. Y.; captured at Gettysburg; held at Belle Isle. Ben- 
jamin Sprague, 119th N. Y. Freeman Sprague, 7th N.Y. 
William Stoothoof, 67th N. Y.; discharged for wounds. 
Samuel Stringham, 158th N. Y. Joseph Thurston, 158th 
N. Y. Andrew Thurston, 40th N. Y. Elias H. Ticknor, 
127th N. Y. Edmond W. Townsend, monitor " Catskill." 
Charles Triquot, 40th N. Y.; w. at Fair Oaks, '62. The- 
odore Tupper, 119th N. Y.; captured at Gettysburg; con- 
fined at Belle Isle. Joseph Underbill, ship " Hydrachy," 
executive officer. Samuel W. Valentine, 40th N. Y.; w. 
at Fair Oaks, '62. John Vanderwater jr., 14th N. Y.; 
discharged in Mar. '63, having consumption. Valentine 
and Andrew Vanderwater, 14th N. Y. Edgar H. Van- 
derwater, 2nd sergt. 66th N.Y.; transferred to 159th N.Y.; 
pro. 2nd lieut. Edgar Verity, 56th N."Y. J. Walker, 
119th. George Warren, 119th N. Y. George T. Warren, 
captured at Gettysburg and confined at Belle Isle. David 
Warren, 13th Penn. cav. Carman Watts, 6 ist N. Y. 
Elbert Watts, 158th N. Y. William S. Weeks, w. at 
Brandy Station, Va., July 6 '63. John West, 25th N. Y. 
Thomas H. Wheeler, 4th htavv art.; transferred to ship 
■' Malvern " June 27lh; pro. ensign. Francis White,i3th 
N. Y. John White, 43d N. Y. VVashington White, 119th 
N. Y.; w. at Pine Knob. Charles E. Williams, 145th, Co. 
K. Peter Williams, 19th N. Y. H. Williams, 115th cav. 
David Wilson, 119th N. Y. James Wilson, 119th; dis- 
charged for sickness. Charles Wilson, 119th N.Y. Wil- 
liam Wright. J. H. Wright, 119th. 


John W. Abrams, 38th N.Y. ; w. at Gettysburg, Pa., and 
Pine Knob, Ga. Richard Allen, 139th N. Y.; w. at Cold 
Harbor, May 31 '64. Theodore Anthony, 20th U. S. 
Thomas Baker, 4th art. James Barmore, 47th N. Y. 
Edward Bayard, 20th N. Y. bat. Edgar Bayliss, 158th 
N- Y.; pro. Corp.; w. in hip September 28 '64, at Chapin's 
Farm. William Beatty, 87th N. Y., Co. E; pro. orderly 
sergt. Robert Beatty, 139th N. Y., Co. A ; w. in hip 
before Richinond. May 31 '64; a year in hospital at 
David's Island. William Bedell, 90th N. Y. David O. 
Bell, Mozart reg.; w. and captured at Fredericksburg ; 
pro. sergt. major. George R. Bennett, 90th N. Y.; pro. 
2nd lieut. December 12 '61 ; capt. August 12 '62. Wil- 
liam H. Bennett, 4clh N. Y.; d. at Georgetown, April 
'62. Alfred S. Buckbee, 15th N. Y. engineers; pro. 
sergt. in September '64. George M. Bennett, 2nd lieut., 
40th N. Y.; ])ro. 1st lieut. November 4 '61; k. at Fair 
Oaks. Isaac Bennett, 28th N. Y. bat.; w. in thigh in the 
New York riot. Jacob Bennett, 28th N. Y. Alonzo 
Bennett, 158th N. Y.; pro. corp. in May '65. William 
H. Bennett, 15th engineer brigade. George W. Bennett, 
67th N. Y.; pro. orderly sergt.; k. at Fredericksburg, 
December, jo '62. Samuel Bensen, 30th Conn. J. H. 
Berdway, 38th N. Y. ; k. at Williamsburg. James Ber- 
mer, 90th N. Y. George H. Black, ship "Vermont;" 
pro. ship's clerk. Alfred Blacksion, ship " North Caro- 
lina." James Blacksion. John H. Blue, 1st Mass. heavy 
art.; pro. drum major. Alexander Bogart, 48th N. Y. 
James Boyd, 139th N. Y.; disabled by wound. Thomas 
Brady, 65th N. Y. engineers. Henry Bremer, Co. B, 
57th N. Y.; had his leg broken at the battle of Ream's 
station. Richard Brush, Mogart reg. William A. Buck- 
bee, 15th N. Y. engineers; pro. corp. Patrick Buckley, 
U.S. ship "Nigara." J. Budway, 38th N. Y.; k. at 
(3hanceilorsville. Addy Burtis, 71st N. Y. Thomas 
Callahan, 27th N. Y. M. Richard M. Campbell, 90th 
N. Y. David M. Campbell, 15th N. Y. engineers; pro. 


sergt. August 5 '6;^; 2nd lieut. September 22 '64; ist 
lieut. December 3 '64; quartermaster. John Caren, 
42nd N. Y. ; pro. ist sergt. February 4 '63. John R. 
Carpenter, 13th N. Y. bat.; pro. sergt. in October '61. E. 
L. Carr, ship "Ellis;" pro. marine on board the 
"Hunchback;" was on the " Ellis " when blown up by 
Lieutenant Gushing. Cornelius D. Chapman, 127th N. 
Y. William H. Cheiring, 41st U. S. colored. James 
Clary, 40th N. Y. George Coles, 41st U. S. colored. 
William S. Cogswell, col. by brevet; served under Sher- 
man. George E. Cogswell, 165th N. Y.; d. April 16 '6;^. 
John M. Cock. William H. Coles, Sickles brigade. 
Daniel Combs, 158th N. Y. Andrew Conklin, 13th N. 
Y. S. M. Frederick Conner, 8th Conn. Patrick Cosgrove, 
5th N. Y. George W. Coventry, 40th N. Y.; w. at Fair 
Oaks. George A. Creed, 40th N. Y. George T. Craw- 
ford, 5th Pa. cav.; k. on picket '63. George W. Cum- 
mings, 13th N. Y. cav.; w. Leonard Denton, ensign. 
Charles A. Denton, 13th N. Y. S. M. Jacob Dormus, 
65th N. Y. Peter Dornett, 15th N. Y. engineers. Bar- 
tolama Dose. Isaac Doughty, ist mate of the " Hussar." 
David P. Doughty, sergt. 90th N. Y. Lewis Dubois, 5th 
heavy art., Brooklyn; pro. sergt. and 2nd lieut. Henry 
Dutcher; k. at Fredericksburg. Charles F. Dunham, 8th 
art. Benjamin Duryea, 169th N. Y; pro. 2nd lieut. in May 
'65. John Egan, 126th Ohio; pro. colonel's orderly. Patrick 
Eagan, 47th N. Y. Thomas English, 47th N. Y.; dis- 
charged on account of disability. Alfred Finn, 46th N. 
Y. John Flemming, 165th N. Y. J. C. Fowler, frigate 
"Roanoke." William Y. and John A. Fox, 15th N. Y. 
William Fryer, 145th N. Y. Jacob Cinders, 15th N. Y. 
engineers. Abram Colder, 56th N. Y. James Gordon, 
90th N. Y.; pro. corp. and sergt. John Gotinburgh, 
looth N. Y. Henry E. Gotleb, capt., 40th N. Y. James 
Gough, 9th N. Y. Thomas Graham, bat. C. N. Y. V.; 
discharged for disability. Jacob Durell Harris, 29th 
Conn.; discharged on account of disability. John B. 
Harrison, warrant officer, ship " Emma." John Hart, 
construction corps; slightly w. in foot. Edward Hart; 
k. before Richmond, May 31. '64. John Hatterick, ist 
N. Y. cav. ; w, ; taken prisoner in the Wilderness. George 
Hawkhurst, 4th N. Y. heavy art. Edward Hays. Sam- 
uel Henderson, ship " Sciola." George Henderson, 15th 
N. Y. engineers. Rushmore Henderson. Abram Hen- 
drickson, 158th N. Y. Hendrick Hendrickson, 38th N. 
Y. A. D. M. Hendrickson, 90th N. Y. William Wright 
Hendry, 5th N. Y.; w. in shoulder and neck August '62. 
Thomas G. Hendry, 165th N. Y.; quartermaster's clerk. 
John Hensler, 158th N. Y. George Hertenstein, 90th 
N. Y. Edward Hill, 5th N. Y. ; w. in head; discharged 
for sickness. Lewis W. Hockensten, 38th N. Y.; k. at 
Chancellorsville. William Hoffman, Berdan's sharp- 
shooters. Jacob Housworth, 57th N. Y.; discharged on 
account of heart disease. William Henry Hull, 139th 
N. Y.; pro. corp. in April '65. Benjamin Samuel Hurst, 
90th N. Y. John Hutchinson, 158th N. Y.; Gabriel Ip- 
se!. 5th N. Y. cav. John K. Jackson, 26th N. Y. Theo- 
dore P. Johnson, 38lh N. Y. John Johnson, Duryea's 
zouaves; d. September 7 '62 at Alexandria. Joseph 
Kautz, 47th N. Y. M. John Kelley, 3d U. S. inf.; pro. 
sergt. James A. Kilburn, 158th N. Y.; k.; color bearer 
and sergt. Warren M. Kipp, orderly, 17th N. Y. Oliver 
Kip; d. at Douglass hospital May '63. Henry Kraker, 
46th N. Y.; pro. orderly sergt.; in twenty-one battles; 
w. over left eye. Patrick Larkins, 15th engineer corps. 
Henry E. Lester, 17th N. Y.; pro. corp. and sergt. 
Charles A. Lester, ship " Pensa'cola "; pro. fireman. 
John James Lindsay, 102nd N. Y.; w. in breast. William 
W. Lindsay, 102nd N. Y.; w. in thigh. Jacob H. Lewis, 
15th engineer corps; pro. ist class tinsmith. William J. 
Lodge, 71st N. Y. S. M. Morris Lowey, 121st N. Y. 

Isaac Lowey, 6th N. Y.; discharged on acct. of wd. in 

hand. Terrence Lyons, ship "Augusta." Mc- 

Canna, 67th N. Y.: w. at Fair Oaks. William 
James McGee, 98th battalion. Barney McGin- 
nis, nth N. Y. William G. Mangan, ist lieut., 5th Conn.- 
capt., major and brevet lieut. col. Julius W. Mason' 
lieut. 2nd U. S. cav.; w. at Bull Run; pro. ist lieut. 5th 
regular cav. February '62. Joseph W. May, i58ih N. 
Y.; pro. sergt., sergt. major and 2nd lieut. John Miller^ 
103d N. Y. Abram G. Mills, 165th N. Y.; pro! 
2nd lieut. in October '63. Leander E. Monroe, 90th 
N. Y.; pro. sergt.; w. in thigh October 17 '64, 
at Cedar Creek. Charles H. Monroe, ship " Con- 
necticut." Stephen Morning, 47th N. Y. Andrew 
Napier, 165th N. Y.; pro. sergt. and ist lieut.; 
w. in thigh at Pleasant Hill, La., Apr. '64. Abraham' 
Neal, 158th N. Y. Richard W. Neal, 158th N. Y.; pro. 
corp. John Neat, 38ih N.Y., Harris light cav. Thomas 
Neat, 38th N. Y. Charles Newman, 66ih N. Y. Joseph 
Niblo, 171st N. Y. AVilliam E. Oakey, 127th N. Y. 
Joseph M.Oakley, ist lieut. 12th N. Y. Joseph H. Oaks, 
15th N. Y.; k. at Pine Knob, Ga. Benjamin O'Donnelli 
15th N. Y. engineers. James O'Neill, 159th N. Y. Charles 
A. Parks, sergt. 90th N. Y. James Paul, 38th N. Y. 
DeMott Pearsall, ship " Hartford." George Potter. Pat- 
rick Potterson, U S. ship "Dunsmore." Edward T. 
Powell, 32nd Mass.; w. at Mine Run on picket duty May 
31 '64. Isaac Powell, i6th N. Y. heavy art., bat. E. John 
VV. Rapelye, 15th N. Y. engineers; d. Mar. 16 '64. Rich- 
ard Rhodes, navy. Augustus Rich, 20th N. Y. cav. 
Thomas S. Rider, 40th N. Y.; pro. 2nd lieut. William J. 
Robinson, 56th N. Y. Abraham F. Robinson, 87th N. Y.; 
pro. corp. July 28 '63. Joseph Root, 15th N. Y.engineers! 
Christopher Savage, 69th N. Y. M. Diedrick Schirhorst, 
132nd N.Y. Fred. Schriber, 133d N.Y. Frank Seidorff, 
sergt. nth N. Y. M. James Shaw, 158th N.Y. Michael 
Shaw. Adolph Shoels, 5th N. Y. heavy art. Charles 
Smith, capt. 158th N. Y. James B. Smith, 15th N. Y. 
engineers. William M. Smith, 71st N. Y.; d. Feb. 3 '64. 
William Smith, lieut. 4th reg. Sickles brigade. B. C. D. 
Smith, 34th bat.; pro. corp. George F, Smith, ship 
" Roanoke;" pro. asst. engineer. Edwin V. B. Smith 
ship "Whitehead;" for gallant conduct ajjpointed actino- 
master's mate Oct. 19 '63; received a letter from Hon. Gid- 
eon Welles, secretary of the navy, transmitting a medal of 
honor for gallant conduct at Franklin, Va. Dominican 
Snideker, 13th N. Y. S. M. Albert J. Spaulding, 3d N.Y. 
Franklin V. Sprague, 5th N. Y. heavy art. George 
Starkey, 158th N. Y. George C. Stoddart, 15th N. Y. en- 
gineers; pro. sergt. Bernard Swartz, 54th N. Y. John 
Sweeney. Robert Tew, 20th independent bat. Silas 
Thompson, 158th N. Y., Co. C. George E. Tilley, 15th 
N. Y. engineers; pro. sergt. June 18 '63; 2nd lieut. Dec. 
17 '64. Sylvester Townsend, 30th Conn. J. G. Under- 
bill, navy. Alfred Valentine, 158th N. Y. Edmund S. 
Valentine, ist Wis. cav. Eugene V. Van Ness, ist N. J. 
cav.; pro. orderly on staff by General Gregg. Charles 
N. Van Nostrand, 15th N. Y. engineers. Alfred Van 
Nostrand, 90th N. Y., Co. A. Barker Van Vorhees 
acting master of the ship " Lackawanna;" pro. acting 
lieut. John Wagner, 31st N. Y. San.uel Watson, 29th 
Conn. Simeon Watts, 158th N. Y. T. P. Watts, 38th 
N. Y. J. T. Watts, ship " Sonoma." David J. Weeden 
132nd N.Y.; pro. sergt. Thomas Weeks, 2nd N.Y. An- 
drew Weeks. Ctesar Weeks. A. J.Wilkinson, 15th N. Y. 
engineers; pro. sergt. June 17 '63; ist lieut. Apr. 7 '64. 
Louis Williams, 38th N. Y.; captured at Bull Run and 
confined in Libby prison. William W. Wood, 107th 
N. Y.; pro. corp. Stephen Wood, Co. E i75lh N. Y. 
William Wood, Co. A 139th N. Y. Henry Q. Woodruff, 
90th N. Y.; pro. sergt. 




John Adamson. David J. Ammermore, 15th N. Y. 
Samuel Baldwin 15th N. Y.; pro. itaff officer. Charles 
Baldwin, 15th N. Y.; pro. sergt. John Baudldin, 5th 
heavy art. William Barnes, w. before Petersburg June 
16 "64. Abner Bartlett, 47th N. Y. William Bedell, k. 
in battle. John A. Burdet, 13th; w. in both knees at 
Fair Oaks. Herman Beyer, pro. hospital steward; w. in 
left leg. Charles E. Bisbee, 2nd Mass. Joseph Board, 
65th N. Y. William E. Bragan, pro. sergt.; pro. rapt, for 
bravery at Kelley's Ford. Daniel F. Bragan, sergt. 9th 
N. Y. cav. ; w. at Winchester. Townsend Bragan, 6th 
N. Y. Joseph Brakenbury, 73d N.Y. George W. Brown, 
i6th III.; pro. 2nd lieut. Thomas Brown, 155th N. Y. 
Louis Brumer, 3d light bat.; k. at Petersburg Sep. 20' 64. 
John Bulander, 44th N.Y. M. Burke, w. Tim- 
othy Burns, ist N. Y. engineers. George W^ Burtis, 4th 
Metropolitan; k. by accident at Franklin Aug. 22 '64. 
William H. Butler, 47th N. Y. James Campbell,'s 
sharpshooters; discharged on account of disability. John 
Cannon, N. Y. Thomas Carle, 51st N. Y.; pro. corp. 
John Carle, loth N. Y. W'ashington J. Cherry, 133d N. 
Y. ; pro. Corp. Alonzo Child, 5th N. Y. art.; pro. corp. 
John R. Chown, 2nd asst. engineer ship "Saco." Peter 
Conroy, 139th N. Y. ; w. at Chatham's farm Sep. 29 '64, 
losing leg. Underbill J. Covert, 10th N.Y. bat.; pro. 2nd 
lieut. William R. Cummings, capt. 13th heavy art. 
Henry Dailey, 15th N. Y. John Day, 15th engineers. 
George W. Delaney, 14th. Joseph B. Denton, capt. 87th 
N. Y. John R. Dewitt, 71st N. Y. Benjamin Dingfield, 
2nd Virginia; w. at Bull Run; d. at Georgetown, D.C., Sep. 
20 '62. John L. Dody, asst. surgeon 57th N. Y.; pro. 
surgeon Mar. i '62. John Doherty, 62nd N. Y, ; pro. 
sergt.; w. twice. John Donely. Henry Dorax, 2nd N.Y. 
heavy artillery. James and William Duffey, 15th heavy 
art. John Duffey, 69th heavy art.; k. at Bull Run. Mar- 
tin Duggan, 69th N. Y. ; pro. sergt.; w. at Fredericksburg 
and Chancellorsville. John H. Evans, 127th N. Y. C. L. 
Everett, 2nd Conn.; pro. sergt. John Farrell, 127th N.Y. 
Peter J. Fay, fireman on the " General Meigs." Wil- 
liam R. Fisher, 133d N. Y. William E. Fisher, capt. 
nth N. Y. George W. Fisher, nth N. Y.; pro. 
sergt and lieut. Thomas J. Fisher, nth N. Y. ; pro. 
sergt. Michael Foley. Daniel Folk, corp. 3d N. Y. 
art.; pro. lieut. Daniel Frawley, 15th engineers. Wil- 
liam Frawley, 145th N. Y.; w. and d. June 4 
'63. Frederick Freman, 68th N. Y. John Gaffney, 
51st N. Y.; w. in neck in the Wilderness. John 
Gardiner, 40th N. Y.; prisoner n days. Daniel 
A. Garrett, 15th engineers. Henry Gerby, 39th N. Y ; 
w. in arm at the second battle of Fredericksburg. Thomas 
Gillispie. George Goswell, 3d col. Joseph Gough, 87th. 
John H. Gower, 133d N. Y. James Grant, 66th N. Y. 
John M. Groves, 103d N. Y. James H. Hailett, ship 
" Hartford." John Hampson, Hawkins Zouaves. Wil- 
liam V. Hannan, 5th heavy art.; quartermaster's clerk. 
Henry Hanson, 2nd mate of the '' Northern Light." 
Philip Harty, ship " Primrose." William Hawkhirll 
124th N. Y.; k. May 3 '63. Philip Heine, 7th N. Y" 
Robert Henry, 13th N. Y.; pro. corp. William Hill' 
173d N. Y.; pro. corp. Samuel Holdworth, 15 engineers- 
John H. Holman; discharged for disability. William 
H. Howe, 15th N. Y. engineers; pro. sergt. William 
Hunter ist N. Y. Andrew Jackson, 30th 111.; w. at 
Fredericksburg. Charles Jackson, 13th heavy art; dis- 
charged for disability; re-enlisted in Sickles brigade., 
John Jenkins. 15th N. Y. James Johnson, 127th N. Y. 
Samuel Katon. Thomas Kearney, 138th N. Y. David 
Keeze, 15th N. Y. Matthew Kennedy, 51st N. Y. Alex- 
ander Kenny, 16th. Calvin B. King, 127th N. Y. Ear- 

nest Klein, 39th N. Y.; pro. sergt. Christian Kirabler, 
145th N. Y. George Knififin. Samuel F. Knight, 15th 
N. Y.; w. in arms. Frank Kraps, 54th N. Y. Edward 
Lehmone, 147th Penn.; discharged for physical disabil- 
ity. Charles H. Lewis, 15th N. Y.; pro. capt. Got- 
fried Link, Co. F, 2nd N. H. bat. John Low, 139th N. 
Y. Hans Lukens, 4th; pro. color sergt. Louis Lukens, 
58th N. Y. Robert J. Marks, 8th Pa. cav.; d. of wounds 
February 5 '64. Alexander Maloney, lieut.; pro. capt. 
Patrick McCardle; ship '' Union." Thomas McCormick, 
99th N. Y. James McCormick, 10th Tenn. James 
McGrady, 86th N. Y. Thomas McGuire, ship "Semi- 
nole." James McHighley, 158th N. Y. James McKenna, 
15th engineers. John S. McKinley, ist N.Y. col. Michael 
McKenny, ship " Florida." John McWilliams, rst N. Y. 
cav. Jeremiah Manahan, 67th N. Y. Emory Marsh, 
commissary sergt., i4tli N. Y. cav.; pro. ist lieut. Fred- 
erick Masser, 45th N. Y. William H. Mead, 138th N. 
Y. Daniel Merrell, 3d Pa. Frederick Miller, 4th N. Y. 
Reuben Munson. i86th N. Y. Frederick Munez, 59th 
N. Y. Thomas Murray junior, 13th Penn. cav.; pro. or- 
derly sergt. Thomas Newport, 66th N. Y. Joseph D. 
Newton, 2nd assistant engineer, ship " Glaucus." Thomas 
Parsons, 5th N. Y. cav.; pro. sergt. Daniel Z. Payntar, 
1st reg. Berdan's; shot before Yorktown April 7 '62. 
John D. Pettit, 6th heavy art.; pro. sergt. John Phelan, 
73d N. Y. George Pliilli|)s, 47tli N. Y. Joseph Pod- 
more, 2nd 111. John Podmore, 79th N. Y. John Powrie,- 
15th N. Y. Anthony Quiss, 15th N. Y. James Randell, 
158th N. Y. Rudolph Ray, 102nd N. Y. John B. Ray. 
Daniel Reed, 1st N. Y. art. Edward Regney, 25th N. 
Y. William Rhoades, WMIiam Rhoades junior, and John 
R. Rhoades, 15th N. Y. Samuel H. Rich, ist mate of the 
" Northern Light." A. Robertson, 8ist N. Y. Samuel 
Roden, 15th N. Y. Louis Rodiger, 38th N. Y. Alanson 
Ross, Corp.; pro. sergt. William Ross, 3d Conn.; severely 
w. in left leg. William Scott. Frederick Seinka, 20th 
N. Y. W'illiam Seiniker, 127th N. Y. Augustus Severin, 
36th N. Y. Albert Shears, ship " Sabine." Samuel E. 
Shonnard, ist Long Island; supposed to have died at 
Salisbury prison. George W. Slater, 176th N. Y. Patrick 
Smith, 88th N. Y. John S. Smith, zouaves; k. at Bull 
Run. Jesse H. Smith, 136th N. Y. ; pro. sergt. William 
H. Smith, 173d N. Y. George Smith, ist N. Y. cav.; 
shot in left leg. Stephen Spratt, 123d N. Y. Alexander 
Spratt, 150th N. Y. David Steer, ship " Pawnee." Phelan 
Steer, ship " Tallapoosa." Frank Sullivan, 52nd N. Y. 
Allison Sutton, 4th Metropolitan; pro. corp. ; taken 
prisoner. Henry S. Thompkins; w. in front of Peters- 
burg. Thompson Thompson, 1st N. Y. cav.; pro. sergt. 
William Thompson, 66th N. Y. Manuel A. W. Town- 
send, ship " Buckthorn." John Tuston, regulars. Joseph 
Uhlicren, 69th N. Y. Joseph I. Van Alst, 158th N. Y. 
William Voysey, 51st N. Y.; pro. corp. W. Warren. 
Isaac P. Weaver, 173d N. Y. ; pro. corp. Oscar J. Wells, 
ist fire zouaves. James P. Wells, 24th cav. George and 
William Wheeler; w. in Wilderness. Martin Willis; cap- 
tured at Williamsburg May 5 '62. Adolphus White, 9th 
N. Y.; w. in the arm at South Mills. Henry White, chief 
engineer, ship " Ella." Robert T. Wild junior, ship 
" Seneca." William Willis, surveyor. Martin Willis, 
capt. 74th N. Y.; pro. brevet major. Benjamin Wood- 
bury, 15th N. Y. Edward C. Wright, 21st N. Y. ; w. in 
the second battle of Fredericksburg, with loss of right 
leg. Doctor George J. Wright, physician, ship " Galena." 


Julius Anderson, "North Carolina." Charles W. Baxter, 
5th N. Y. Thomas Birchell, 145th N. Y. ; pro. corp. Al- 
exander Bond, 119th N. Y. James Brennan, 8th N. J. 



David Brook; k. in the Shenandoah Valley Feb. '64. 
Thomas Burton, 15th N. Y.; pro. serp;t. John Burton; 
d. of wounds received at Chancellorsville; pro. lieut. 
Henry Campbell, civil engineers. Theodore Coles, assist- 
ant quartermaster. John CoUan, 158th N. Y. John Col- 
ler, 32nd N. Y. Alfred Copley; k. at Bull Run. Richard 
Coller. William Corry, lieut. John Crampton, 5th art. 
Robert Crawford, 145th N. Y. Andrew Crooker, 5th 
N. Y. Jeremiah Davis, Harris cav. ; taken prisoner and ex- 
changed. John L. De Witt, pro. teamster; d. July 21 '64. 
John H. De Mott. Daniel De Witt, 5th N. Y. Edward 
Dickerson, Harris cav.; pro. sergt. Samuel Dodge, 133d 
N. Y.; pro. corp. Frank Doremus, 34th N. Y. art. John 
Dougherty, 107th N. Y.; k. at Atlanta Aug. 5 '64. Obadiah 
Downing, lieut. Harris cav.; pro. capt.; captured in a 
raid by Sheridan; confined in Libby prison. John Dud- 
ley, 40th N. Y. Charles Edwards, 20th N. Y. James H. 
Fox, 17th N. Y. Joseph Francis; k. at Sharpsburg. Wil- 
liam FI. Gibson, 37th Ohio. William H. Grady, 5th art. 
Thomas Grady. James H. Hall, "North Carolina." Alfred 
Hall, 5th N. Y. Henry A. Harris, 5th N. Y. William 
H. and Alfred A. Hayden, 34th bat. James O. Hearne; 
k. at Spottsylvania. William Hendrickson, i5thN. Y.; 
pro. sergt. Elbert M. Hendrickson; d. of wounds re- 
ceived Sept. 26 '6;^; Harris cav. William and John Hew- 
lett, 5th. Abram Hutchings, sergt. 119th N. Y. Jacob 
H. Johnson, Harris cav. Dick Jones, 31st N. Y. Jack- 
son Jones, R. I. George W. Kiersted, sergt., 145th N. Y. 
James Legan, 5th art. Jordan Lewis jr, ist Pa. George 
H. Lewis, 26th N. Y. Henry B. Mcllvaine, ist lieut. 5th 
N. Y. art.; pro. major; lieut. col. Daniel McLaughlin, 
145th N. Y. John Mackey, 5th N. Y. heavy art. James 
Mahar, 2nd N. J. cav. Denis Maloney, 176th N. Y; pro. 
commissary sergt. Willet Miller, 15th N. Y. engineers; 
pro. sergt; d. May 31 '65. Klbert Miller, N. Y. engineers. 
George Mothersole, 15th N. Y. Edward B. Mott, 5th 
N. Y. art. Michael Nolan, 145th N. Y. ; pro. corp. Fred- 
erick Nolan, i4Sth N. Y. Alfred Noon, 119th N. Y. 
Benjamin Nostrand, 5th art. — O'Hearn; k. near Spott- 
sylvania. Joseph Onderdonk, 59th N. Y.; d. Sept. 17 '64. 
William Paine, 26th U. S. colored. James Perry, 5th 
reg. Excelsior brigade; w. at Gettysburg. William Pro- 
vost, 159th N. Y. ; pro. major. Henry Radcliffe, 25th N. 
Y. art. Augustus Roily. Charles S. Ruland, 13th N. Y 
cav.; pro. teamster. William H. Seaman, 5th Excel- 
sior brigade; w. at Gettysburg. John K. Seaman. 
John Shaw, 2nd N. Y. cav. Silas Shaw, Harris cav. 
William K. Smith, N. Y. engineers Daniel Smith. 
5th N. Y. Thomas Smith, Harris cav. Townsend 
Smith, N. Y. engineers. Stephen Smith, 5th N. Y. 
William Sobey, 5th art. Andrew Speedling, 119th; 
discharged on account of ill health. William H. Speed- 
ling, 119th N. Y.; pro. corp. Henry Sticklin, 158th N. 
Y. Robert Stuart, lieut. 2nd N. Y. cav.; drowned July 
30 '63. Jordon Stuyvestant, 5th N. Y. James Silbey, 
119th N. Y. John W. Tyson, 74th N. Y. John Tyson, 
5th reg. Excelsior brigade; w. at Gettysburg. Elbert 
Van Wielan, 139th N. Y. ; pro. corp. and sergt. Jacob 
Van Wielan, i6th N. Y. engineers. John Van Wielan, 
2nd N. Y. P. A. and John Verity, 15th N. Y.; pro. 
sergts. Walter D. Verity, 5th art. James Verity, 15th 
N. Y. V/illiam Walker, 145th N. Y. William Welling- 
ton, 34th N. Y. bat. Thomas Whitmore; d. of wounds 
received at Fredericksburg, '6;^. Benjamin Willis, capt., 
119th N. Y.; pro major and col. William H. Wood, 2nd 
N. Y. cav.; pro. sergt.; prisoner 14 months. Samuel 
Wood; d. in Wilson's raid. Aaron R. Wood, 14th Rhode 
Island. William Wooden, 26th U. S. colored. 


George A. Appleford, 4th N. Y. art. Joseph Apple- 

ford, 2nd N. Y. cav. Willington Appleford, i6th N. Y.; 

w. in hand. Armstrong, Harris cavalry; adjutant 

of recruits. Joseph Atkins, 159th N. Y.; discharged for 
disability. Edwin Bailey, 5th N. Y. heavy art. Edward 
Bailey, 15th N. Y. heavy art. James Baker. 2nd N. Y. 
cav. William Baker, 17th N. Y., Co. B. Henry Baker, 
2nd N. Y. cav. David Baldwin, 122nd N. Y. Silas 
Bendar, 159th N. Y. Edward Bennett, 2nd N. Y. cav. 
William L. M. Berger, ist N. Y.; pro. assistant adjt. gen. 
John Birdsall, capt., 13th N. Y. cav.; pro. major, feffer- 
son Braunch, 159th N. Y.; pro. lieut. Charles Broom- 
ley, 2nd N. Y. cav.; lost toes of both feet. James H. 
Brower, 2nd N. J. cav. Josiah C. Brovvnell, Harris 
light cav. (2nd N. Y.); captured in a raid by Sheridan. 
James W. Burtis, col., 5th reg. Sickles brigade; w. at 
Fair Oaks, '62. Edward Burton, 2nd N. Y. John W. 
Campbell jr., 2nd N. Y. (Harris light cav.); pro. 2nd 
lieut. John Casey, 47th N. Y. inf. John Chester. 
John Coats. George W. Cock, 5th Conn. Alfred Cock, 
2nd N. Y. cav. Butler Coles, 22nd N. Y.; pro. 2nd 
lieut. Alexander Conklin, 26th N. Y. Edward Cooper, 
2nd N. Y., Co. A. Joseph J. Craft. Philip Darley, 
107th N. Y. John Davis jr., 12th N. Y.; pro. sergt. 
Toothill Dayton. Isaac Devoe, 2nd N. Y. cav.; captured 
at the Rapidan, June '63; paroled February '64. Ben- 
jamin Dickerson, 12th N. Y. George Dickerson, 2nd N. 
Y cav. Stephen Dodge, 119th N. Y. Patrick Donal- 
son, 5th N. Y. art. Joseph Donaly, 165th N. Y. (2nd 
zouaves). Henry Dougherty, 14th regulars. Daniel L. 
Downing; k. at Brandy Station, Va., June 6 '63. Ben- 
jamin Dumire, 15th heavy art. Charles Dumire, 3d N. 
Y. George Duryea, lieut., 5th (Duryea's) zouaves; pro. 
lieut. col.; w. at Chickshinny. Henry Duryea, 2nd N. 
Y. (Harris light) cav.; paroled from Libby prison Feb- 
ruary '64. Edwin Earl, Duryea's zouaves; pro. to 
quartermaster's department. Michael Fayah, " Hart- 
ford." Henry Fisher, 18th N. Y., Co. D. John Flinks- 
man. Pearsall P. Forkey, 1st N. Y. cav.; pro. sergt. 
George W. Francis. Jacob Kittle Garribadi; pro. capt. 
George Germain, 3d assistant engineer; ship " Vander- 
bilt." Joseph Gibbons, 2nd N. Y. (Harris light) cav. 
James Golden, 20th N. Y. bat. Ephraim Golden, 2nd 
N. Y. cav. William Gramer, sergt., Harris light cav. 
Uriah Hall, 5th N. Y. heavy art.; discharged for disability 
Feb. 1 '65. Henry Hall. George W. Hall, 20th N, Y. 
colored inf.; discharged for disability. John P. Hall. 
John Hall, 95th N. Y. inf.; w. in foot. James Harris, 
loth N. Y. cav. James Harrold, 2nd N. Y. cav.; w. in 
left arm Feb. '64. John Harper, 20th colored, Co. H. 
Sherman Hartt, 159th N. Y. William Hawthorn, 2nd 
cav. John Healey, 13th engineer corps. Rutgers Hege- 
man, 114th bat.; pro. corp.; w. with a poisoned ball. 
.Andrew Hegeman, 107th N. Y. Elbert Hegeman, 13th 
N. Y. cav.; pro. lieut. and capt.; taken prisoner '64. 
Harris Heggler, 127th N. Y. Charles Heleuss, 127th N. 
Y.; lost right arm. L. Hendrickson, 145th N. Y. David 
Hendrickson, monitor. David Hert, pro. master's mate. 
Charles Hecks, Berdan's sharpshooters, Co. H. George 
Hill, 51st rifles. Henry Hoogland, 2nd N. Y. cav. Tim- 
othy Jackson, 20th N. Y. colored inf. James Jay. Leon- 
ard W. Jerome, 26th N. Y. cav. Lewis Johnson, 159th 
N. Y. Joseph Johnson, 2nd N. Y. cav. Charles John- 
son, ship "Cyane." John B. Johnson, 5th Conn, inf.; 
pro. corp. Collin J. Johnson, 2nd N. Y. cav. William 
P. Kay, 3d asst. engineer. William Lattan, Berdans, 
sharpshooters; pro. corp. Jordan Layton, 2nd N.Y. cav.; 
pro. quartermaster's clerk. James Luke, 95ih N. Y. Nel- 
son and John McGregor, 127th N. Y. William .McKee. 
John P. Mackey, 2nd N. Y. cav.; discharged for disability. 
Clarence Malier, 26th colored. Francis B. Mallaby 
ship " Vanderbilt." Jacob L. Mayber, 2nd N. Y. cav. 



Wait Michell, 41st N. Y. John Henry Miller, paroled 
from Libby prison Feb. '64. Townsend C. Miller. Peter 
and Frost Miller. Andrew Mingo. Morgan Murphy, 
102nd N. Y. ; discharged for disability. James N. Nash, 
6th N. Y. heavy art. David Potter, ship " Minnesota;" 
pro. steward. Cornelius Powell, 5th N. Y. art. Andrew 
Powell, 145th N. Y.; pro. corp. William H. Prentiss, 
4th N. Y.; discharged for disability in Mar. '65. James 
R. Rtmsen, 2nd N. Y. cav. Ferris Renade, 5th N. Y. 
heavy art; discharged on account of disability. James 
Roach, navy. John Roach, 13th N. Y. cav. Henry 
Samrnis, 2nd N.Y. cav. Charles Schmidt, r6th N. Y. cav. 
Stephen Seaman jr., 2nd N.Y. cav. Edward S. Seaman, 
2nd N. Y .cav. Thomas Sheridan, ship " Cayuga." David 
Shotwell, i2ist N. Y.; w. in left leg. William J. Siebout, 
2nd N. Y. cav. James Silbey, 5th N. Y. heavy art. 
Matthew Siper, 117th N. Y., Co. G. David Smith, 2nd 
U. S. colored inf. Treadwell Smith, 26th N. Y. John 
Smith, 2nd N. Y. cav. Charles Somers, w. at Gettysburg. 
Henry Speek, 103d N. Y. Henry Springer. 2nd N. Y. 
cav. Dr. William W. Strew, resigned in Oct. '6^. John 
Taylor, 2nd N. Y. cav.; pro. ist sergt. Thomas Thomp- 
son and John Thornton, 2nd N. Y. cav. Thomas Thurs- 
son, 6th N. Y. heavy art, Charles Tilby. Patrick Tol- 
mey, 31st N. Y. John W. Turner, 90th N. Y. Augustus 
Tyrrel, 2nd N. Y. cav. D. J. Underbill. Edward Val- 
entine, monitor. Napoleon Valentine, ist N. Y. cav ; 
ist sergt. James Vernon jr., Harris cav.; k. at Brandy 
Station June 9 '63. John Vinney, 5th N. Y. Alfred S. 
Walters. 107th N. Y.; d. Jan. 28 '64. John Wanser, 2nd 
N. Y., Co. B. John Webster, ship " Keystone State." 
Isaac Weeks, nth heavy art.; pro. corp. Samuel M. 
Weeks, lieut. Harris cav. William Weeks, 132nd N. Y. 
inf. Washington Weeks, ist N. J. cav. James Wester- 
ville, 2nd N. Y. cav. Edwin R. Whitney, 2nd N. Y. cav. 
Abram Wicklin, 158th N.Y. Clinton Williams. Andrew 
Wilson, 2nd N. Y. cav. 


Benjamin Areson; w. before Richmond May 31 '64. 
James A. Betts, 6th Conn.; captured at Winchester and 
confined in Salisbury prison. W. H. Clark; captured 
aboard the " Morning Light," Sabine Pass, July '64, and 
held 26 months at Camp Ford, Texas. Nathaniel Coles, 
13th N. Y. cav. W. J. Conn, 6th Mass.; d. at Washing- 
ton August 9 '64. Asahel Cox; w. June 19 '64, before 
Petersburg. Skillman Corn well; w. before Richmond, 
'64. Horatio -Dal ton; re enlisted March '64 in 98th N. 
Y. John Dodge; w, at Aldie, Va. Henry Dutcher. 
Zebulon B. Flowers, 159th N. Y.; d. of wounds received 
at Bayou Teche April 14 '63. St. M. Fosdick; cap- 
tured March 30 '63. William Goodman, 5th reg.. Ex- 
celsior brigade; w. at Gettysburg. William Goodwin; 
w. at Wapping Heights and d. S. Heasly; w. before 
Petersburg. Thomas W. Howard, 9th N. Y.; pro. lieut.; 
w. at Gettysburg. John Kershaw; w. at Spottsylvania. 
Charles Lerdwig; w. June 19 '64, before Petersburg. W. 
Markland; vv. before Petersburg June 19 '64. Edward 
McCoy, 5th reg. Excelsior brigade; w. at Gettysburg. 
Michael McDonald, 119th N. Y.; w. at Mill Creek Gap, 
Ga. Conrad Mayer; w. before Petersburg June 19 '64. 
Absalom Mead; missing before Richmond June '64. 
Thomas B. Mott, corj)., 119th N. Y.; w. in both legs at 
Gettysburg. Frank Palfrey; w. in the Wilderness, '64. 
S. Parr; w. in the Wilderness, '64. Philip Range, 119th 
N. Y.; w. at Mill Creek Gap, Ga. Charles E. Roseville; 
severely w. at Gettysburg. George W. Rudyard, sergt., 
119th; k. June 5 '64. John Sawyer; k. at Pine Knob, 
Ga. Wright Schenck; w. at Pine Knob. Benjamin Sea- 
man; w. September '64. Stratton V. Smith, 39th Mass.; 

captured August 19 '64; d. November 16 '64, at Salisbury 
prison. Charles Shruder, 119th; w. at Mill Creek Gap, 
Ga. Charles Stubbs; k. September '64. O. J. Townsend, 
capt., Harris cav.; taken near Richmond, '64. Erastus 
Webster; k. at Pine Knob, Ga. David Wilson; w. at 
Gettysburg. Alfred M. Wood, col. 14th N. Y. S. M. ; 
w. and captured at Bull Run. Joseph Wright; w. at Pine 
Knob, Ga. C. Wright; re-enlisted in March '64 in 89th 
N. Y. 

For ready reference we add a recapitulation of those 



Henry Apple, corp. ist N. Y.; pro. sergt.; shot on 
picket duty. Burton Belansee, surgeon U. S. A.; died at 

his post of yellow fever at Morehead City, '64. 

Biskie. John W. Byrd, 9th N. Y.; d. at Washington Oct. 
20 '61. James Byrns, 74th N. Y.; d. Dec. 29 '64, in 
Flushing. John Carroll, 6ist N. Y.; d. in Oct. '63 at 
Suffolk Hospital. Thomas Conner, 6ist N. Y. Benjamin 
Covert, 2nd N. Y. art.; d. Nov. 26 '62 at Falmouth. Wil- 
liam J. Cown, d. Aug. 8 '64, at Arlington Hos[)ital. Wil- 
liam N. Daniels, 2nd lieut. 53d N. Y.; pro. ist lieut.; w. 
at Spottsylvania May 12*64; d. at Washington June 
13 '64. William C. Domidey, 67th N. Y. ; pro. ist lieut. 
and capt.; k. at Spottsylvania. John Dougherty, sergt. 
63d; d. of wounds received at Antietam. James E. 
Eldred, 74th N. Y. ; d. Aug. 4 '64 in Georgia. Charles 
Erling, nth Mass. John Feeley, 69th N.Y. bat.; d. at 
Washington Dec. 2 '62. Joseph Fobiskie, 131st N. Y.; 
d. at New Orleans Aug. 15 '63. George H. Fowle, 15th 
engineers; d. at Falmouth Jan. '63. Asa A. Fowler, 
sergt. 6ist N. Y. bat.; k. at Fredericksburg Dec. 13 '62. 
George W. Fowler, 67th N. Y. bat.; pro. corp.; d. May 
6 '64, at Alexandria. Thomas M. Grady, Sickles brigade; 
d. at Fredericksburg May '63. Seth Harpell, 174th N.Y.; 
d. at Gettysburg July 2 '63. Benjamin Harpell, 158th 
N. Y. ; pro. corp. and sergt.; k. in front of Richmond 
Oct. 2 '64. John Wesley Hirsman, 2nd Rhode Island; d. 
of camp fever at New Orleans Aug. 1 '64. George W. 
Huntsman, 5th N. Y.; pro. corp.; d. at Alexandria Sept. 
4 "62. Patrick Hurley, navy; d. of consumption at Ma- 
rine Hospital Nov. 15 '63. Thomas H. Jenkins, navy; d. 
Feb. 5 '65 at Brooklyn Hospital. Robert Karz, 58th bat.; 
d. in Sept. '62 near Winchester. Washington C.'Knight, 
74th; pro. sergt.; k. at Gettysburg July 2 '63. Philip 
Maher. John Mara, 99th N. Y.; pro. corp.; died at 
Richmond Feb. 28 '64. Martin Moore, 5th N. Y.; d. of 
starvation at Andersonville in Mar. '64. Edward L. 
Murray, 69th N. Y.; d. of camp fever and starvation at 
Salisbury prison Dec. n '64. Henry Neimer, 4th N. Y.; 
d. Feb. 8 '64 at Alexandria. Martin Mix, 74th N. Y.; 
d. May 5 '62 at Williamsburg. Samuel C. Portner, shot 
at New Orleans. Joseph Rierstead, 2nd N. Y.; pro. corp.; 
d. Dec. 13 '62 at Falmouth. Charles D. Rossiter, ist 
lieut. 33d N. Y.; w. in the last battle at Fredericksburg; 
d. in May '63. David Shultz, 78lh N. Y.; k. at Fort 
Sanderson Nov. 29 '63. Charles D. Smith, 74th N. Y. ; 
w. July 2 '63 at Gettysburg; d. Sept. 14 '63 at Flushing. 
George A. Steele, 22nd Mass.; k. at Cold Harbor June 
3 '64. Jergen Steenberg, 34th N. Y. bat.; d. in '6;^. John 
Stonebanks, 15th N. Y. S. M.; d. at Fort Richmond July 
'64. George Vix, 29th N. Y.; k. at the second battle of 
Bull Run, '62. Lorenzo D. Wood, 67th N. Y.; pro. corp.; 
d. Aug. 15 '63. John Worth, sergt. 34th bat.; d. at 
Alexandria, Va., in '62. Adam Worth. Robert C. 
Wright, 74th N. Y.; d. April 7 '65, near Richmond. Val- 
entine C. Yeric, 58th bat.; d. in Aug. '62 at Sperryville. 




William Ackley, 139th N. Y.; September 29 '64, at 
Chapin's Farm. Daniel Andrews, 102nd N. Y.; at At- 
lanta, September 26 '64. Treadwell Bedell, 119th N. Y.; 
June 16 '64, at Brooklyn navy yard. Smith Carman, 
78th N. Y. George Carman, 158th N. Y. Sylvester 
Carmen, 5th heavy art.; Ji-'ly i '64, at Petersburg, Va. 
Walter W. Carpenter, 119th N. Y.; k. at Gettysburg, 
July '63. Michael Conner, 19th N. Y.; at Georgetown 
hospital. Thomas Cornell, ist N. Y.; December 31 '61. 
Joseph Doxey, 119th; in '64, at Petersburg. John V. 
Dunn, May 31 '64, at Hanover Court-house, Va. Jere- 
miah Fryer, 5th N. Y.; in '62, at Marietta, Ga. William 
S. Golden, 4th art.; May 19 'Gt,, in Virginia. Joseph 
Hedges, July 25 '64, at Atlanta. Elbert M. Hendrick- 
son; September 26 '63, at Whitesford, Va. Harman 
Hicks. 119th N. Y. ; at Nashville, Tenn., June 22 '65. 
Samuel B. Hicks. Thomas Holmes; February 27 '63. 
Newbury Jackson, 20th colored; June '64, in Louisiana. 
Alanson Jackson, nth R. I.; '64, at Yorktown, Pa. 
William Johnson, 20th colored; July '64. B. F. Lasea, 
139th N. Y.; September 27 '64, at Bermuda Hundred, 
Va. William H. Lloyd, 126th N. Y.; at Harper's Ferry, 
Va. Peter McMana, 90th N. Y.; in '63, at Gettysburg. 
Samuel Mathews, 56th N. Y.; September 20 '64, at Beau- 
fort, S. C. W. R. Mead, 4th art.; May 19 '64, at Spott- 
sylvania. Joseph Mott, 6th art.; October 13 '64, at 
Salisbury. Cantridge D. P. Mott, irgth N. Y.; June 16 
'64, at Pine Mountain. William Noon, Harris light cav. 
William F. Painter, ist Conn, cav.; of typhoid fever, 
September 2 '64, at Hempstead. Benjamin B. Phillips, 
sergt., 4th M. R.; September 20 '64, at Andersonville. 
John H. Pray; February 3 '64, at Peekskill, N. Y. E. 
R. Raynor, 139th N. Y.; June 10 '64, at White House. 
Henry Roach, ist N. Y.; December 13 '62. Charles E. 
Roswell, 119th N. Y. ; July 3 '63, at Gettysburg. Isaac 
Smawlin, 131st N. Y.; November 9 '6^, at Baton Rouge. 
William H. Smith, 139th N. Y.; October 14 '62, at White 
House. Asa Smith, 4th art.; June 25 '64 at Petersburg. 
Vandevvier Smith, 139th N. Y. ; k. on picket at Bermuda 
Hundred, Va., June 2 '62. Samuel Smith, navy; Sep- 
tember 27 '64, at Key West. John Sovven, 119th N. Y. 
Frank Stillwell, 67th N. Y. William Storry, ist N. Y. 
M. Daniel Van Wicklen, 158th N. Y.; May 22 '65, at 
Point of Rocks, Va. George Wells, 1st L. C; May 27 
'64, at Petersburg, Va. 


John Almac, 5th N. Y. John Asaph, 87vh N. Y.; Feb. 
8 '62, at Washington. Jacob D. Bennett, 40th N. Y.; 
pro. sergt.; k. May 5 '64, in Wilderness. Richard Brush 
jr., orderly sergt, 48th N. Y.; June i '64, at Jamaica. 
James Clemington, 2nd N. Y. cav.; Oct. 10 '63, at 
hospital in Virginia. George E. Cogswell, sergt. 165th 
N. Y.; April 16 '63, at Camp Parapet, New Orleans. 
William A. Collins, 61st N. Y.; pro. capt.; k. May 5 '64, 
at the Wilderness. George T. Crawford, pro. corp. 5th 
N. Y.; July 21 '6^, at Front, Royal. Elias Dewitt, 31st 
Conn; Aug. '64, at Petersburg, Va. Alex. S. Fosdick, 
165th N. Y.; pro. sergt.; d. July 1 '67,, at New York. 
Stephen Fosdick, 158th N. Y.; Oct. 14 '64, at New Or- 
leans. Benjamin Frederick, 158th N. Y.; at Norfolk, 
Va. Patrick Hoey, 102nd N. Y.; July 19 '62, at Jamaica. 
John Johnson, 5th N. Y.; Sept. 7 '62, at Alexandria, Va. 
James A. Kilbourn, 158th N. Y. ; pro. corp. and color 
bearer; died April 2nd '65, at Petersburg, Va. Felix 
McAleary, 69th N. Y.; k. at Chancellorsville. John 
McCann, 90th N. Y. ; pro. corp. and orderly sergt.; k. in 
the 2nd battle of Bull Run. Alexander McCremi, 6th 
N. Y. cav.; died on the field June 3 '64, at Jones Bridge, 

near Richmond, Va. Benjamin Meeker, 109th N. Y. ; 
Dec. 17 '64, at Petersburg, Va. Nathaniel Nostrand, 
158th N. Y.; April 28 '65, at Newbern, N. C. John H' 
Oake, 15th N. Y.; pro. sergt.; died July 15 '64, at City 
Point. William Parmage, Wilson's zouaves; pro. sergt.; 
died at San Rosa Island. John Penoa. Thaddeus Pot- 
ter, 165th N. Y.; Dec. 23d '63, at Washington, D. C, of 
typhoid fever. Charles Snell, 39th N. Y.; died Oct. 5th 
'64, of hard treatment while a prisoner at Charleston, 
S. C. George Valentine, ist Wis. cav.; Aug. '64, at Ja- 
maica. Pierre V. Van Ness, 67th N. Y.; pro. lieut. Dec. 
27 '62; died Dec. 29 '62, at Falmouth, Va. George L. 
Van Wicklin, 99th N. Y.; Oct. 5 '62, at Key West. Ed- 
ward W. Walton, 119th N. Y.; Feb. 16 '63, at City 
Point, Va. 


William H. Bedell, 147th N. Y. Louis Brummer, 5th 
bat.; k. at Petersburg, September 3, 64. Thomas M. 
Burke, i6th N. Y. heavy art.; at Baltimore, March 14 
'65. George W. Burtiss, 4th Metropolitan. John Duffey; 
k. at Bull Run. Michael Fose. William Frawley, 145th 
N. Y. Michael Garrwick. William Hawkhurst, 124th 
N. Y. John S. Vitty; at Bull Run. 


John C. Pollite, 44th Mass.; at Roslyn, L. I., in '61. 
Charles Wanson, ii8th N. Y.; pro. corp.; d. in '62, in 
Virginia. Erastus Webster, 119th N. Y.; pro. orderly; 
d. in '64, in Georgia. Lanson E. Wicks, 14th R. L; at 
New Orleans, July 11 '64. 


Samuel Althouse, 20th N. Y. colored; at Riker's Island, 
February 16 '64. Henry Althouse, 20th N. Y. colored. 
Thomas Appleford, 2nd N. Y. cav.; December '64, at 
Harper's Ferry. Charles Baker, corp. 4th N. Y. ; Feb- 
ruary 20 '64, at Baltimore. Alfred Barlon, 2nd N. Y. 
cav.; August 9 '63. Thomas Bolton, 90th N. Y. Van 
R. Brush, 102nd N. Y. Augustus Bullman; July '62. 
John Burton, orderly sergt., 40th N. Y. ; June 4 '61. 
James Butler; d. while a prisoner at Andersonville, of 
starvation. Charles Coleman, 20th zouaves. John 
Dempsey, 2nd N. Y. cav.; February '65. Levi Devoe, 
5th N. Y. art.; July 4 '64, at Harper's Ferry. William 
Dodge, 2nd N. Y. cav.; September 13 '64, at Chat- 
tanooga. Daniel Dourney, 2nd N. Y. cav.; June 17 '63, 
at Aldie, Va. Benjamin Hall, Sickles brigade; Septem- 
ber 1 '62. John Hall, 2nd N. Y. cav.; at Harper's 
Ferry. James Henry, 33d Mass.; June '64. William 
Hicks, ist N. Y., Co. H; September 1 '61. Charles E. 
Layton, 2nd N. Y. cav.; in Virginia, of typhoid fever. 
Thomas Layton, 2nd N. Y. cav.; in Queens county. 
James Mott, 5th N. Y. art.; at Salisbury. John Powell, 
145th N. Y.; September '62. Cornelius Remser, 2nd N. 
Y. cav.; July 12 '64, of starvation, at Andersonville. 
James Sheridan, 2nd N. Y. cav.; pro. corp. ; d. February 
'63, in Queens county. Henry Southard, 102nd N. Y. ; 
August '6;^, at Annapolis hospital. Cornelius Stillwell, 
102nd N. Y.; May 8 '63, at Yorktown. Adolphus Tor- 
rey, 2nd N. Y. cav.; September '62. William H. Town- 
send, 2nd N. Y. cav.; September '64, at Petersburg. 
Oliver Valentine, Excelsior brigade; pro. sergt.; k. at 
Gettysb-urg, July '62. Samuel Vennor, 20th N. Y. cav.; 
died while a prisoner in South Carolina. John Verity, 
Excelsior brigade; July 2 '64, at Gettysburg. James 
Vernon, 2nd N. Y. cav.; pro. co^.; died at Brandy 
Station, in June '6^. Alfred Waters, 145th N. Y.; Au- 
gust '62. Charleton Weeks, 1st N. Y.; February '63. 




HE first Iialf of the seventeenth century was 
crowded with incidents and events of the 
gravest importance to the history of the 
world at large; and in no quarter of the 
globe was this more noticeably the case than on 
the Western hemisphere. The previous century 
had given an impetus to the spirit of adventure, 
and to commercial enterprises, that even the disasters 
attending the Spanish colonies or the almost ceaseless 
warfare in Europe had failed to check; and there had 
sprung up in the hearts of thousands, proscribed and ex- 
iled for their religious views, the hope that on the shores 
of America was to be found a haven of spiritual peace 
and freedom from persecution. That this feeling was 
prudently fostered by one or two of the European powers 
is well known to the readers of history, and in this wise 
and liberal course the States-General of Holland were so 
far the leaders as justly to entitle that country to the 
grateful memories of those who to-day enjoy the sunlight 
of free thought in this land of the free; and it may be 
well to remark here that, although we shall have occasion 
to censure the arbitrary acts of local officials, there is no 
evidence that such acts were other than the unauthorized 
officiousness of a governor, and there is much to prove 
that his course was not dictated by orders from the home 
government, but, rather, was severely censured. 

The writer is inclined to differ from many American 
historians as to the influence of certain events on the na- 
tional character, and to believe that to the Dutch settle- 
ments under the Prince of Orange is due an equal if not 
a greater effect on the character of our institutions than 
can be traced to any contemporaneous colony. Ante- 
dating the Massachusetts settlements nearly a quarter of 
a century, the Dutch possessions had become influential 
when that of Plymouth Rock was still struggling against 
the disadvantage of a sterile forest-covered soil and 
fighting hostile tribes of Indians; and but eighteen years 
elapsed after the landing of the " Mayflower " before the 
growth of New Amsterdam had extended to the locality 

whose history this article narrates, and the first settler of 
Vlissingen staked out a home at the head of the bay- 
That these first settlers were Englishmen does not in. 
validate our claims as regards the Dutch, as they were 
English refugees, who came from their temporary resi- 
dence in Holland, to which they had been driven because 
of their creed, belonging as they did to the community 
of Friends or Quakers. There is little doubt, however 
that the love of their native land proved too strong for 
their allegiance to the Dutch government, and was a 
prominent factor in the final transfer of Long Island to 
the British; one of the instances, not infrequent, where 
English intolerance and injustice became the cause of 
her profit, and one which confirms the belief that the 
author of the famous adage " Honesty is the best policy '' 
was not a Briton, or, if he was, that he did not draw the 
inspiration for his proverb from a perusal of British his- 

Settlement and Acquisition of Land. 

The best attainable data place the first settlement on 
Flushing Bay at about 1643, and in the next seven years 
the number of settlers had increased by additions of 
Friends from Holland, and several who were accredited 
as coming from the Massachusetts colony, and who were 
driven here by the practical operation of the strange in- 
terpretation placed on their boasted motto " Freedom to 
worship God," by the proprietors of that colony. 

The oldest official document throwing light on the first 
settlement of this place — Vlissingen, as it was then called, 
after a village in Holland in which the English refugees 
had lived, and of which name Flushing is a corruption — is 
dated in 1645, and is a charter for a town, granted by 
Governor Kieft and found embodied in a confirmation 
granted by the State of New York in 1782. The original 
manuscript, including a renewal granted by English au- 
thority in 1685, was lost in the destruction of the town's 
records by fire in 1789; and on the 24th of February 
1792 an exemplification of Flushing patent was issued by 



Attorney-General James Graham, which is now on file in 
the town hall. The English renewal of Governor Kieft's 
charter was by Governor Dongan, in the name of James 
n., the reigning king of England. The tract in question 
was granted, according to the governor's announcement, 
in 1666 to John Lawrence, alderman of the city of New 
York, Richard Cornell, Charles Bridges, William Law- 
rence, Robert Terry, William Noble, John Forbush, Elias 
Doughty, Robert Field, Edward Farrington, John Mars- 
ton, Anthony Field, Philip Udall, Thomas Stiles, Benja- 
min Field, William Pidgeon, John Adams, John Hinch 
man, Nicholas Parcell, Tobias Feakes and John Bowne 
as patentees, for and in behalf of themselves and their 
associates, the freeholders and inhabitants of the town of 
Flushing, their heirs, successors and inhabitants, forever, 
and was described as follows: 

"All that Certaine Town in the North Riding of York- 
shire upon Long Island called by the name of Flushing, 
Scituate, lying and being in the north side of said island; 
which said hath a Certaine tract of land belonging there- 
to, and bounded westward beginning at the mouth of a 
creeke upon the East River known by the name of Flush- 
ing Creeke, and from thence including a certain neck of 
land called Tuesneck, to run Eastward from the head or 
middle whereof a Line is to be run South East; in length 
about three miles and about two miles in breadth as the 
Land hath been surveyed and laid out by virtue of an 
order made at the General Meeting held at the town of 
Hempstead in the month of March one thousand six 
hundred and sixty four; then that there may be the 
same lattitude in Breadth on the South Side as on the 
North, to run in two direct Lines Southward to the 
middle of the hills, as is directed by another order made 
of the General Meeting Aforesaid; which, passing East 
and West as the two are now marked, is the Bounds be- 
tween the said Towns of Flushing and Jamaica; for the 
greatest parte of which said tract of Land and premissess 
there was heretofore a Pattent granted from the Dutch 
Governor William Kieft, bearing date the tenth day of 
October one thousand six hundred and forty five, Sfilo 
Afovo, unto Thomas Farrington, John Lawrence, John 
Hicks and divers other Patentees, their Successors, As- 
sociates and assignes, for them to improve, manure, and 
settle a competent number of familyes there upon." 

The document then recites that on the 14th of April 
1684 Elias Doughty, Thomas Willett, John Bowne, Mat- 
thias Harvey, Thomas Hicks, Richard Cornell, John 
Hinchman, Jonathan Wright, and Samuel Hoyt, agents 
of the freeholders of the town of Flushing, to perfect 
their title, bought from certain Indians who claimed their 
territory, " all the lands, situate, lying and being on the 
North Side of Long Island, called and knowne by the 
name of Flushing, within Queens County, the first 
bounds whereof begin to the West with Flushing Creeke, 
to the South by Jamaica Line, to the East by Hempstead 
Line, and to the North with the Sound, for and in con- 
sideration of a valuable sume then received." 

It is further stated that the inhabitants of Flushing and 
Jamaica agreed upon their boundaries as follows: " That 
from the foot or bottome of the hills upon the South side 
the Town of Jamaica shall have Seven Score Rodd upon 
a direct and straight point unto the hills in all places 
from the Eastermost Bounds of Jamaica, being at a 

marked Walnut tree upon Rockie hill, standing upon the 
West Side of the Road between Flushing and Hemp- 
stead, to the Westermost Bounds of Jamaica and Flush- 
ing in the hills;" also that " by another Certaine Writing 
or agreement, dated the last day of June one thousand 
six hundred eighty four, made by Elias Doughty, John 
Seaman, Thomas Willett and John Jackson, the Bounds 
between the towne of Flushing and Hempstead are to 
begin at the middle of the bay, where Capt. Jacques runn 
the line, and to hold the same until it comes to the land 
Called by the name of the Governor's Land, and then 
from the South side of the Governor's Land towards the 
End of the plaine to the former markt tree that stands in 
the Hollow, and to run from thence upon a direct line 
unto the Rocky^hill Westerly, where Carts usually goe to 
Flushing;" also that the patentees and their associates 
" have, according to the Custom and Practice in this 
Province, made several divisions, allottments, distinct 
settlements and improvements of severall pieces and par- 
cells of the above recited tract," and that applicatiort had 
been made to the governor by Joseph Smith and Jonathan 
Wright for a confirmation of the patent. In view of these 
facts Governor Dongan issued the following: 

" Now, for a Confirmation unto the present Freeholders 
and Inhabitants of the said Towne, their heirs and As- 
signs, in the Quiett and peaceable possession and enjoy- 
ment ot the aforesaid Tract of Land and premises, 
KnoivYee that, by virtue of the Commission and Author- 
ity, 1 have ratified. Confirmed and Granted unto Thomas 
Willett, John Lawrence Seignor, Elias Doughty, Richard 
Cornell, Moriss Smith, Charles Morgan, Mary Fleake, 
Wouter Gisbertson, John Masten, John Cornelis, John 
Harrison, Denius Holdron, John Hinchman, William 
Yeates, Joseph Thorne, John Lawrence Junior, Matthias 
Harveye, Harmanus King, John Farrington, Thomas 
Williams, Elisabeth Osborn, Joseph Havyland, John 
Washborne, Aaron Cornelis, John Bowne, William Noble, 
Samuel Hoyt, Madeline Frances Barto, John Hoper, 
Thomas Ford, John Jenning, John Embree, Jonathan 
Wright, Nicholas Parcell, William Lawrence, Richard 
Townly, Edward Griffin Junior, John Lawrence at the 
Whitestone, Henry Taylor, Jasper Smith, Richard Wilday, 
Thomas Townsend, John Thorne, Anthony Field, John 
Adams, Richard Stockton, James Whittaker, Hugh Cop- 
perthwaite, Richard Chew, James Clement, Margaret 
Stiles, Samuel Thorne, Thomas Hedges, William Hav- 
iland, Thomas Hicks, John Terry, David Patrick, James 
Feake, Thomas Kimacry, Phillip Udall, Thomas Davis, 
Edward Farrington, Thomas Farrington, Matthew Far- 
rington, John Field, Joseph Hedger, John Talman, Wil- 
liam Gael, William White, Elisabeth Smith, Thomas 
Partridge, William Hedger and Benjamin Field, the pres- 
ent freeholders and Inhabitants of the said Towne of 
Flushing, their heires and Assignes for Ever, all the 
before recited tract and parcell or neck of land set forth, 
limited and bounded as aforesaid by the aforementioned 
patent, Indian deed of sale, and agreements; together 
with all and singular the houses. Messuages, Tenements, 
Fencings, Buildings, Gardens, Orchards, Trees, Woods, 
Underwoods, Highways and Easements whatsoever be- 
longing or in any ways appertaining to any of the afore 
recited tract, Parcell or neck of land, divisions, Allott- 
ments and settlements made and appropriated before the 
day and date hereof. * * * And as for and concern- 
ing all and every such parcell or parcells, tract or tracts 
of Land and Meadow Remainder of the Granted prem- 



issess not yet taken up or appropriated to any particular 
person or persons before the day of the date hereof, to 
the use and behoof of the purchasers above recited and 
to their heires and assigns for Ever, to be Equally divided 
in proportion to the above recited Inhabitants and Free- 
holders aforesaid and to their respective heires and as- 
signes for Ever, without any let, hindrance or molestacion, 
to be had or reserved upon pretence of joinftenancy or 
survivorship, or anything herein Contained to the Con- 
trary in anywise notwithstanding: To be holden of his 
Most Sacred Majesty, his heires and successors, in free 
and Common Socage, according to the tenure of East 
Greenwich in the Kingdom of England, Yielding there- 
fore and paying Yearely and Every Yeare an acknowl- 
edgement or Quit-rent to his Majesty, his heires and suc- 
cessors as aforesaid, or to such officer or officers as shall 
by him or them be appointed to receive the same, at New 
Yorke, in lieu of all services and demands whatsoever, Six- 
teen bushels of good Marchantable winter wheate on 
Every five and twentieth day of March." 

Attached to this is the official indorsement of George 
Clinton, governor of the State of New York, bearing the 
date of February 24th 1792 and the great seal of the 
State; well named, as it is nearly half an inch in thick- 
ness and three and one half inches in diameter, made of 
wax and covered with paper. 

Subsequent events seemed to prove that the charter 
granted by Governor Kieft was one which, while it fully 
guaranteed the freedom of its recipients from any more 
burdensome exactions than the patent confirmed by the 
British governor, was a source of annoyance to Kieft's 
successor in office, as the sturdy independence of the 
patentees led them to resist any encroachments of the 
governor upon their vested rights and to refuse to render 
to the colony any assistance other than that nominated in 
the bond. 

The Indians mentioned in the above instrument were 
the chiefs of the Matinecock tribe, once very numerous 
and whose principal settlements within the town limits 
were at Little Neck and Bayside, at which places they 
" dried " oysters and clams for winter use, and engaged in 
the manufacture of wampum of a very superior quality 
which was the circulating medium of the locality for 
many years. In fact the Matinecocks operated the first 
mint ever opened on the island, and, though its raw ma- 
terial was not intrinsically valuable, yet the coin, even 
though made of sea shells, was the natural progenitor of 
the " fiat money " idea that is now attracting attention 
among financiers. So full a description of this tribe is 
given elsewhere in this volume that no more space need 
be devoted to the subject in this article, further than to 
say that here as elsewhere the edict " Move on " was 
early enforced, and that the annals of the period of which 
we are now writing make but slight allusion to them. It 
is, however, a credit to the pioneers of Flushing that they 
conceded to the poor red man some title to the soil; and 
that though, as Mandeville relates, the price paid for the 
fee simple was only one axe or its equivalent for each fifty 
acres, yet the present owners of the soil can trace their 
titles untainted by the robbery by which so much of the 
landed wealth of America was wrested from the aborig- 
ines. The extensive vlaies or salt meadows were proba- 

bly among the inducements which led the agricultural 
people by whom the town was settled to locate here, as 
within four years after the date of the charter a writer 
described the town as a handsome village, tolerably 
stocked with cattle. 

Civil Troubles. 

The earliest date of any event of importance to the new 
town is January 17th 1648, when John Townsend, Ed- 
ward Hart, Thomas Styles, John Lawrence and John 
Hicks were summoned to appear before Governor Stuy- 
vesant and council on January 23d as " the principal per- 
sons who resist the Dutch mode of choosing sheriffs, pre- 
tending it is against the adopted course in-the fatherland, 
and who refuse to contribute their share of the mainten- 
ance of the Christian, pious Reformed minister, and if 
they refuse, to be apprehended and prosecuted by the at- 
torney-general." This was the first symptom of resist- 
ance to Stuyvesant's bigotry and oppression. Another 
entry from the court records is as follows: 

"April 8th 1648. — Thomas Hall, an inhabitant of 
fflishingen, in New Netherland, being accused that he pre- 
vented the Sheriff of fflishingen to do his duty and exe- 
cute his office in apprehending Thomas Heyes, which 
Thomas Hall confessed that he kept the door shut so 
that noe one might assist the Sheriff, demands mercy and 
promise he will do it never again and regrets very much that 
he did so. The director general and Council doing Jus- 
tice condemn the said Thomas Hall in a fine of 25 
guilders, to be applied at the discretion of the council." 

On the 22nd of April 1655 Thomas Saul, William 
Lawrence and Edward Farrington were appointed magis- 
trates from a list of persons nominated by the town; and 
Tobias Feake was appointed sheriff. 

The sentence of Henry Townsend (who had been a 
highly respected resident of the town, then living in Ja- 
maica, or Rudsdorp as it was called by the Dutch) on the 
15th of September 1647 for having called together con- 
venticles aroused the freedorn-loving people of both 
towns to unite in a remonstrance, dated December 27th 
in the same year, and resulted in the arrest of Sheriff 
Feake, Magistrate Farrington and Town Clerk Edward 
Hart. Feake was degraded from office and sentenced to 
banishment, or to pay a fine of two hundred guilders. 
Farrington sued for and obtained pardon, and on a peti- 
tion from Hart, who showed that he was only acting in 
the matter as a scrivener, he was excused on payment of 
costs. Town meetings were then forbidden " except for 
highly interesting and pressing reasons," and in an order 
of March 26th 1658 Governor Stuyvesant, after bestow- 
ing his formal pardon on the town for its " mutinous 
orders and resolutions," says: " In future I shall appoint 
a sheriff acquainted not only with the English and Dutch 
languages, but with Dutch practical law; and in future 
there shall be chosen seven of the most reasonable and 
respectable of the inhabitants, to be called tribunes and 
townsmen, whom the sheriff and magistrates shall consult 
in all cases; and a tax of twelve stiver sper morger is 
laid on the inhabitants for the support of an orthodox 



minister, and such as do not sign a written submission 
to the same in six weeks may dispose of their property 
at their pleasure and leave the soil of this government." 
This was in direct violation of the town charter, which 
gave the people the right of choosing their own civi' 
ofificers, and full liberty of conscience; yet so ob- 
stinate had the sturdy old Knickerbocker become, in his 
attempt to establish a State church, that he did not allow 
that trifling circumstance to affect his course in the least. 
His enmity toward the English settlers, dating back to 
the protest of 1653, in which John Hicks and Tobias 
Feake represented the town, led to an arbitrary exercise 
of his power. This, although unsustained by the home 
government, destroyed the sympathy for and loyalty to 
the States-General on the part of many who were in- 
clined to be grateful for past favors; and in 1662 Flush- 
ing became one of the English towns which in conven- 
tion at Hempstead offered their allegiance to the British 
colony of Connecticut. It was accepted by that colony, 
and steps were taken to protect the newly acquired ter- 
ritory from the claim of its late masters. The new asso- 
ciation proved, in many respects, unsatisfactory. The 
authors of the Blue Laws seemed inclined to regard 
their new friends rather in the light of vassals than 
equals; and the enforcement of the Duke of York's claim 
on Long Island, by its capture by the British in 1664, 
was welcomed by the English-born residents, and toler- 
ated by the Dutch and French, as an epoch that must 
restore their chartered rights. 

The tyrannical theories that proved the ruin of the 
Stuarts were then in full force, and the instruments of 
their power in America were chosen to carry them into 
effect. The inhabitants of Yorkshire, as the island was 
then called, saw no reason to congratulate themselves on 
a speedy recognition of their rights, but were soon in a 
position of passive hostility to the governor; in 1666 the 
wealthy and scholarly William Lawrence was arrested 
and fined heavily for seditious language, and four years 
later Governor Lovelace ordered the protest of the town 
against the unauthorized exactions of his government 
publicly burned on the court-house square at Jamaica. 

Growth of Population and Business. 

An important event of this period was the settlement 
hereof a small number of Huguenot families, who, driven 
from France by the revocation of the edict of Nantes, 
had found a temporary refuge in Holland, and, at the 
advice of the authorities there, made part of a cargo of 
emigrants who located in different parts of the Dutch 
possessions. There are no traces of their participation 
in local politics, but to this day their old homes are 
marked by the bell pear and lady apple trees set out by 
them, and their introduction of these and other fruits 
from sunny France gave an impetus to horticulture that 
has led to results of the greatest importance. Love of 
their native land was their peculiar characteristic; and 
when, after a residence of some twenty years, a change 
of administration made their return safe, they, with but 
few exceptions, took advantage of the earliest opportunity 

to dispose of their estates here, and once more turn their 
faces toward their own vine-clad hills. The only names 
of these settlers that have come down to us are Jean 
Apree, Jean Gienon, Fre Braton, De Wilde, Esmond and 
Embre, the last of whom was the founder of the Embre 
families of Flushing and of Chester county, Pa; the 
others not appearing in the annals of this locality at a 
later date than 1690. 

In 1672 Flushing, by a vote of its town meeting, re- 
fused to assist in the repair of the forts on the coast, 
giving as a reason therefor that any such concession 
heretofore made by the people had been claimed as a 
right by the governor, whose excessive taxation and dis- 
regard of the good of his Majesty's subjects had become 

The year 1673 witnessed the recapture of New York 
by the Dutch, and the acquiescence of Flushing in its 
results. Francis Bloctgoct was chosen magistrate, and 
in March 1674 a commission was given by the governor- 
general to him as chief of the inhabitants of the Dutch 
nation residing in the villages Vlissingen, Heemstede, 
Rusdorp and Middleburgh, and the places belonging to 
these districts; by which he is commanded to communi- 
cate to said inhabitants that they on the first notice of 
the enemy's arrival, or on the arrival of more ships than 
one, shall at once march well armed toward the city. 

The peace of 1674 restored Flushing to the British, 
and up to 1680 no important political events transpired. 
In that year the town voted to Governor Dongan a gifj 
of land adjoining a tract that had been given to him by 
one of the neighboring towns. In 1690 occurred the 
usurpation of Leisler, whom the people of Flushing re- 
fused to recognize, despite a display of force made by 
him with a view of intimidating them. The closing 
years of the century were, except for religious difficul- 
ties, unmarked by any event of especial interest. Trade 
had been opened with New York, by means of large 
boats, the first of which was owned by a man who 
started a small barter store at the landing. It was a large 
canoe, purchased from the Indians at Bayside, and it is 
said to have been able to carry a hogshead of molasses 
and eight or ten persons at one time. The early products 
of the locality were wheat, tobacco, Indian corn, and 
live stock; while the oysters and clams that abounded in 
the bays and inlets proved a godsend to a class too un- 
settled in character to devote themselves to the pursuits 
of agriculture. Business alliances were being formed in 
the city that laid the foundation of some of the most 
noted commercial and monetary interests of New York, 
and the seventeenth century closed on a people alive to 
their own rights, enterprising and sagacious, and success- 
ful in a pecuniary point of view to an extent rarely wit- 
nessed in the first half century of a colony's existence. One 
reason for this was that the first settlers were not poor 
in the sense in which the word usually applies to immi- 
grants. It was not penury but persecution that drove 
them here; and the fact that the Lawrences, Bownes, 
Hickses and others were what in those days were termed 
wealthy men aided largely in building up the young settle- 



ment. Two of the landmarks of that century remain, 
carefully guarded by the citizens of the village — one the 
old Bowne house, a solidly built frame house, erected by 
John Bowne in 1661, the other the Friends' meeting- 
house, built in 1695. Besides the names of the patentees 
Henry Onderdonk jr. furnishes the following list of 
heads of families in the town at different times from 1645 
to 1698: 

Poulas Amerman, Thomas Applegate, Derrick, John 
and Elbert Areson. Anthony Badgley, Cornelius Barne- 
son, William Benger, Rudolf Blackford, George Blee, 
John, Elizabeth and Francis Bloodgood, Bernardus 
Bevon, Dirick Brewer, Moses Brown, Lyman Bumptill, 
Francis Burto, Widow Cartright. William Chadderton, 
John Clement, Rebecca Clery, Nathaniel Coe, William 
Danford, Obadiah Dewitt, Lawrence Douse, Sarah and 
Francis Doughty, Deborah Ebell, John Esmond, Edward 
Feake, John Firman, William Fowler Weaver, William 
Fowler Carpenter, John Furman, John Forbosh, John 
Genung, John Gelloe, John Glover, Lorus Haff, Thomas 
Hall, Garrit Hansom, Edward Hart, John Harrington, 
John Harrison, Matthias Haroye, John Heeded, Gerrit 
Hendricks, Powell Hoff, Benjamin Hubbard, Nathan 
Jeffs, Josiah Jenning, John Jores, George Langley, 
Madalin Lodew, John Man, Michael Millner, William 
Owen, Elias and Joseph Palmer, Mary Perkins, Arthur 
Powel, Edward Rouse, Abraham Rich, Thomas Runbey, 
John Ryder, Walter Salter, Henry Sawtell, William Sils- 
bee, Nicholas and Robert Snether, Mary Southick, 
Thomas Stevens, William C. Stiger, Richard Stocton, 
Samuel Tatem, Dr. Henry Taylor, John and Robert 
Terry, Simon Thewall, Richard Tindall, Edward Van 
Skyagg, Ellen Wall, William Warde, Richard Weller, 
Richard Wilday, Thomas Willde, Martin Wiltse. 

The population of the town in 1700 could not have 
been far from five hundred, including slaves, of which 
there were about forty. The settlements were Flushing, 
Whitestone, Lawrence's Neck and Bay Side. A block- 
house had been built at what is now the corner of Union 
street and Broadway in Flushing village; it was known 
as the Guard-house, and was used as an arsenal and for 
the temporary detention of criminals on the way to the 
county jail. Grist-mills were built on several of the 
streams. A regular disciple of Esculapius, Dr. Henry 
Taylor, had settled here. A road to Brooklyn by the 
head of the vlaie through Jamaica was opened and used 
to some extent, but for general purposes canoes and 
pirogues down the East River were the connecting links 
with New York, and a taste for commercial ventures by 
water was growing which has since led to important re- 
sults. During the first half of this century several small 
potteries were established. The Prince nursery was 
opened, and in 1745 an Episcopal church was founded, 
which was chartered by Governor Golden as St. George's 
Church in 1761, and a church edifice erected in the fol- 
lowing year. 

Religious Persecutions and Controversies. 

The pioneers of Flushing, having felt the keen blasts of 
proscription and outlawry for their religious views, sought 
Long Island as a permanent refuge, relying on the known 
liberality of the government ot Holland, which had pur- 
chased for its subjects the prize of religious liberty at a 

terrible cost of blood and treasure, and was inclined to 
accord the privileges it had gained to the oppressed of 
every nation. It was therefore with surprise and alarm 
that the people of Vlissingen found that within three 
years after the grant of their charter the Dutch governor 
sought to enforce arbitrary and uncalled for restrictions 
upon them, as well as to force on them the maintenance 
of a Reformed clergy. 

The governor having arranged for the support of a 
State church — that of Holland — by the taxation of the 
people, the Quakers refused to submit, urging the plea 
that the law was one binding their consciences; and, see- 
ing in this rebellion against his authority, the arbitrary 
Dutchman, despite the fact that his couiitry had always 
allowed the largest liberty to the consciences of its people, 
commenced a system of proscription and persecution. 

The arrest of John Townsend, Edward Hart, Thomas 
Styles, John Lawrence and John Hicks, in 1648, was 
followed by a series of ]:)etty persecutions, culminating 
September 15th 1657 in the arrest and punishment of 
Henry Townsend, who was condemned to i)ay a fine of 
^8 Flanders for having called tooiether Quaker meetings. 
This aroused the indignation of the people of Jamaica 
and Flushing, and at a large assembly they adopted the 
following spirited remonstrance to Governor Stuyvesant: 

" Right Honorable — You have been pleased to send 
up unto us a certain prohibition or Command that we 
should not retaine or entertaine any of those people 
called Quakers, because they are supposed to be by some 
seducers of the people. For our part we cannot Con- 
demn them in this Case, neither can we stretch out our 
hand against them to punish, banish or persecute them; 
for out of Christ God is a Consuming fire, and it is a 
fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God. 
Wee desire therefore in this Case not to judge, least we 
be judged, neither to Condemn least we be Condemned; 
but rather let every man stand or fall to his own Maister. 
Wee are commanded by the Law to do good unto all 
men, Especially to those of the household of Faith. 
And though for the present we seem to be insensible of 
the law and the Lawgiver, Yet when death and the law 
assault us, if wee have our advocate to seeke who shall 
plead for us in this case of conscience betwixt God and 
our own souls, the powers of this world can neither as- 
sest us neither excuse us; for if God justifye who can 
condemn ? and if God Condemn there is none can justi- 
fye. And for those Jealousies and suspicions Which 
some have of them, that they are destructive unto Magis- 
tracy & Ministerye [this] Can not bee; for the magistrate 
hath the sword in his hand and the minister hath the 
sword in his hand — as witnesse those two Great Examples 
which all magistrates and ministers are to follow, Moses 
and Christ, whom God raised up, maintained 
and defended against all the Enemies both of 
Flesh and Spirit, and therefore that which is 
of God will stand and that which is of man 
will come to nothing. And as the Lorde hath taught 
Moses, or the Civil Powers, to give an outward liberty in 
the state by the law written in his hearte for the good of 
all, and can truly judge who is good, who is evil, who is 
true and who is false, and can pass definite sentence of 
life or death against that man which rises up against the 
fundamental law of the States-General; Soe he hath made 
his ministers a savour of life unto life and a savour of 
death unto death. The laws of Love, Peace and Liberty 
in the State extending to Jews, Turks and Egyptians, as 



they are considered the sonnes of Adam, which is the 
glory of the outward state of Holland, soe Love, Peace 
and Liberty extending to all in Christ Jesus Condemns 
hatred, War and Bondage; And because our Saviour 
saith it is impossible but that offences will come, but woe 
unto him by whom they Cometh, our desire is not to of- 
fend any of his little ones in whatsoever form, name or 
title hee appears in, whether Presbyterian, Independent, 
Baptist or Quaker, but shall be glad to see anything of 
God in any of them, desiring to doe to all men as wee 
desire that all men should do unto us, which is the true 
law both of church and state, for our Saviour saith this is 
the law and the prophets. Therefore if any of these said 
persons come in love unto us we cannot in conscience lay 
violent hands upon them, but give them free egresse and 
regresse into our Town and houses as God shall persuade 
our consciences. And in this we are true subjects both of 
Church and state, for we are bound by the law of God 
and man to doe good unto all men and evil to noe man. 
And this is according to the pattent and charter of our 
Towne, given unto us in the name of the States-Generall, 
which we are not willing to infringe and violate, but 
shall hold to our pattent and shall remain your humble 
subjects the inhabitants of Vlissingen. — Written this 27th 
of December in the year 1657, by mee 

Edward Hart, Clerk. 
Tobias Feake, William Noble, Nicholas Parsell, William 
Thorne signior, Michael Milner, William Thorne junior, 
Henry Townsend, Nicholas Blackford, George Wright, 
Edward Terk, John Foard, Mirabel Free, Henry Bamtell, 
John Stoar, Nathe Cole, Benjamin Hubbard, Edward 
Hart, John Maidon, John Townsend, Edward Farring- 
ton, Philip Ed, William Pidgion, George Blee, Elias 
Doughtie, Antonie Field, Rich'd Horton, Nathaniel Coe, 
Robert Field sen., Robert Field jr., Tobias Feake, the 

The governor, not disposed to listen to such Scriptural 
admonition, caused, as has been stated, the arrest of the 
supposed leaders in the meeting and continued his course. 
Henry Townsend was fined ;^iod Flanders for lodging 
Quakers again and again, which he unconditionally con. 
fessed; the town government was changed and for five 
years the arbitrary course was continued, culminating in 
the arrest of John Bowne for attending Quaker meetings 
He refused to pay the fine of ^25 Flanders, was thrown 
into prison, and after being kept there for about a year 
was transported to Flolland for the welfare of the com 
munity and " to crush as far as possible that abominable 
sect, who treat with contempt both the political magis- 
trates and the ministers of God's holy Word, and endeavor 
to undermine the police and religion." 

On presenting his case to the West India Company at 
Amsterdam they declined to favor such arbitrary 
measures, and treated him in the most conciliatory man- 
ner; and in their next dispatch rebuked Stuyvesant as 

"Although it is our desire that similar or other sectarians 
may not be found there, yet, as the contrary seems to be 
fact, we doubt very much whether rigorous proceedings 
against them ought not to be discontinued; unless indeed 
you intend to check and destroy your population, which 
in the youth of your existence ought rather to be en- 
couraged by all possible means. Wherefore it is our 
opinion that some connivance is useful, and that at least 
the consciences of men ought to remain free and un- 
shackled. Let every one remain free as long as he is 

modest, moderate, his political conduct irreproachable, 
and as long as he does not offend others or oppose the 
government. This maxim of moderation has always been 
the guide of our magistrates in this city, and the conse- 
quence has been that people have flocked from every 
land to this asylum. Tread thus in their steps and we 
doubt not you will be blessed." 

This message had the effect of moderating the gover- 
nor's zeal and rendering inoperative his orders dated in 
166 r, wherein he forbade the holding of any religious 
services other than those of the Reformed Church, on 
penalty of a fine of fifty guilders on each person attend- 
ing — the fine to be increased with each violation and the 
fourth conviction to be visited with exemplary punish- 

The change from Dutch to British rule in 1664 brought 
no relief, and in 1667 we find that William Bishop had 
" spoken seditious words at a publicpie meeting of ye 
Inhabitants of the Towne of Fflushing on ye 3d of this 
instant month." The complainant was one Captain 
Richard Betts, who declared that, after the governor had 
offered to furnish the people with powder and take fire- 
wood in exchange for it, he heard Bishop say that there 
was "another cunning trick." Bishop confessed the 
discourtesy, and was sentenced to be made fast to the 
whipping-post, " there to stand with rodds fastened to 
his back during the sitting of the court of Mayor and 
Aldermen, and from thence to be carryed unto the Com- 
monGoole [jail], until further order." 

On the 30th of October 1701 Samuel Haight, John 
Way and Robert Field petitioned in behalf of themselves 
and other Quakers of Queens county, setting forth that 
they were refused the right to vote in local affairs be- 
cause they would not take the oath. It is not known 
what effect this petition had, but it is certain that the 
Duke of York, in his instructions to Governor Dongan, 
gave most explicit instructions to molest no one by 
reason of differing opinions on matters of religion. 

It was not until a much later date that this bigoted 
persecution ceased; for we find that on the 29th of 
November 1702, at a half-yearly meeting of the Quakers 
at Flushing, the missionary preacher, Samuel Bownas, 
was arrested and required to give bail in the sum of two 
thousand pounds, the court expressing its willingness to 
accept his own recognizance for one-half the amount. 
He refused, saying, " If as small a sum as three half- 
pence would do, I should not do it," and was consequently 
sent to jail. On the 28th of December the court met, 
and his case was presented to the grand jury, who re- 
turned the bill "indorsed, ' /g>ioraiiiiis\" The presid- 
ing judge was very angry and uttered severe threats 
against the jury, vvhen James Clement, of Flushing, 
promptly administered a scathing rebuke. They were 
sent back to reconsider the case, and again returned the 
same reply. They were then dismissed and the unfortun- 
ate Quaker remanded to prison. A Scotch shoemaker 
living near the jail, although a churchman himself, sym- 
pathized with Bownas and taught him to make and re- 
pair shoes, and thus afforded him a means of securing 
many comforts by his own exertions; for he succeeder". 



as he relates in liis diary, in earning fifteen shillings a 
week. During his imprisonment he was visited by the 
Indian king and three of his chiefs, who were puzzled to 
know why he should be so punished if he worshiped the 
same Great Spirit as did the other pale-faces, and why 
they should shut him up and leave bad white men at 
large. In the autumn of 1703 the court again as- 
sembled and the case was presented to another grand 
jury, who returned the papers indorsed, as before, 
^' h^itorainiis." On the next day he was liberated and 
" a large body of dear friends had him with them in 
a kind of triumph !" He had spent eleven months 
in jail. 

It was not until the stirring events of the French wars 
drove petty interference with the rights of the people 
out of the minds of the English governors that those who 
refused to favor the Episcopal mode of worship were 
allowed much peace. Fines, illegal assessments, im- 
prisonment and banishment were the arguments em- 
]jloyed, and finally a plan was adopted the cool malevo- 
lence of which was worthy of a Machiavelli. No mar- 
riages were to be recognized save those performed by the 
Church of England, and persons married by other forms 
were to be arrested for adultery, which was actually 
done in some cases; so that in the court records of those 
days an indictment or charge of adultery is more likely 
to be an evidence of the accused's membership in the 
society of Friends than of his moral obliquity. 

Mandeville, in his "Flushing, Past and Present," has 
a list of sums taken from Quakers December ist 1756, 
pursuant tp two acts of the Assembly of the province of 
New York. It includes the following names and 
amounts: John Thorn, ^2; James Burling, ^2; James 
Bowne, j[^2\ Benjamin Doughty, ^^2; Stephen Hedger, 
^2\ Daniel Bowne, )Q2; James Persons, ;^2; Daniel 
Lathum, £^2\ Samuel Thorne, ^^2; Caleb Field, ^2; 
John Thorne, ^\. 

The result of the persecution was what has been the 
case for all time; the proscribed sect grew andhasnever 
been without a place of meeting and the means of grace, 
while the churches upheld by the sword of man failed to 
find a hold on the hearts of the people until after that 
sword had been withdrawn. 

Incidents of Trade and Agriculture. 

The old account book of John Bowne, commenced in 
1656 and carried down by his son Samuel to 1702, affords 
an amusing and instructive view of the primitive habits 
and simple wants of the people of their day, and a few 
extracts from its pages will at least serve as a contrast to 
some of the extensive monied operations with which many 
of the citizens of Flushing at the present are familiar. 
Bowne w^as an enlightened and thrifty farmer, served as 
county treasurer in 1683, and in 1691 was elected to the 
Assembly. He is believed to have acted as a sort of 
agent for his neighbors, or as a merchant on a small scale, 
keeping up a correspondence with merchants in " Man- 
hattans," as New York was then called; and he made and 
sold cider extensively for the times, shipping it to his old 

friend William Penn, the founder of Philadelphia, who 
once paid him a visit here. 

When this account book was commenced paper money 
was unknown and coin very scarce. Wampum or " se 
want," as the Dutch called it, was the measure of values 
and payments were also made in labor, beaver skins, pro- 
duce (called ''country pay ") and the like. Tobacco, 
however, seemed to have a cash value, and was eventually 
adopted as the medium of exchange. Weights, measures 
and values were given in Dutch. Henry Onderdonk jr. 
has explained them as follows: "A guilder, marked g., 
seems to be about 6 pence; a stiver, marked St., a farth- 
ing. The precise value is not very clear, but 20 stivers 
make a guilder. The skepel was about 3 pecks; the 
anker, 4 gallons; the much, about a gill. Dutch and 
English weights and measures differed though sometimes 
called by the same names." 

The most striking entries in this old business record, 
with their dates, are as follows: 

1656. — R. Stockton dr.. Salt I lent you, 2 of our little 

1658, May 5. — John Ford dr. for 1^/2 bushels peas, 3 
days work at harvest, when I shall call him. 

1659. — Nich. Parcells dr., 117 good, substantial 5-hole 
chestnut posts; also the rending out of 200 rails. 1668. 
— Dr. for a scythe I sold him for to cleave me out 400 
good rails, I finding the timber. 

1660, Dec. 5. — Due me from father, ^2 14s., to be paid 
in threshing of wheat at 7d. a bushel, and stubbing of 
ground at i6d. an acre, or as I think it worth. 

1 66 1, May 30. — Sarah Cornwellis (Cornelius) hired with 
me to do one year's service for 70 guilders in wampum 
pay (^8.40). Humphrey Trimble cr. one day's work, 30 
stivers; i day at harvest, 2 guilders, due him in wampum. 

1663, June. — Wm. Orins has 3 lbs. sheep's wool for 
shoeing and bleeding of my mare one whole year; one 
pint of liquor, is. 6d.; about a lb. bacon, 6d.; one cheese, 
IS. 3d. A quire of white paper to John Houlden, 
schoolmaster, is. 6d. Saml. Mills, dr. one day's mowing 
for 2 combs; 2 combs at 2 pecks wheat. A. Cornelius, 
dr., ha'lf b. wheat for 2 combs. 

1667. — I sent to Covert by Joseph, the boatman (Feb.) 
3 skepels of peas for brother Underbill and one for my- 

1668. — I bo't at Covert's 8 lbs. of sugar, at a guilder a 
lb. In 1667 I owed Covert within a few stivers of 100 

1668. — Bought of David the turner, one winch for a 
wheel, 2g. ; 6 chairs and a bottom for an old chair at 
58g., to be paid at the crop in peas at 5g. a skepel, or 
Indian corn at 4g. a skepel at York; or in hogs, fat or 
lean, if we can agree. Agreed with David for what 
chairs I will at 4g. apiece for the bigger, and 5ost. for 
the children's, to be paid in lean hogs before winter (as 
they are worth with us) upon sewant account. John 
Sprong being to act for them. If we can't agree he is to 
choose one man and I another to make the price be- 
tween us. 

1670. — Two quarts liquor at 3 pecks wheat, 3s. gd. 
Rum at harvest, 3s. Load of thatch at half a day's 
work. Henry Gardner owes for a can of vinegar los. 
John Sprong's hogshead of tobacco is paid for by 6 
loads of hay. 

1672, Dec — John Marston, dr. Three loads hay 
from the south; for the hay, carting and stacking, in all, 
;Q/\. July. — Bought a deerskin from the shoemaker at 
2 skepels of peas; cotton wool at lod. a pound; sugar at 



lod. a pound. [It will be noticed that the accounts are 
now kept in English money.] Jane Chatterton dr., 9 lbs. 
sugar at 6d. a lb.; wheat, 4s. a bushel. John Feke dr., 
by 3 days riding in the woods to seek his stray mare, 15s. 
if ever she be found. 

In 1668 there is a memorandum of his account as col- 
lector of taxes. As they were usually paid in produce 
there was either a town barn, or the collector furnished 
storage, charging for it. In 1684 he sums up an item of 
his business as county treasurer, as follows: "Waste of 
corn (by shrinkage), 7s. 6d.; Indian corn lost in measure, 
20s.; carting corn in Flushing, 7s. 6d.; to chamber-room 
for corn, 20s.; collector's salary, 14s. 4d." 

1674, March. — Hay-dust sold Dr. Taylor, 12 bush, at 
IS. a bush. May. — A fat cow, ^4 3s. 4d., to Mynard, 
the shoemaker. 

1675, Oct. — John Baylie, 8 lbs. wool for so much flax, 
Dutch weight. 

1676. — N. Sneden dr., 8 good cider barrels, with 
broad hoops, for a cross-cut saw; a washing tub for 
a file. 

1678. — Abm. Ogden cr., weaving 31 yards of linen, at 
8d. a yard; 29 yards woolen, at 7d. a yard; 3 days reap- 
ing, at 2S. 6d. a day. 

1680, Nov. 27. — Dorothy Bowne went to Mary Willis's. 
Her things are: 8 handkerchiefs, 3 white and one black 
hood, 8 caps, 3 pair sleeves, 5 headbands, 4 aprons, 2 
pair stockings, 2 new shifts, 4 petticoats, 2 waistcoat^. 

1680. — Account of charges for John Clay in his sick- 
ness and at his burial; 2 oz. cloves and mace, 4s.; i^ oz. 
nutmegs, 2s. 2d.; 6 lbs. currants, 4s. 6d.; 25 lbs. sugar, 
9s. 4/^d.; 2 galls, rum, 6s.; 6 lbs. butter, 3s.; cofifin, 6s. 

1681. — Due Edw. Burling, 6 bush. Indian corn or one 
barrel cider, which he pleaseth. Due John and Elias 
Burling, cr. by ringing pair of wheels, 15s. August. — I 
sold Geo. Lambert a mare for ;^5 in money and a mus- 
tard bowl; and a grey mare to John Newbold for £^t, 5s. 
Old England money. 

1683. — Wm. Penn dr., 4 barrels boiled cider, at 30s. 
each; 3 barrels raw cider, at 15s. each; 36 bush, hay- 
dust, at 2S. a bush. 

1683. — Martha Joanna's 30 weeks' schooling and what 
else is paid for by a red petticoat to E. C. (Elisabeth 
Cowperthwaite ?) 

1685. — John Adams cr. by making 28 rods of stone 
wall at IS. 6d. a rod; 4 days cutting thatch, los; 2^ 
days walling, 6s.; dressing 2 cows, 4s.; for 30 shingles, gd. 

1687. — Maria Feake, dr., canoeing and carting home 3 
loads hay, i6s.; cr., making 10 shifts, 15s.; 3 petticoats, 
los.; 2 weeks spinning, los.; making 5 shirts and knit- 
ting 2 pair stockings. [This woman was the deserted 
wife of Tobias Feake, the ex-sheriff, who ran away to 
Holland with another woman, to the great scandal of the 
community. She kept a farm, tried to pay his debts, 
and raised a family of his children, retaining the respect 
of all her neighbors. It will be seen that the prices paid 
for her work were large, compared to the prevailing rates 
of men's wages. It was probably the good old Quaker's 
way to cover up a charitable act and relieve her from the 
humiliation attending a direct gift.] April 20 — Jona. 
Wright, for cart hire, i day reaping or mowing. For 6 
pecks oats, in reaping to satisfy me in reason; 3 days 
mowing for one pair worsted hose. Chas. Mordan, dr., 
for hay and fodder, one good day's mowing or reaping. 
A doz. almanacs, 4s.; neck of veal, 6d. 

1687. — Dr. Simon Cooper, cr., for letting Daniel's 
blood, IS.; wormseed, is.; two journeys from Oyster 
Bay to Flushing, 24s.; 5 plasters, 5s.; 7 doz. pills, 14s. ; 
2 bottles cordials, los.; salve and cere-cloth, 3s.; a purge, 
2S. 6d.; drawing a tooth, is. Paid Dr. Taylor for com- 
ing to let James's blood, 3s. 6d. 

1690. — Declined Ri. Stockton's proposal for all his 
housing lands and conveniences thereto belonging [at 
Bay Side], 70 acres or more at home and 2 ten-acre lots 
and 2 twenty-acre lots at a mile or two distance, with so 
much meadow as may yield 20 or 25 loads of hay a year, 
price ^300. 16 half-ankers of boiled cider for half of 2 
oxen. I bought of Wm. Dearing a negro girl Betty for 
^23 in silver, ;^i2 in hand and ;^ii next month. 

1691. — Account of linen in John Bowne's house: New 
diaper, 4 tablecloths, one doz. napkins, one doz. towels, 
fine sheets 6, and 2 cotton sheets, 4 coarse linen, 2 fine 
tow, 2 bolster cases, 9 fine pillow-biers, 4 coarse ones; 
small linen: 4 cravats, 5 handkerchiefs, 5 neck cloths, 8 
caps, 7 bands; woolen, bedding, &c.: 8 coverlets, 12 
blankets, 3 feather beds, 5 bolsters, 4 large do., 4 pillows, 
other pillows, 9 in all; six good chaff beds, 2 sets of 
curtains; pewter: 9 platters, 4 new basons, 8 plates, 5 
porringers, 4 salts, one flagon, 2 tankards, one pot, 2 
chamber-pots, 2 doz. spoons, 2 saucers; 3 brass candle- 
sticks, 2 pair scales. 

1693. — Dinner and wine for 7 men (in N. Y.), los. 6d.; 
one best pair yarn hose, 4s.; pair mittens, is. 3d. 

1694. — The cooper is to make me 60 good barrels for 
cider, tight and sizeable, at 2od. each, the timber already 
got, he providing what is yet wanting, to be paid Yi in 
cash and Yi in cider at 12s. 6d. a barrel now, and los. a 
barrel from the press, he finding casks. 

In 1695 a school bill is stated as follows: Wm. and 
Thos. Richardson, dr. to John Urquhart for 4 weeks 
diet, ^1 17s. 6d., and for writmg and cyphering, 8 weeks 
at IS. 3d. a week for both; teaching John to read, 10 
weeks at 6d. at week; leather for his breeches, 9s. 8d. ; 
Yi yard osenbrigs, lod.; one ounce silk, 4s. 6d. 

So large a number of entries have been reproduced that 
the reader can gain a general idea of the prices of nearly 
all classes of mechanical, agricultural and professional 
labor that found a market in those primitive times. 

The French and Revolutionary Wars. 

The hostilities between the French and English at- 
tracted much attention, and Queens county was called on 
to furnish a regiment of militia, to which, of course, 
Flushing contributed her quota. During the administra- 
tion of Governor George Clinton this place was his res- 
idence, and that fact brought the most prominent of its 
citizens into a more close relationship with the surround- 
ings and associates of a high official of the British gov- 
ernment than they would otherwise have been, and may 
have had much to do in shaping their policy at a later 
date. The transfer of the scene of conflict to the Cana- 
dian frontier and the successful termination of the French 
war brought relief and joy to the people of this vicinity, 
whose location made them particularly exposed to danger 
had a French fleet entered the sound. A newspaper 
clipping reads as follows: " November 17th 1759. — A 
great celebration was held at Flushing over the reduction 
of Quebec, that long-dreaded sink of French perfidy and 
cruelty. An elegant and sumptuous entertainment was 
served, at which the principal inhabitants of the town 
were present. Toasts celebrating the paternal tenderness 
of our most gracious sovereign, the patriotism and integ- 
rity of Mr. Pitt, the fortitude and activity of the generals, 
&c., were drunk with all the honors. Every toast was 
accompanied by a discharge of cannon, which amounted 




to over 100. In the evening a bonfire and splendid il- 

Lieutenant Governor Cadwallader Golden owned and 
occupied the place now known as the Brower property, 
called by him Spring Hill. He retired to it on the ap- 
pointment of Andros, and died there, September 20th 
1776. His son David figures somewhat in the events of 
the Revolution, as a strong and active loyalist. 

The people of Flushing united with their fellow col- 
onists in resenting and protesting against the aggressions 
of the mother country, but when rebellion was decided 
upon by the colonies many felt that nothing could be 
gained and much lost by precipitate action. The open- 
ing act of the Revolutionary drama was the pursuit of 
one Zacharias Hood, a stamp officer, to the residence of 
Lieutenant Governor Golden, where he had taken refuge, 
by a party of Liberty Boys from New York, accompanied 
by their sympathizers in this vicinity. The badly fright- 
ened revenue officer was ordered out, placed in a car- 
riage, escorted to Jamaica, and made to take an oath of 
loyalty to the colonies, and then with three cheers the 
party disbanded. This was on December 5th 1765. The 
events of 1776 and 1777 were peculiarly trying to the in- 
habitants. Families were divided, some of the younger 
members joining WoodhuU's Gontinentals, while the 
older members clung to the cause of King George. 
Marriages with families in England, the large property 
interests involved, the long stretch of unprotected sea- 
coast, and the non-combative principles of the Quaker 
population, are all to be considered in judging, at this 
day of the causes which led to the toryism of a great por- 
tion of the people of Queens county, and should have 
their weight with the unprejudiced reader. 

The abortive campaign of 1776, resulting in the defeat 
of the colonial forces at Brooklyn, led to the occupancy 
of this portion of the territory by a part of General 
Howe's army, DeLancy's brigade being quartered in a 
district extending through Jamaica and Flushing, and so 
placed as to guard the roads and protect the island from 
invasion from Gonnecticut. A large body of Hessians 
was quartered in this town, many of them being billeted 
at the houses of the citizens, who were not entirely 
unacquainted with foreign soldiers, as some of them had 
boarded French prisoners of war in 1656-58. The head- 
quarters of the quartermaster were at the Aspinwali 
homestead; other officers were quartered at the old 
Bowne house, a stone house south of the cemetery, and 
the Bowron place on Whitestone avenue. The old 
Quaker meeting-house was used at various times for a 
hospital, for a guardhouse, and for storing hay. Troops 
were encamped at Fresh Meadows, near the Duryea 
place, on the Bowne prcpperty near the Manhasset road, 
and in a barn on the Hoagland farm. Loyalists from 
the mainland flocked here in considerable numbers as 
refugees, and, in turn, any one suspected of strong sym- 
pathy with the cause of the colonists soon found it 
advisable to leave. 

During the early years of the war but little loss was 
s istained by the well-known predatory proclivities of the 

Hessians, and the inhabitants soon learned to make good 
such losses by reports to the proper quarters. The 
influence, however, of the forced association with the 
degraded mercenaries was deeply felt, and did much to 
weaken the sympathy with the royal cause; and there is 
but little doubt that the people of Flushing were heartily 
glad to speed the parting guest when the evacuation of 
New York withdrew the British army from their soil. 

In a pecuniary sense the British invasion was proba- 
bly a profitable one, as the officers paid promptly and 
liberally in gold for their requisitions, and the increased 
demand for farm products for the army here and at New 
York was a source of considerable revenue. There were, 
however, m;'ny individual inst.nnres of- rapine; not all, 
however, chargeable to ihe enemy, as the Connecticut 
whaleboats made frequent incursions by night and, 
under the protection of letters of marque from the federal 
authorities, degenerated at Inst to mere pirates, robbing 
friend and foe alike. 

A few of the more interesting incidents of the five 
years' experience of Flushing with a foreign army have 
been gleaned from the records of those days, published 
works and the recollections of old settlers. 

On the 4th of April 1775 an annual town meeting 
elected John Talman a deputy to the convention which 
was to form a Provincial Congress. He was present at 
the convention and acquiesced in its action. On May 
22nd of the same year a county meeting at Jamaica 
elected Thomas Hicks, of Little Neck, and Nathaniel 
Tom, a captain of militia, deputies to another colonial 
convention. Hicks, who was chosen to represent Hemp- 
stead, declined to serve, as he was " informed that the 
people wished to remain in peace and quiet." Captain 
Tom afterward joined the continentals. The county 
committee appointed as a sub-committee for Flushing 
John Talman, John Engles, Thomas Rodman, Thomas 
Thorne, Edmund Pinfold and Joseph Bowne. In No- 
vember 1775 a county election was held to decide the 
question of sending deputies to Congress, and Flushing 
decided against the measure, as did the county at large. 
Next followed the raid of Colonel Heard in January 1776, 
for the purpose of disarming loyalists and seizing the 
ringleaders. He visited this town and seized some arms. 

The Flushing committee were, although in the minor- 
ity, not entirely idle; for when Rev. C. Inglis, rector 
of Trinity Church in New York, found it necessary to 
retire to this place after Washington's entry, a meeting 
of the committee discussed the propriety of seizing him; 
and so alarmed his friends that they removed him to some 
more retired quarters, and kept him secluded for some 

Capt. Archibald Hamilton was summoned by Congress 
to show cause why he should be considered a friend of 
the American cause; he expressed his love of country, 
but said he could not unsheath his sword against his 
king, or against his brother and other near relations in 
the British armies. He was paroled, and, violating his 
parole, became an active tory officer. 

June 24th 1776 Cornelius Van Wyck of this town was 



elected one of the representatives iri the Provincial Con- 
gress, and Congress granted ;^2oo to Flushing for the 
care of Whig refugees who had been driven from New 
York and had become objects of the town charity. 

The first entry of British troops was about 2 o'clock 
on a fine day in the last of August 1776, when a body of 
light horse galloped into the village and inquired at 
Widow Bloodgood's for her sons. On being told they 
had already fled one of the troop seized a firebrand and 
threatened to burn the house, but was prevailed on to 
desist. Thomas Thorne, James Burling and one Van- 
derbilt were arrested and carried off to the prison ship, 
the first named dying there. Congressman Van AVyck 
was also seized and sent to the new jail. Most of the 
leading Whigs had already fled on hearing of the battle 
of Brooklyn. Many of them afterward returned and ac- 
cepted the protection of the British. Capt. Nathaniel Tom 
accepted the captaincy of a company of continentals 
raised at Kingston, and fought through the war, after- 
ward dying at Kingston at the age of 73 years. The 71st 
Highlanders were the first troops quartered at or near 
the village. Before the battle of White Plains one wing 
of the army passed through Flushing to Whitestone, and 
on the 1 2th of October crossed over to the mainland. It is 
said to have occupied half a day in passing a given point. 
The road from Hempstead and Jamaica was constantly 
traversed by bodies of troops carrying supplies from the 
landing at Whitestone, and it was in opening a lane to 
shorten the distance that the name Black Stump was 
given to the locality, the intersection of this improvised 
route with the highway being marked by the charred and 
blackened stump of a tree. The farmers were impressed 
as cartmen, but usually fairly paid for their services. 
After the occupancy of the town a system of signals was 
established by which alarms were transmitted from Nor- 
wich Hill to Beacon Hill, thence to Whitestone and so 
on to New York. An alarm pole was set up where the 
old Methodist church stood. It was wound with straw 
and terminated in a tar barrel. 

Some idea of the profitable market for farm produce 
can be gained from a general order of Howe, which fixed 
the price of fuel and food to prevent extortion, and also 
made offers for forage. Walnut wood was made -£e, per 
cord; all other wood ;£^. The wood of proprietors re- 
fusing to sell to boatmen at moderate prices was to be 
seized and confiscated. The price of wheat was fixed at 
12 shillings per bushel of 58 lbs.; wheat flour, 35 shillings 
per cwt.; rye, 20s.; corn, 17s. Farmers were ordered to 
make a return to the commanding ofiScer of the quantity 
they had and how much they required for their own use. 
In a requisition for forage September loth 1778, the 
prices, delivered at Flushing or Brooklyn, were stated as 
follows: Upland hay 8s., salt hay 4s., straw 3s. per cwt.; 
corn IDS., oats 7s. per bushel; carting or boating 2s. 6d. 
per ton. Forage of delinquents to be taken without pay. 

In the last month of 1778 Archibald Hamilton was ap- 
pointed commandant of the militia of Queens county, 
and aide-de-camp to Governor Tryon, despite his parole 
of two years previous. It was to this perjured official 

that many of the indignities suffered by the people were 
due. The officers of the regular army had been careful 
to avoid offense, and had punished depredations severely. 
Under Hamilton there were a body of Maryland loyal- 
ists and what was known as the Royal American regi- 
ment quartered in this vicinity, and their depredations 
were in many instances unnoticed if not even sanctioned 
by him. He was a passionate, ill-bred tyrant, and within 
a short time after his appointment a number of respecta- 
ble citizens entered complaints to Governor Tryon against 
him. Among the comi)lainants were the following: 
Thomas Kelley, who alleged that Hamilton entered a 
house where he was, and, because he did not remove his 
hat, beat him over tiie head and repeated the offense 
soon after; John Willet, who remonstrated with him for 
sending a negro to steal his fence rails, and was chased 
into his yard by the gallant officer, who endeavored to 
run him through with his sword, and called God to wit- 
ness that he would cut in pieces any one who opposed 
him; James Morrel, who was wounded by him; Walter 
Dalton, who, having been arrested for no offense, was 
knocked down twice with a heavy club, and after being 
put under guard was followed to the road by the colonel 
and struck " with about thirty blows, which disabled him 
from labor for some weeks "; and eight others who made 
affidavits to sin.ilar outrages. The governor ordered 
David Golden to investigate the matter, but no punish- 
ment was inflicted, and Hamilton had the impudence, at 
the close of the war, to petition for the privilege of citizen- 
ship. It was refused, however, and he set sail for England 
in 1783. 

Benedict Arnold's legion lay for a time near Black 
Stump. The Hessians were from the Jager corps — a 
higher order — and were quartered on the north side for 
three winters. Sir Robert Pigot's 38th regiment was 
quartered at Fresh Meadows. 

Mandeviile relates that civilians when passing the offi- 
cers' quarters were required to dismount and proceed on 
foot until a certain distance had been passed. 

Samuel Skidmore, near Black Stump, was shot through 
a window. No traces of the perpetrator were found. 
Some of Fanning's tories entered the house of Willet 
Bowne at night, and, tying him to his bed-post, tortured 
him by holding a candle to the tips of his fingers, to in- 
duce him to disclose where his money was hidden. He 
however, remained firm, and, fearful of discovery, they 
were compelled to leave without having attained their 
object. The old Quaker recognized his assailants, but 
out of mercy for them never revealed their names. James 
Bowne was awakened one night by a disturbance at his 
barnyard, and on raising his window received a musket 
ball in his arm. 

Recruits to a tory regiment, " the Prince of Wales's, 
Loyal American Volunteers, quartered at the famous and 
beautiful town of Flushing," were given ;!^5 bounty and 
promised 100 acres of land on the Mississippi, and were 
thus drawn in squads of twenty or more from the New 
England colonies — many of them jailbirds and des- 
perate characters. 



In 1780 Yankee whaleboats from New Rochelle 
visited Bay Side, and plundered several houses, among 
the rest that of John Thurman, a New York merchant. 
In 1 781 Thomas Hicks, of Little Neck, was robbed of 
his law books and a large amount of personal property ; 
and later in the summer eight of these boats made a land- 
ing at Bay Side, but, finding the tory militia on the look- 
out, the crews re-embarked without a contest. 

On the 2cth of April 1782 a party of soldiers with 
their faces Jjlackenrd attacked James Hedger^ shot him 
dead in his bedroom, and robbed him of ^200 in coin 
and a large amount of clothing and silver plate. Col. 
Hamilton offered ^^150 reward for the detection of the 
criminals, and ;^ioo and free pardon to any accomplice 
who would give the necessary evidence. It was this 
offer probably that induced a soldier named Perrot to 
confess that the crime was committed by himself and 
five other members of the 38th and 54th regiments. The 
other guilty men, suspecting Perrot, attempted to escape, 
but three of them were arrested at Lloyd's Neck and 
brought back to Flushing village, where their regiments 
had been stationed. They were then taken to Bedford — 
the quarters of their regiments at that time — tried, and 
two of them hanged on a chestnut tree in the presence 
of the entire brigade, the notorious Cunningham and his 
mulatto acting as executioners. Hedger was the pro- 
prietor of the grist-mill located on the J. P. Carll prop- 
erty, about four miles east of Flushing village, and 
lived with his sister, a Mrs. Palman, in a house near the 
mill. He had once before been awakened by a noise, 
and found two men choking his sister. In a hard fight 
he beat them off, killing one and marking the other in 
the face with shot. The wounded man was arrested at 
Southold, found to be a British soldier, and punished by 
the infliction of 999 lashes; and the body of his com- 
panion was hanged in a iron frame on a gibbet on the 
Hempstead Plains. 

The people of the town, despite the murder of Hed- 
ger, seem to have been pleased with the conduct of the 
regiments named above, as on their departure an address 
was presented to Lieutenant Colonel A. Bruce, of the 
54th regiment, who was in command, thanking him for 
his vigilant attention, the honor and politeness of his 
officers, and the orderly behavior of the men. This 
paper was signed by forty-seven of -the prominent citizens. 

The house of Benjamin Areson, at Fresh Meadows, was 
robbed by some of Simcoe's tories, who beat Areson 
severely and kept Benjamin Nostrand and his father 
under guard until the house was rifled. Three of them 
were afterward identified, but Simcoe declined to punish 
them. Mr. Areson had a new house unfinished when 
the Jagers encamped at Frame's farm. They tore it 
down to use in building their barracks. Fences were 
destroyed without mercy, and when the army left there 
were but few fence rails to be found for miles around 
their encampments, and the loss inflicted by the reckless 
waste in felling tracts of timber was a serious one; as, 
although some compensation was received, it was by no 
means adequate. 

The 7th of August 1782 witnessed the only visit evtr 
made to Flushing by a royal personage. On that day 
Prince William Henry, afterward King William IV., in 
company with Admiral Digby, presented a stand of colors 
to the king's American dragoons, under Colonel Thomp- 
son, at their camp on the James Lawrence place, not far 
from Bay Side. The young prince was at that time a vol- 
unteer on board the Admiral's flagship "Prince George." 

The old guard-house at Flushing was torn down by the 
soldiers and burned for fuel. Perhaps the most satis- 
factory fire that occured was the burning of Colonel 
Hamilton's residence, on the place now owned by the 
Mitchells on Whitestone avenue, on Christmas eve, 1780. 
Everything it contained was destroyed—" elegant furni- 
ture, stock of provisions, various sorts of wine, spirits in- 
tended for the regalement of his numerous friends, the 
military, and other gentlemen of the neighborhood, at 
this convivial season". It might have been saved had 
not his folly in storing a cask of cartridges and a lot of 
loose gunpowder in the garret been known, and prevent- 
ed any exertions to save it. It is believed that some one 
who had been wronged by his brutality took this method 
of avenging himself. If so it was quite effectual, as 
Hamilton suffered severely by the loss, and when he was 
compelled to emigrate his farm was found to be heavily 

In 1780 the Hon. Mrs. Napier, wife of Captain Napier, 
who was absent with the fleet on the Charleston expe- 
dition, died at the residence of Jeremiah Vanderbilt, 
aged only twenty-three years, leaving two infant daugh- 
ters. Her remains were deposited in a vault on Gover- 
nor Colden's place, attended by the officers of three reg- 
iments. She was said to have been an estimable lady, 
and loved by all who knew her. This is the only record 
attainable of any of the families of British ofificers at this 
place, although it is understood that many of the officers 
were accompanied by their wives and children; while a 
certain number of the privates and non-commissioned 
ofificers were allowed to be accompanied by their wives, 
who acted as laundresses and in other capacities about 
the officers' quarters. 

The fort at Whitestone was an important strategic 
point. It was located east of the creek, on a bank at 
Bogart's Point, and the redoubt, which Mandeville 
attributes to Washington's troops, was probably a part 
of the defenses. There is no evidence that any fortifica- 
tion of this locality was attempted by the American 

The exit of the troops was as sudden as their entrance. 
A writer says: " In the morning the place was crowded, 
and barns all full; now all are gone, and it seems quite 

There followed the usual day of reckoning. Every 
insolent act, harsh word or instance of treachery had 
been treasured by the Whigs, and no sooner had the 
courts opened, in 1784, than they were thronged with 
suitors seeking damages against the tory residents. 
David Colden, to whose influence more than that of any 
other was due the ill-timed loyalty of the town, peti- 



tioned for the rights of citizenship, but in vain; his 
beautiful estate was confiscated, and he joined the tory 
hegira to Nova Scotia. A large number of farms and 
residences changed hands, and a new class of settlers 
took the place of those who, although they had enriched 
themselves in many instances, had done so at the expense 
of their country. 

One of the most serious blows which befell the farmers 
here and elsewhere at the time of the Revolution, and 
thought to be traceable to it, was the almost total 
destruction of the wheat crop by the ravages of the 
Hessian fly, which is believed to have been brought to 
the island in grain imported for the British troops from 
Germany. Flushing had become famous for its wheat, 
and the loss was keenly felt here. That it was serious 
can readily be seen from the fact that, while in 1777 
wheat flour was rated at 35s. per cwt., the price list 
made out by the commanding general in December 
1779, which contained the prices at which farmers must 
sell their surplus produce, rates it at 80s. per cwt., and 
offers 26s. per bushel for wheat. When the pest was at 
its worst one of the Burlings, who at that time owned a 
grist-mill and farm, saw some southern wheat on board a 
coasting vessel at New York, and, actuated by a desire 
to experiment with it, purchased a few bushels, and 
sowed it. Of the success of his experiments the New 
York Packet of July 20th 1786 says: 

" The insect that has destroyed the wheat many years 
past continues to spread, but it has no effect on the 
white-bearded wheat raised on Long Island. This wheat 
was brought here from the southward during the war, 
and a few bushels sown by a Flushing farmer grew well, 
and afforded a fine crop. He kept on, and has supplied 
his neighbors. It grows twenty bushels to the acre, and 
weighs over sixty pounds. It is of a bright yellow color, 
and makes fine flour. The straw is harder, and resists 
the poison of the fly, and supports the grain, while 
bearded and bald wheat were cut off." 

Thus it will be noticed a Flushing farmer makes dis- 
coveries that save the wheat culture of the entire coun- 
try. Apropos of this, the writer, when a child, heard 
his grandfather relate how, after the close of the war, he 
was sent by his neighbors, central New York farmers, 
from the Genesee valley to Long Island, to test the truth 
of the story that had reached them, that the farmers on 
the island had found a wheat that would ripen in spite 
of the "fly;" and that on his return he took with him a 
quantity, which he believed to be the first amber winter 
wheat ever sowed in central or western New York. 

The most important event of the closing years of the 
last century was the destruction of the town records by 
the burning of the residence of the clerk, Jeremiah Van- 
derbilt. It was set on fire by Nellie, a slave girl belong- 
ing to Capt. Daniel Braine, who had been hired to work 
in the family, and who, conceiving a dislike for her new 
mistress, took this way to revenge the fancied injury. 
She was arrested in company with Sarah, one of Vander- 
bilt's slaves, and on their own confession they were sen- 
tenced to be hanged. Sarah was afterward reprieved on 
condition that she be removed from the island. Nellie 

was hanged at Jamaica, after having been in jail fifty 
weeks. Aaron Burr, then attorney-general for the State, 
conducted the prosecution. 

The celebration of the adoption of the Constitution, 
held August 13th 1788, was another interesting incident, 
participated in by many prominent men from New York, 
and lasting an entire day and evening. In 1790 General 
Washington dined here, and was enthusiastically re- 
ceived, and in 1792 the people co-operated with the citi- 
zens of Jamaica in raising funds to found an academy at 
the latter place. 

No untoward event marred the peace and prosperity 
of the people, and the tide of improvement had set in 
that was destined to make of the little hamlet an im- 
portant village, and to found thriving villages where but 
an isolated farm house then stood. The population had 
grown to an aggregate of 1,818, and commercial ventures 
with foreign parts, as well as a coastwise trade with 
Boston, Philadelphia and Baltimore, had been carried on 
to some extent. 

Old Families and Prominent Citizens. 

The VanZandts. — Walter Barrett's " Old Merchants of 
New York " contains so complete a history of the several 
generations of this substantial Knickerbocker family that 
any mention of the progenitors of the last Wynant Van 
Zandt would be superfluous here. Intermarried with 
some of the best of the old Huguenot families in the last 
century, the survivors of the Van Zandts possess the 
sterling qualities of both the Flollandish and Huguenot 

The first of the name to reside in this town was Wynant 
Van Zandt, born in New York, August nth 1767, and 
for many years a member of the mercantile house of Law- 
rence & Van Zandt. He served as an alderman of the 
first ward from 1802 to 1806, and, as one ot the building 
committee who erected the City Hall, protested against 
the use of colored stone in the rear of that building, 
urging upon his colleagues the belief that in a few years 
the city would extend far beyond the hall, and that then 
their parsimony would be ridiculed. His " wild ideas," 
as they were called, were laughed at by the other aider- 
men, and the brown stone was used. When it was pro- 
posed to make the width of Canal street sixty feet he 
pleaded for one hundred feet, and it is due to his efforts 
that this important thoroughfare is wide enough to ren- 
der traffic on it possible. He married Maria Allaire 
Underhill, of Westchester county, by whom he had eleven 
sons, several of whom are still living. Although he had 
been for many years an attendant at the old Dutch 
church, under which lie buried nearly all the Van Zandts 
for generations, later in life he became attached to Bishop 
Hobart, purchased a pew in Trinity church, and had a 
vault built near the McDonough monument, in which 
were buried his father, the old alderman, who died in 
1814, his business partner William Lawrence, and several 
others. He became a vestryman in Trinity, serving 
from 1806 to 181 1. 

About the year 1813 he purchased the Weeks farm at 



Little Neck, and, erecting on it a hancLomc mansion, re- 
moved there with his family, and in this beautiful home 
passed the remainder of an active and useful life. His 
residence here was marked by acts of liberality and pub- 
lic spirit; and his death, which occurred November 31st 
183T, when he was sixty-three years old, deprived the 
town of Fiushing"of one of its most valued citizens. He 
is buried in a vault under Zion's church, where also lie 
his wife and several of his children; and, although no 
memorial stone was erected for him, the church itself is 
a sufficient and enduring monument. One of his sons, 
Henry, resided on a part of the old homestead until his 
death, since which time his widow has continued to make 
it her home. The only other representatives of the 
family here are VVynant Van Zandt's widow and his 
youngest daughter, who married the late Peter Munford, 
a New York merchant, and who occupies a pleasant 
place in Flushing, and with whom her mother makes her 

Francis Lewis, the only one of the signers of the 
Declaration of Independence who was identified by 
residence with the people of Queens county, was a 
native of Landaff in South Wales, and was educated at 
Westminster. Born in 17 13, he decided on entering 
mercantile life when of age, and in 1735 converted his 
patrimony into money and sailed for New York, and 
from thence went to Philadelphia, where he engaged in 
business. Two years later he returned to New York, 
and he became one of the great ship-owners of his time, 
whose. successful ventures were the real groundwork of 
Great Britain's jealousy of her colonies. Led by his 
business interests to travel, he visited Russia and other 
parts of Europe, and was twice shipwrecked off the 
coast of Ireland. As a supply agent for the British 
army he was taken prisoner at Fort Oswego when it was 
surprised by Montcalm, was carried to Montreal, and 
from there to France. After his liberation he returned 
to New York to find the conflict between the colonies 
and the mother country already practically commenced; 
and, joining heartily in Revolutionary movements, he 
was in 1775 unanimously elected a delegate to the Con- 
tinental Congress, where his business experience, execu- 
tive talent and knowledge of commerce made him a 
valuable member. At the next session he with his 
fellow patriots signed the paper to the maintenance 
of which they pledged " their lives, their fortunes and 
their sacred honor." Having some time previous pur- 
chased a country seat at Whitestone he removed his 
family to it in 1776, and then entered actively upon the 
performance of duties of importance with which he had 
been entrusted by Congress, one branch of which was 
the importation of military stores, in which he expended 
the bulk of his large fortune, and for which he was never 
repaid. Hardly had his family been settled at their 
home in Whitestone before they were visited, in the fall 
of 1776, by a body of British light horse, who plundered 
his house, wantonly destroyed his extensive and valuable 
library, and, taking Mrs. Lewis a prisoner, retained her 
several months, without a change of clothes or a bed to 

rest on. Through the influence of Washington she was 
released, but with her health so broken by the abuses 
she had suffered that she drooped and died — another 
victim to English chivalry in the eighteenth century. 
Mr. Lewis resided here until 1796, when he disposed of 
his property and retired to New York, where he died 
December 30th 1803, in his 90th year. 

Cadivallader D. Colden, the only son of David Colden, 
was born at the family mansion, " Spring Hill," in Flush- 
ing, April 4th 1769, and attended school at Jamaica. 
Only 15 years of age when his father's estate was forfeited 
for treason, he was too young to have taken any very de- 
cided stand on the political opinions of that day, but not 
too young to feel an ardent love for his native country. 
Although he accompanied his father to England in 1784, 
where he attended a classical school near London, he 
found means in 1785 to return to New York, and entered 
the ofiice of Richard Harrison, a prominent lawyer. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1791, practiced at Poughkeep- 
sie five years, and then returned to New York, where he 
was soon after made district attorney. Young as he was 
he soon became a prominent rival of such men as Har- 
rison, Hamilton, Livingston and Jones, and for many 
years he was at the head of his profession in the specialty 
of commercial law. In 181 2 he commanded a regiment 
of volunteers, and was active in assisting in building the 
forts and harbor defenses about the city. He served a 
term, in Congress, and was afterward in the State Senate, 
where he became one of the most efficient promoters of 
the Erie Canal and a warm and faithful friend of De Witt 
Clinton. Mr. Colden died in 1834, at Jersey City. He 
was a descendant of the Willett family of Flushing, and 
one of whose birth within their borders the people of 
the town have a right to feel proud. 

Dr. Johti Rodman was one of the pioneer physicians 
and for more than forty years his broad brimmed hat and 
Quaker costume were familiar to the people of this and 
adjoining towns. His charges were moderate, but by 
combining agriculture with the practice of his profession 
he was enabled to leave his family comfortably endowed. 
At his death, in 1731, the Society of Friends entered on 
their records a euology of his consistent deportment and 

The Loiverree Family are su[)posed to belong to the 
old Huguenot colony, who settled here about 1660. The 
name occurs infrequently in any of the early records, 
and family traditions are indistinct. It can, however, be 
traced by continuous residence for more than one hun- 
dred and fifty years. During the present century one of 

the family was a prominent merchant. Lowerree 

was the first president of the Flushing Gas Company, 
and Frank G. is proprietor of the Broadway stables. 
There are many persons of that name in the town. 

The Embree name is also identified with the Huguenot 
settlements, the first of the name coming first to New 
Rochelle, and then to Flushing. Never very numerous, 
the representation of the family has been worthy of its 
sires. In past generations they intermarried with the 
Lawrences and Bownes, and became Quakers in faith 

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and practice. The only representative of the name now 
known to the writer as a resident of Flushing is Robert 
C. Embree, a gifted New York lawyer. 

Colonel Isaac Corsa was a gallant soldier of the French 
and Indian wars. He served as lieutenant-colonel of the 
Queens county troops, and by his shrewdness in advising 
and gallantry in bui-lding and manning a battery at a 
particular point was chiefly instrumental in securing the 
surrender of Fort Frontenac. Retiring to his farm in 
Flushing he resigned his commission. In 1776, having 
been accused of loyalty to the cause of King George, he 
was arrested by a committee of Congress, and paroled. 
He remained at home a quiet spectator during the war, 
and died in 1807, at the age of 80 years. His only 
daughter married John Staples, of New York city. 

The Valentines were early settlers in Queens county, 
none, however, appearing in Flushing until after the time 
of the Revolution. Jeremiah settled on the Black Stump 
road, near Jamaica village, in 1800, and twelve years 
later removed to the farm in this town now owned by his 
son Thomas. He was a native of Suffolk county, mar- 
ried Sarah Brooks, of Flushing, and had seven children, 
but two of whom are now living — one a daughter, who mar- 
ried John M. Stearns, of Brooklyn, the other Thomas, 
who married Cornelia Cornell, of Flushing. Jeremiah 
Valentine was for many years a magistrate and justice of 
sessions in the county, superintended the building of 
Christ's Church, Brooklyn, and was a director of the Wil- 
liamsburg Savings Bank. Captain John Valentine was 
born on Long Island about 1740, and was a soldier in the 
Revolution. He was at one time a prisoner in a house 
that stood where the Main street depot now stands in 
Flushing. He was the father of the mother of Edwin 
Powell. The last named, the oldest resident of White- 
stone, was born on his farm in 1809, where his father, 
William Powell, was born in 1783. John Powell jr., 
father of William, was born on Long Island in 1740. John 
Powell, father of John Powell jr., born in 1705, was also 
born on Long Island. John Powell jr. in 1780 moved 0.1 to 
the farm now owned by Edwin Powell. 

The Havilands, Benjamin, Joseph and William, settled 
here prior to 1680, the names of the last two appearing 
on the list of patentees of 1685. But little is known of 
the families, except that in some instances they became 
prominent in wealth and mercantile enterprise. The 
best known member of the family in this town during the 
present century was William, who for about fifty years 
was a farmer at Little Neck, and died there about 1840, 
leaving six children. Mrs. Maria Smith is the only rep- 
resentative of the eldest, whose name was Roe. 

The Walters brothers, Henry, Samuel and John, were 
settlers in the east end of the town, in the Little Neck 
district, prior to the Revolution, and Henry served in 
Young's militia, under Hamilton. John had a son Ben- 
jamin, born February 22nd 1755, who married Elizabeth 
Valentine. They had eleven children. One of their 
sons, Charles, was born in 1801, and married in 1832 to 
Elizabeth Roe. They had a son and daughter, Charles 
W. and Mary (now Mrs. Hendrickson), who are the only 

representatives of that branch of the family now here. 
Samuel Walters, a brother of Benjamin, enlisted from 
Flushing in the war of 181 2, served at Fort Greene, and 
was honorably discharged and pensioned. 

The Farringtons, once prominent in Flushing, des- 
cended from Edward Ffarrington, a brother- in-law of 
John Bowne. Mandeville relates that in his will, dated 
April 14th 1673, he bequeaths, after the decease of his 
wife Dorothy, to his " eldest son Jolin all his housing, 
land, orchard, gardens in the town of Fflushing, etc , to 
returne to ye next heire male of the blood of ye Farring- 
tons and soe from generation to generation forever.' 
It seems that even Quaker humility did not wipe out the 
pride of race, and prejudice in favor of primogeniture, 
and it is a somewhat singular proof of the greater effi- 
ciency of American habits and customs that the writer 
fails to find a single person in Flushing of that name 
even remotely interested in the old estate that was to be 
so carefully kept in the family. 

The Thornes trace their ancestry on the island back 
to William Thome jr., who was the original owner of an 
estate at what is now Willett's Point, which for many 
years was called by his name. His family, large and 
respectable, were prominent citizens of Flushing many 
years; some of them, settling in adjoining towns, became 
active patriots during the Revolution, and Thomas 
Thome, who was one of the Whig committee of Flushing, 
was seized by the British on their first visit here and 
ended his days in the prison ship. 

The Hicks Family descend from Robert Hicks (a des- 
cendant of Sir Ellis Hix, who was knighted by the Black 
Prince at the battle of Poictiers, in 1356), who came to 
America in the ship " Fortune," landing November nth 
1621 at Plymouth. He settled in Roxbury, Mass., and 
in 1642 two of his sons, John and Stephen, came to Long 
Island, the former being one of the original patentees of 
Flushing, and active in public affairs. His son Thomas 
drove out the Indians from Little Neck, and settled 
there. The family were early identified with the fortunes 
of the Society of Friends, to which many of them still 
adhere. Elias Hicks, the famous preacher and founder 
of the Hicksite branch of that body, is a prominent 
instance. In 1880 Miss Anna L. Hicks and Mrs. A. W. 
Cock, of Flushing, were among the most prominent rep- 
resentatives of the family in the town. 

T\\^ Cornell Family. — This name is variously written. 
We meet it in early records as Cornhill, Cornwell and 
Cornell, according to the ignorance or indolence of the 
scribe. Onderdonk classes the family under the name of 
Cornwell, and is probably correct. The progenitors in 
this country seem to have been three brothers, who joined 
one of the early Massachusetts expeditions, and afterward 
scattered; one settling in Connecticut, anotherin Dutchess 
county, N. Y., and the third, Richard, coming to Flush- 
ing about 1643 and being one of the patentees here, 
and for many years a magistrate. His descendants be- 
came numerous, scattered throughout the country, and 
seem to have evinced a taste for public life both military 
and civil. The old pioneer was a consistent Quaker, and 
so were many of his descendants. 



William Halle/, one of the first sheriffs of Fhishing, 
had a singularly checkered career. In 1655 he was a 
planter near Hell Gate, and was driven from home and 
his house and plantation laid waste by the Indians. 
He fled to Fhishing, and was appointed sheriff; but lost 
his position the following year, and was fined ^^50 for 
allowing a Baptist preacher to hold meetings in his house. 
The jieople petitioned for and obtained a remission of 
the fine. He seems to have been a builder, as the records 
show that he was the contractor on the first " session 
house" or court-house built in Jamaica. The family af- 
terward became prominent in Newtown. S. J. Hallet was 
the only known representative of the family in Flushing 
when this sketch was written. 

Michael Millner was the pioneer inn-keeper of this 
town, and it was at his house town gatherings were held. 
Hare the people met to protest against Stuyvesant's 
proscription of the Quakers, and tor allowing what it 
would seem he could not well prevent, were he so dis- 
posed, Millner was punished. 

The Blooili:;ooils are of purely Knickerbocker origin, 
Francis Bloctgoct being the earliest settler of the name 
in Flushing, and, being recognized by the Dutch authori- 
ties as " chief of the inhabitants of the Dutch nation re- 
siding in the villages of Vlissingen, Heemstede, Ruds- 
dorp and Middleborj.-," was made their commander and 
ordered to march with them toward the city should a hos- 
tile fleet appear in the sound. This was in 1674. In the 
year previous he was made a magistrate, was one of the 
privy council who advised with the governor on the sur- 
render of the territory to the English, and was appointed 
a commissioner to visit the Sweedish settlement on the 
Delaware. Of his immediate descendants but little can 
be learned, although it is reasonably certam that some one 
of the name has ever since resided in Flushing. Two of grandchildren, Abram and James, were left orphans 
under the care of a relative; but preferring to make their 
way in the world for themselves emigrated to Albany, 
where they became successful business men and amassed 
handsome fortunes. Abraham was born in Flushing, in 
1741. He became also a merchant in Albany, and mar- 
ried Mrs. Lynott, one of whose daughters by a former 
husband became the wife of the celebrated Simeon De 
Witt. Abraham Bloodgood was for years a councilman 
of the city, was a member of the convention that ac- 
cepted the constitution of the United States, and one of 
the famous ten who, in the old Vanden Heyden house, 
founded the Democratic party of the State. He left 
four sons, the younger of whom, Joseph, graduated from 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1806, and was appointed 
trustee of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New 
York in 181 1. Invited by a large number of the most 
prominent citizens of Flushing to settle here, he came 
to this village in 181 2, and was for many years an em- 
inent physician and a public spirited citizen. He died 
March 7th 185 1, aged sixty-seven years. He had twelve 
children, four daughters and eight sons. Isaac, a prom- 
inent merchant, is now living in Flushing. Mrs. G. R. 
Garretson is a descendant of the branch of the family 

claiming continuous residence here, and resides on the 
old home farm, now in the heart of the village, in a house 
dating back to the early part of the last century. 

The Lawrence Family trace their patronymic back to 
the ancient Romans, claiming that from some of the 
Laurentii of that noble race descended their English an- 
cestry; of whom the first named in the Doomsday Book 
was Sir Robert Lawrence, of Ashton Hall, who in 1119 
planted the banner of the Cross on the battlements of 
St. Jean d'Acre, and received for his gallantry the honors 
of knighthood and a coat of arms from Richard the Lion- 
hearted, the latter of which was in use (as a seal) by the 
family in America for many years. Three brothers of 
this family, William, John and Thomas, came to Long 
Island about the year 1643, '^"d the first two were among 
the patentees of Flushing recognized by Governor Kieft 
in 1645. John, although an owner of land here, removed 
to New York, where he became an alderman, mayor, 
judge of the supreme court and member of his Majesty's 
council. William became the largest landed proprietor 
in Flushing, settling at Tew's Neck (afterward called 
Lawrence's), now College Point. He was a magistrate 
under the Dutch government in 1655, held a military 
commission under the British, and was in the magistracy 
of the " north riding." He was a man of marked abil- 
ity, active in public affairs, and a fair type of the old 
fashioned country gentleman. His second wife was 
Elizabeth Smith, of Mishaquaked, L. I., whom he mar- 
ried in 1664. He died in 1680, and his widow married 
Sir Philip Carteret, governor of New Jersey. She was a 
woman of more than ordinary endowments; she was 
acting governor during Sir Philip's absence in Europe, 
and many of the important acts of that period were 
" passed under the administration of Lady Elizabeth 
Carteret." Elizabeth, New Jersey, is named after her. 
From this and a previous marriage of William Lawrence's 
descended the Flushing family of that name. 

Bernard Sprang was an early resident of Jamaica, 
where he was born in 1727, and where he died in 1779, 
leaving three children, the oldest of whom, his namesake, 
entered the employ of John Jacob Astor. The second 
son, Daniel, married Ida Van Law and settled in Flush- 
ing, where he became a farmer. Of his five children 
David was run over and killed while a student of Union 
Hall; two daughters died without issue, and John mar- 
ried Elizabeth Robinson, by whom he had seven chil- 
dren, of whom Mrs. Ida A. Foster was the oldest, and is 
now the only one on the island. 

The Colored Population. 

The early growth of material wealth in this part of the 
island was marked by the accession of considerable prop- 
erty in slaves, and historians agree in the conclusion that 
the pioneers of Queens and Suffolk made kind and in- 
dulgent masters, and that, in fact, the kindheartedness of 
the Hollanders and Quakers was rather a bar to the main- 
tenance of a state of discipline sufficient to make slavery 
a pecuniary success. Instances of cruelty there were; 
but they are rare, while the fact remains that any elements 



of discord to which we may allude were sown among the 
faithful slaves by a class of idle, dissolute freedmen from 
other localities, who were drawn here by the supposition 
that the well known sympathy of the Friends for their 
race would show them the means of securing the blessings 
of liberty without its cares and responsibilities. The 
emancipation of the slaves left them, in the main, res- 
idents of their old homes, and where they were worthy of 
the confidence of their former owners the relation of 
master and servant was practically unchanged. The 
Friends, under the teachings of Fox, were led by their 
fine sense of justice and humanity to be the pioneers in 
the matter of schools for the negroes, and funds were 
early contributed for their education, and the lady mem- 
bers of the society were active in the work. Churches of 
the denominations whose devotional exercises best com- 
ported with the emotional nature of the race were estab- 
lished early in the century, and Flushing at that time of- 
fered special inducements for the retention of a class of 
people fond of gaiety, and not ambitious to become either 
wealthy or famous. Old residents relate that from 1820 
to 1825 this element of the population had grown so nu- 
merous and become so aggressive that the streets were 
filled with them at night, and a system of out-door dances, 
equivocal serenades and barbecues became so frequent 
that they proved a serious annoyance to the staid citizens 
who believed that "nights were made to sleep in." Town 
ordinances and the mild expostulations of their Quaker 
friends proved alike unavailing; but ingenuity will over- 
come all obstacles, and the spirit that was to restore 
peace to the streets of this ancient village was moving, 
not in the placid bosoms of the russet-clad Quaker, but 
in the restless brain of Young America. Parties of young 
men gathered on the outskirts of these noisy conclaves, 
and nightly disturbed their harmony with volleys of stale 
eggs and other disagreeable missiles, gaining the name of 
the " Rotten Egg Club." The remedy was effectual; 
peace reigned in Flushing, and the dusky orgies were 
transferred from the public squares to the shanties of 
Crow Hill and Liberty street. 

From that time to the present the colored population 
has in the main proved quiet and orderly, and supplied a 
place in domestic service. A few have become clergy- 
men, lawyers and small dealers, while a considerable 
number have found employment in minor positions in the 
New York custom-house and post-ofifice. They have two 
churches, Methodist Episcopal and Baptist; and, although 
poor in this world's goods, evince that keen interest in 
devotional exercises that is to so great an extent a race 
characteristic. Education not being a prerequisite for 
the performance of pastoral duties, their preachers are 
often found following the Pauline practice of working 
with their own hands in humble avocations. 

The institution of slavery antedated the earliest settle- 
ments on the island, and not only were African servants 
brought from Holland, but families who came from New 
England imported Indians, who were either prisoners of 
war or the children of those who had been. The earliest 
mention of slaves found in any of the old historical works 

is, however, in the Colonial History of New York, Vol. 
II., page 158, where it is written that this part of the 
island "produces from the servants' labor corn, beef, 
pork, butter, tobacco and staves, which they exchange 
for liquors and merchandise." 

On the court records of 1726 is an account of the ex- 
ecution of " Samuel, a colored man of Flushing, for 
burglary committed in that place." 

Although nothing in the general conduct of the slaves 
in this locality had indicated any feeling of insubordina- 
tion, yet the year 1741 was a period of anxious uncer- 
tainty and general suspicion. The " negro plot " in New 
York had been discovered and many slaves executed ; 
and in Kings and Queens counties a number of arrests 
were made, but no sufficient cause was found to imperil 
the colored people or their masters in Flushing. 

On the 20th of May 1756 two slaves belonging to Ber- 
nardus Ryder and Benjamin Fowler were drowned in 
Flushing Bay while fishing. 

An advertisement in the New York Postboy of April 
14th 1760 reads as follows: " Ran away from Bernardus 
Ryder, Flushing, a negro man named Caesar, aged 
twenty-five; this country born, not a right black — has a 
little of the yellowish cast; a pretty lusty fellow; talks 
good English; if frightened stutters very much; has lost 
one of his front teeth; had on a light-colored Devon- 
shire kersey coat, a soldier's red jacket, breeches and 
hat, and a pair of old shoes. 40s. reward if taken on the 
island, or ^{^3 if taken off the island." 

In 1788 a New York paper contained the following 
non-committal item: "Michael, a negro man slave of 
John Allen, of Flushing, died by chance-medley and 
misadventure from a correction he appeared to have from 
some person unknown." Onderdonk appends this note: 
" Allen had lost money, and severely flogged the negro,but 
could not extort a confession." This is the only instance 
of brutality recorded in the annals of Flushing. 

During the last years of the eighteenth century the 
stand taken by the Quakers against slavery, and the 
visits of free negroes, many of whom were at that time 
employed on American vessels, had stirred up a desire 
for freedom which led to many attempted and some suc- 
cessful escapes. On May loth 1791 the Daily Advertiser 
contained the following: "$20 Reward. Ran away 
from Flushing two negro men! One Aaron, the prop- 
erty of Jeremiah Vanderbilt, who had on fustian trowsers 
and wool hat, and is a good boatman; the other, Poly- 
dore, the property of Francis Lewis, who wore a blue 
cloth jacket and breeches, woolen stockings and wool 
hat." They stole a boat and went up the sound, as was 

Although they were well treated, and perhaps better 
off in that respect than their fellow serfs in other States, 
the desire for personal liberty had become to some 
extent general among the slaves, if we may judge from 
advertisements which were published from time to time. 

How far this feeling rendered them insubordinate we 
find little besides the instance just stated to prove, but it 
must have had a powerful influence in securing the 




acquiescence of the masters in the steps taken by the 
State toward emancipation. Freed from slavery they 
have generally remained in the locality, and their de- 
scendants become orderly members of the vi^orking 
classes, with an occasional instance where genius has 
risen superior to caste and the unfortunate tyranny of 
circumstances, and become, to some extent, prominent. 
There are still living in the place some who were held in 
bondage when young. 

Rise and Growth of the Nursery Business. 

The Pritice Nurseries. — The climate and the soil of 
this town being peculiarly adapted to the propagation of 
trees and plants, the success attained by the Huguenot 
settlers in introducing the fruits of their native province 
led English gardeners, who had settled here, to experi- 
ment in horticulture, with such results that William 
Prince in 1737 laid out a tract of land in the village and 
devoted it first to the propagation of fruit trees, after- 
ward extending his efforts to the growth and introduc- 
tion of shade trees, of which the Lombardy poplar is 
believed to have been one. The lack of forest trees 
on the island made his venture a popular one, and we 
find him circulating the following notice, dated Septem- 
ber 2ist 1767: "For sale at William Prince's nursery. 
Flushing, a great variety of fruit trees, such as apple, 
plum, peach, nectarine, cherry, apricot and pear. They 
may be put up so as to be sent to Europe. Captain 
Jacamiah Mitchell and Daniel Clements go to New York 
in passage boats Tuesdays and Fridays." This is be- 
lieved to have been the first nursery in the country. At 
the time of writing this a part of the old grounds was 
still open to the school children, who have termed the 
field " the wild nursery," and who roam there during 
the summer, gathering stray blossoms from plants once 
rare and choice, or weaving garlands from the parti- 
colored foliage. The extension of Prince's business to 
the culture of shade and ornamental trees is first noticed 
in an advertisement in the New York Mercury of March 
14th 1774: " William Prince at his nursery, Flushing 
• landing, offers for sale one hundred and ten large Caro- 
lina magnolia flower trees, raised from the seed — the 
most beautiful trees that grow in America — 4s. per tree, 
four feet high; fifty large catalpa flower trees, 2s. per 
tree; they are nine feet high to the under part of the top, 
and thick as one's leg; thirty or forty almond trees, that 
begin to bear, is. and 6d. each; fifty fig trees, 2s. each; 
two thousand five hundred white, red and black currant 
bushes, 6d. each; gooseberry bushes, 6d.; Lisbon and 
Madeira grape vines; five thousand Hautboy Chili large 
English and American strawberry plants; one thousand 
five hundred white and one thousand black mulberry 
trees; also Barcelona filbert trees, is. l~he Revolution- 
ary war put a stop to the conduct of any business requir- 
ing free communications, and we find Mr. Prince adver- 
tising for sale 30,000 grafted cherry trees for hooppoles. 
A return of peace brought with it increased trade to 
make good the depredations of the soldiery, as well as to 
stock the orchards of those who for seven years past had 

paid more attention to the science of war than the pur- 
suits of horticulture, and in 1789 the nurseries had ob- 
tained a reputation that induced General Washington, 
then President of the United States, to visit them. In 
his diary for October loth of that year is the following: 
'' I set off from New York, about nine o'clock, in my 
barge, to visit Mr. Prince's fruit gardens and shrubberies 
at Flushing. The vice-president, governor, Mr. Izard, 
Colonel Smith and Major Jackson accompanied me. 
These gardens, except in the number of young fruit trees, 
did not answer my expectations. The shrubs were trifling 
and the flowers not numerous." It should be remem- 
bered that General Washington's estimate was that of a 
man familiar with the more luxurious vegetation of Vir- 
ginia. The first notice of the Tombardy poplar occurs 
in 1798, when Mr. Prince advertises 10 000 of them, 
from ten to seventeen feet in height. They grew rapidly 
and became for years a popular shade tree, long avenues 
of them being planted in all parts of the island, and 
their leaves gathered for fodder for sheep and cattle by 
many. In 1806 they, however, received their death 
blow, as it was then claimed that they harbored a poison- 
ous worm, and they were cut down in many cases and 
burned for fuel. Thompson, in his History of Long 
Island, relates that when the British troops entered 
Flushing in 1777 General Howe ordered a guard to be 
stationed for the protection of these gardens and nursery. 
Originally confined to an area of eight acres the Linnasan 
Botanic Gardens, as they have been termed, were en- 
larged by Mr. Prince in 1792, to cover the space of 
twenty-four acres; and under the management of his 
son during the early part of the century to more than 
sixty acres, employing a force of about fifty men in their 
best days. 

Thus from a small beginning has grown up what has 
been for the past half century the most important in- 
dustry of Flushing, employing a considerable force of 
intelligent men, and, what is perhaps of still more im- 
portance, deserving the credit of having educated a large 
number of the best landscape gardeners and horticultur- 
ists in the State. The great value of the lands used for 
nursery purposes here, and the springing up of the forest 
tree business in western New York, has led the nursery- 
men of Flushing to abandon that branch of the business 
for the more lucrative one of ornamental shrubbery, 
plants and cut flowers. No better view of the business 
as it now exists can be given than by sketching the his- 
tory of such nurseries and greenhouses as are now in 

The Parsons Nurseries. — Among the marked men of 
Flushing in the generation now passed away was Samuel 
Parsons, of whom De Witt Clinton once remarked that 
he had never met another man so truly courteous with- 
out compromising a single Christian principle. The men- 
tal training given by his classical education was supple- 
mented by a knowledge of French, his fluency in which 
was gained by constant association with the French emi- 
grees, who were welcome guests at his father's house. 
Retiring from business with a liberal income, his benev- 



olence abounded to the full extent of his ability, and in 
conferring a favor he made himself the one obliged. Al- 
though a minister in the Society of Friends, his liberality 
in thought to all denominations was well known. His 
sincere and fervent piety, earnest and continual desire 
for the spiritual improvement of those among whom his 
lot was cast, and the whole tenor of his life make his 
memory valued among those now living who recollect 
him. Foremost among the advocates of public improve- 
ments, his fondness for trees induced him to commence 
a system of street planting, which, continued by his sons, 
has made Flushing noted for the beauty of its streets. 
The same taste led him to fix upon the nursery 
business for his sons, and in 1838 to commence the busi- 
iiess, which, with some changes, has been continued since 
his death, in 1841. Passing at that date into the hands 
of his sons Samuel B. and Robert B. it was continued un- 
til 1872, during which time it had grown steadily. When 
the greatest demand for grapevines sprang up, in 1862, 
lasting until 1865, they increased their facilities for cul- 
tivation until their annual production in this one branch 
of the business amounted to over 800,000 vines annually. 
They became the only growers in this country of rhodo- 
dendrons and hardy azaleas and went largely into the 
culture of camelias. When the demand for dwellings 
made large inroads upon the nursery, and a single one of 
its acres sold for ^10,000, Samuel B. Parsons, seeing no 
future in that village for the proper extension of the 
business for which his sons had been trained, decided in 
1872 to remove his share of the firm's stock to some 
lands which he owned on Kissena Lake, the picturesque 
character of which particularly fitted them for an orna- 
mental nursery. He hoped also to prove, as he has suc- 
cessfully done, that plants grown in an exposed locality, 
open to all winds, possess, in their hardiness, an addi- 
tional value. At the same time he reserved for himself 
the southern part of the old nursery. To this new land 
there accompanied him his two sons and J. R. Trumpy, 
the successful propagator for the old firm, whose genius 
and skill are well known. 

The Kissena Nurseries, as they are called, are managed 
as a limited company, under the name of the Parsons & 
Sons Company, of which Samuel B. Parsons is president. 
Continuing the propagation of the class of specialties for 
which the old house was noted, they commenced gather- 
ing from foreign countries all the ornamental plants and 
trees which could be obtained ; especially from Japan, 
whence by the aid of Thomas Hogg, the well known col- 
lector, they were furnished with a variety rich, perfectly 
hardy, and containing many sorts unknown in Europe. 
Of these the Japan maples are conspicuous by their 
beauty, dwarf-like character, and thorough hardiness. 
One or two of these are grown elsewhere in this country, 
and several in Europe; but the entire collection of 
twenty-four varieties can only be found in Japan and in 
the Kissena Nurseries. The great variety of this gene- 
ral collection is described in a catalogue just issued. 
Some idea of its extent can be gained from the fact that 
an order recently filled for an arboretum being made at 

Menlo Park by ex-Ciovernor Stanford, of California, in- 
cludes over sixteen hundred varieties. 

As a writer for the press Mr. S. B. Parsons has since 
1840 attained a reputation for both literary ability and a 
knowledge of landscape gardening that has made his 
pen sought for by such publishers as the Harpers, and 
led to the republication of his articles in some of the 
best European magazines. His first published volume, 
"The Rose, its History, Culture, etc.," was issued in 
1856, by Wiley & Halsted, and met with so favorable a 
reception that it was reissued in an enlarged and im- 
proved form in 1869, by Orange Judd & Co., as " Par- 
sons on the Rose." It has found its way to thousands 
of American homes, and done much to aid the growth of 
a love for the beautiful. His son Samuel has also be- 
come known as a writer for Scribner and others, and be- 
coming a partner with Mr. Calvert Vaux in the profes- 
sion of landscape gardening carries to it a knowledge of 
trees rarely found among landscape artists. The other 
son, George H., whose education like that of his brother 
has been practical as well as classical, has recently been 
engaged by the Denver and Rio Grande Railway Com- 
pany to organize a system of improvements on their lands 
in Colorado. 

The junior member of the old firm, Robert B. Parsons, 
retained the northern part of the old grounds, including 
the ofiice and greenhouses on Broadway, and since the 
dissolution has conducted a large business in the special- 
ties of the old house, to which he has recently added the 
extensive culture of roses and cut flowers, for which, 
owing to the large number of greenhouses, the nursery 
is well adapted. Located in a convenient portion of the 
village, the nurseries of R. B. Parsons & Co. will well enter- 
tain a visitor, who will find there some curiosities, among 
them a magnificent weeping beech, unequaled in the 

The writer has been inclined to devote more space to 
the histories of these nurseries and those who are and 
have been identified with them than he would have done 
did not every step in their progress mark the value of 
proper training and refined tastes in this as in other 
business enterprises. At present they represent the 
combined taste and skill of three generations, and the 
influences that have gone out from them and educated 
the tastes of others cannot be overestimated. 

John Henderson s Floral Gardens, occupying some 
sixteen acres on Parsons avenue, were opened in 1867. 
The owner, a native of London and descended from two 
generations of English florists, came to America in 1854, 
commenced business in a small way in Jersey City, be- 
came part owner of The Oaks, and is now the most ex- 
tensive cultivator of cut flowers in the vicinity. His ex- 
tensive establishment comprises twenty-four greenhouses, 
averaging one hundred feet long, warmed by four-inch 
hot water pipes, of which there are two and three-fourths 
miles, heated by fifteen large furnaces, consuming annu- 
ally four hundred tons of coal. Twelve rnen are em- 
ployed and the sales for 1880 comprised some 700,000 
choice flowers, of which more than 400,000 were roses. 



The products of these greenhouses are all handled 
through the New York city agency at 940 Broadway, and 
sold in bulk to retailers and bouquet makers. Among the 
specialties originated by Mr. Henderson are the Bouvar- 
dia Elegans, Tuba Rose Pearl, the new dwarf camelia 
and Carnation Snowden, the new dwarf white carnation. 

The Exotic Gardens, on Broadway near the Town 
Hall, were opened by John Cadness, and purchased by 
Leavitt & Lawlor. Their greenhouses are devoted to 
the culture of cut flowers, and the firm supplies thelocal 
demand for bouquets and funeral and bridal pieces. 
The gardens and hotbeds are also devoted^to supplying 
the local demand for^early plants, and a fair business is 
done in potted flowering plants. The location of the 
grounds is convenient, and the new proprietors are young 
men of enterprise and ambition. 

G. R. Gar?-ettso/!, seedsman, has the only seed farm in 
Flushing. It comprises about one hundred acres, and is 
on the Jamaica road, about a mile from the village. Mr. 
Garrettson was a pupil of Grant Thorburn, and was after- 
ward with Prince <Sc Co. He established his present 
business on a small scale in 1836, and for many years 
did a large and flourishing trade. Increased competition 
has, however, induced him to curtail its dimensions, and 
it is now confined to the supply of his old customers, 
and the sale of seeds in bulk. Mr. Garrettson married 
a daughter of Daniel Bloodgood, and lives on the old 
Bloodgood homestead, which has been in the family 
since 1673. 

The Oaks, at Bayside, was first opened as a nursery 
by a member of the Hicks family, and was afterward 
owned by Lawrence and since his proprietorship by 
Henderson & Taylor. The estate has an area of three 
hundred and twenty-five acres, on which are twenty-four 
greenhouses, covering an acre, warmed by hot water 
pipes, employing fourteen men, and with a trade in 
plants and cut flowers of about $12,000 annually. The 
present owner, John Taylor, is a native of England, and 
the estate, aside from the value of its hothouse products, 
is one of the finest in the town, if not in Queens county. 

Burial Places. 

The oldest burial grounds known in the town are those 
of the Lawrence family, at Bayside; the Skidmores, at 
Fresh Meadows, and the Friends' meeting-house. We 
have some trace of the date of the Friends' ground being 
set apart, as a record of that society shows that in 1695 
they raised money by a subscription for the purpose of 
fencing in their burial ground. On this no stone was 
allowed to mark the graves, and when one sister evaded 
the rules in spirit by planting a tree at the head of her 
husband's grave a stern old Quaker dug it up and de- 
stroyed it. Besides these the Parsons and Loweree fami- 
lies have private grounds. An old cemetery is connected 
with St. George's, and the Catholics have a consecrated 
ground connected with St. Michael's church. 

The rapid growth of population at Flushing made it 
necessary to agree upon some site for a village cemetery 
large enough to meet the wants of the locality for gene- 

rations to come, and capable of improvement to any 
extent deemed advisable. An association was incorpo- 
rated in 1853, and purchased a plot of twenty-one acres in 
a pleasant part of the town, about one and a half miles 
from the village, in the vicinity of Kissena Lake. Here 
the funds received from fees and from the sale of lots 
have been largely expended in beautifying the place, and 
added to this the large expenditures made by the owners 
of burial plots have been sufficient to make the cemetery 
one of the finest on the island. The association will 
take entire charge of a funeral when desired, furnishing 
carriages and attendants, and has a scale of prices for 
such funerals. This course has been adopted to prevent 
exorbitant charges by undertakers and liverymen, as 
well as to prove of service in cases where the deceased 
has no near friend capable of assuming such charge. 


This village — one of the earliest settled points in 
the town of Flushing — has a name of equal antiquity; 
it having been named from a large white stone or rock 
which lies off the point where the tides from the sound 
and the East River meet. During the popularity of 
De Witt Clinton a vote of the citizens at a public 
meeting named the village Clintonville; but the old 
name still clung 10 it, and when, in 1854, a post-office 
was established it was given the old familiar title. A. 
Kissam was the first postmaster. The present incum- 
bent of the office is Oliver Taff. 

The place was one of no business importance up to 
1853, and in the year 1800 there were but twelve houses 
within a circuit of a mile. The date at which the village 
first took any decisive advance was, as has been said, 
1853, at which time John D. Locke & Co., a firm of 
eastern manufacturers, established a manufactory of tin, 
japan and copper ware, which employed several hundred 
hands, and is still the most important business enterprise 
in the place. 

Here was the home of Francis Lewis, one of the sign- 
ers of the Declaration of Independence, and on his farm 
here General Morgan Lewis, afterward governor of New 
York, passed his youthful days. During the early years 
of the present century a ferry was established here — its 
other terminus being Throgg's Neck and the principal* 
business done the transfer of cattle. It was under the 
charge of Henry Kissam for fourteen years. Sailboats 
were employed. In 1856 an unsuccessful attempt was 
made to revive the ferry. 

The rapid increase in population rendered necessary 
prompt and liberal action in educational and religious 
matters, and John D. Locke, who took up his residence 
here at the time of founding his factory, has been 
foremost in good works, and a public spirited citizen, 
without whose assistance the progress made would have 
been impossible. 

The shore at this place presents many attractions as a 
place of residence, and since about 1825 a considerable 
number of elegant mansions have been erected by gentle- 



men from New York city and from the southern States — 
some of which are now the homes of prominent business 
and professional men whose ofifices are in New York. 

The first store in the town is said to have been near 
the landing here, and at this place watchmen were sta- 
tioned by order of the colonial authorities during the 
French war. 

Beds of potter's clay were found here, some of suffi- 
cient purity to be used in the manufacture of tobacco 
pipes, which industry was carried on to a small extent 
during the first half of the last century. An advertise- 
ment dated March 31st 1835 reads: " The widow of 
Thomas Parington offers for sale her farm at Whitestone, 
opposite Throgg's Point. It has 20 acres of clay ground 
fit for making tobacco pipes." Another of May 31st 
1835: " Any person desirous may be supplied with vases, 
urns, flower pots, etc., to adorn gardens and tops of 
houses, or any other ornament made of clay, by Edmond 
Annely at Whitestone — he having set up the potter's 
business by means of a German family that he bought, 
who are supposed by their work to be the most ingeni- 
ous that ever arrived in America. He has clay capable 
of making eight different kinds of ware." 

Locke's factory. 

John D. Locke began business November 17th 1827, 
in the manufacture of plain tinware, japanned ware, toys, 
planished ware, stamped ware and trimmings, the factory 
being located in Brooklyn. In 1845 the business was 
removed to Whitestone. There are 18 buildings devoted 
to the various branches of the enterprise, and the works 
occupy a block. The average number of employes is 
from 300 to 350. The business has increased almost 
constantly from the date of its establishment, and is now 
growing rapidly. Mr. Locke has a very large domestic 
and a considerable export trade, most of the goods ex- 
ported being shipped to Germany. A South American 
trade is about being established, and the reputation of 
the products of the factory is such that they will in time 
be introduced in most of the leading markets of the 
world. The goods are manufactured for the trade. The 
business is carried on under the personal supervision of 
the proprietor, and the affairs of the office and the ac- 
counts are managed by his son Frank M. Locke. The 
New York office and salesrooms, at 44 Cliff street, are 
under the supervision of Aubin G. Locke, another son 
of the proprietor. 


The initial number of the Whitestone Herald -wa.?, issued 
by the Whitestone Herald Publishing Company, with 
John Steren as editor. May 24th 1871. A few months 
later Mr. Steren was succeeded by Charles W. Smith, the 
present editor of the Flushing Journal, who continued 
at the helm until February 1875. The Whitestone Print- 
ing Company was then formed; the paper changed hands 
and was controlled by George W. Van Siclen until March 
1878, when it was purchased by W. S. Overton, under 
whose control the paper entered upon an era of prosper- 

ity and has become a valuable property. It is Democratic 
in politics but is chiefly devoted to local interests. 

The College Point Mirror, published at Whitestone by 
W. S. Overton, was established in the spring of 1879 by 
the present publisher, with C. B. Westervelt as editor. 
In the fall of the same year Mr. Overton assumed edi- 
torial charge of the paper. The Mirror \% independent 
politically, with a leaning toward Democratic principles. 
Its aim is purely to aid the best interests of the villages 
and the town whence it derives the greater part of its 


The services of the Protestant Episcopal church were 
first held in Whitestone, regularly, about 1840, in a 
building erected by Samuel Leggett and others, members 
of the Society of Friends. All religious denominations 
were allowed the use of this building, and, accordingly, 
soon after its erection several members of the Protest- 
ant Episcopal church and others residing in the place 
who preferred the services of that church requested the 
rectors of the neighboring parishes to hold services in 
the new building as often as practicable. Among the 
clergymen who united in maintaining the services 
of the Episcopal church for several years succeeding the 
above date were the rectors of St. George's church. 
Flushing, Rev. Henry M. Beard, D. D., of Zion church. 
Little Neck, the late Rev. W. A. Muhlenberg, D. D., 
at that time president of St. Paul's College, at College 
Point, and other clergymen who were professors in the 
institution, among whom we may mention Rev. Mr. Van 
Bokelyn, and Rt. Rev. J. B. Kerfoot, D. D., late bishop of 
the diocese of Pittsburgh. Several students of St. Paul's 
College, who were preparing for the university, also ren- 
dered very efficient service at this place as lay readers 
and teachers in the Sunday-school. 

In 1855 the same building in which services had been 
previously held was rented of the executors of Mr. Leg- 
gett, and Whitestone became a regularly organized 
mission of St. George's Church, Flushing. Services were 
now regularly held by Rev. William Short, assistant 
minister of St. George's Church, with the understanding 
that his field of labor should be especially within the 
limits of the village of Whitestone. The building in 
which the congregation worshiped was occupied for a 
period of nearly six years. 

The connection with the parish of St. George's, Flush- 
ing, was dissolved September 6th 1858, when the parish 
of Grace Church, Whitestone, was duly organized and 
the following officers elected : Abraham B. Sands and 
John D. Locke, wardens; Abraham Bininger, A. H. Kis- 
sam, Henry Lowerree, Henry Smith, Peter F. Westervelt, 
Griffith Rowe, Charles H. Miller and John Barrow, ves- 

At a meeting of the vestry, held September 12th the 
same year, the Rev. William Shortt, the minister in 
charge, was chosen rector. Owing to an increased pros- 
perity of the parish a very eligible site was purchased, 
and the corner stone of a new church edifice was laid with 



the usual ceremonies May ist 1858. The new church, 
handsomely and tastefully built of brick, and estimated 
to have cost about S^.ooo, was completed and opened for 
service November 8th i860. 

Rev. William Shortt continued his ministrations in the 
parish until May 31st 1865, when failing health compelled 
him to resign. In June following a call was extended to 
Rev. B. H. Abbott, of Carbondale, Pa., who accepted and 
soon entered upon the rectorship of the parish. 

The same year two additional lots adjoining the church 
property were purchased and a Sunday-school building 
was erected. Rev. Mr. Abbott continued his services as 
rector until April 3d 1877. In the following December 
Rev. Joseph H. Young was called to the parish, and at 
once entered upon the duties of the rectorship. He re- 
signed April 28th 1879. 

In July of the same year a call was extended to the 
Rev. William F. Dickinson, M. D., rector's assistant to 
the Rev. J. R. Davenport, D. D., New York city, who 
entered upon his duties August ist 1879 and is the pres- 
ent incumbent. 


The M. E. church of Whitestone was organized March 
28th 1850, and the building was erected the same year, 
at a cost of ^1,200. The first pastor was Rev. A. V. 
Abbott. From 1855 to 1857 Rev. Mr. Fitch, principal 
of public schools at Flushing, preached here on Sunday 
evenings, and Orange Judd, of Flushing, had charge of 
the Sunday-school. In 1858 Rev. David Tuthill was ap- 
pointed pastor, but he left within the year, going to 
Arizona as a missionary. In 1859 Rev. D. A. Goodsell 
was appointed. Since that time the history of the 
church has been that of a struggle for maintenance 
against adverse circumstances. 


There is a Catholic church in Whitestone, which is 
under the charge of Father Connolly. The house of 
worship was formerly used by Protestant denominations. 
These facts are all the writer has been able to learn re- 
garding this church. 


The Whitestone Hook and Ladder and Bucket Com- 
pany was organized July 21st 1871, with Thomas A. 
Harris as foreman, John D. Scott as assistant foreman, 
Charles Garrison as secretary and Nicholas Doscher as 
treasurer. There were sixteen members. The present 
membership is about thirty-five. James L. Coffin is 
foreman, James Murphy first assistant foreman, Charles 
Unger second assistant foreman, Wilbur Whittaker secre- 
tary and Alfred Wilmot treasurer. A. G. Montgomery 
is chief engineer of the department. J. G. Merritt and 
Joseph Winkler are assistant engineers. Captain Thomas 
A. Harris, who was prominent in the organization of the 
company, was for many years a member of the old New 
York volunteer fire department. 

The German Rifles is a military organization, Captain 

A. Martens commanding. It has been in existence 
seven or eight years. The first captain was C. Omman- 

The Liederkranz, a German musical society, was organ- 
ized in the fall of 1880 and has about a dozen members. 
John Seitz is the leader. 


This village is on the northwestern part of the tract of 
land known on the early charts as Tew's Neck, afterward 
as Lawrence's Neck, and which for more than a century 
formed the estate of the celebrated William Lawrence 
and his descendants. Here the elder Lawrence main- 
tained for many years the hospitable manners and courtly 
dignity of an English gentleman of his day, and took part 
in colonial matters of importance with a freshness and 
vigor that made him a marked man. 

After the close of the Revolution a part of this estate 
fell on the market, and a tract of three hundred and 
twenty acres was bought by Eliphalet Stratton, for ^^500. 

But little of interest occurred here prior to the erection 
of St. Paul's College by Dr. Muhlenberg, in 1846. This 
institution was intended for the education of young men 
for the ministry of the Episcopal church. The buildings 
were still incomplete, although accommodations had been 
provided for about one hundred students, when the death 
of the founder put a stop to the enterprise, and in the 
settlement of his estate the building passed into other 
hands. It has since been occupied by private residences, 
the chapel, however, being still devoted to religious uses. 

During Dr. Muhlenberg's residence here he built, at 
his own expense, a plank walk across the meadows to 
Flushing, and in 1855 a causeway was constructed con- 
necting the two villages. 

The history of the place is that of a rapidly growing 
manufacturing village. In 1854 Conrad Poppenhusen, 
a German manufacturer, erected here a large factory, 
called the Enterprise Works, for the manufacture of hard 
rubber knife handles, toilet articles and other specialties. 
This establishment has employed as many as five hun- 
dred hands, and its success has led to the immigration of 
a class of German factory operatives, among whom other 
manufacturers have found it easy to obtain the class of 
labor they required, and have accordingly sought this as 
a location for their works. In 1880 the village formerly 
called Strattonsport, now incorporated as College Point, 
contained the works of the Enterprise Company, the 
New York India Rubber Comb Company, Funcke's 
College Point Ribbon Mills, the Germania Ultramarine 
Works, and the extensive brewery of Hirsch & Herman, 
with a goodly population, mostly of German and Swiss 

Many of those wliose property is invested in manu- 
facturing interests here are residents of the village, and 
a number of city business men liave built fine residences 

About the year 1852 the daughter of Eliphalet Stratton 
sold that part of his estate now included in the village, 



for $30,000, retaining 180 acres in the family; thus the 
original investment of about $6 per acre yielded for the 
portion sold more than forty times that amount. 

To the Poppenhusen family is due the building of the 
New York, Flushing and North Shore Railroad, and 
many acts of public spirit in local affairs, that have done 
much to build up and beautify the place and increase the 
value of property. 

The College Point post-office was established in 1857, 
with H. Zuberbier as postmaster. Ferdinand Gentner is 
the present incumbent. 

The railway station was erected in 1868, and is a sub- 
stantial brick building, two stories high, 100 feet long by 
25 wide, containing baggage, express and telegraph offices, 
two spacious waiting rooms and a restaurant. The first 
station agent was Julius Buhl, who had charge of all the 
offices in the building for a year. He was succeeded by 
Eliza Sea, with Lizzie Miller as ticket agent, and she by 
C. R. Englehardt, who was followed by Wilson Lowerree 
of Whitestone, the present agent, who was appointed in 
1874. Miss Miller was succeeded as ticket agent by Misses 
Alcburger and Banks; the last-named in 1873 by Anna 
Schiller, the present ticket seller and telegraph operator. 

The village is well supplied with beer gardens and 
places of a similar character, and is often a place of 
Sunday resort for military and civic societies from New 
York and elsewhere, who discourse in the " liquid gut- 
turals " of the Fatherland, while they enjoy the sea 
breezes and the foam from College Point lager; much to 
the annoyance of the class of citizens who deprecate the 
advent of " a continental Sabbath," and to the grief of at 
least one of the former historians of Flushing. The large 
foreign element here demands a lax interpretation of ex- 
cise laws, and has heretofore been strong enough to 
practically enforce its view. 

Like most German villages College Point takes a deep 
interest in educational matters. Several private board- 
ing schools, taught by German professors and devoted 
largely to teaching music and languages, are well sus- 
tained; and choral societies and saengerbunds are a pop- 
ular avenue for social intercourse and the cultivation of 
the national taste for music. The Germans of this place 
in proportion to their ability — the large majority of them 
being poor factory operatives — have contributed liberally 
for the support of religion. 

The place is well adapted to ship building purposes, 
and at the time this article was written negotiations were 
pending for the establishment of a yard by an exper- 
ienced builder from the east end of the island. 

This port is the terminus of the People's line of steam- 
boats running to and from New York, and during the 
summer is a stopping point for the East River passenger 
boats, which, with the convenient railroad facilities af- 
forded by the North Shore road, render it convenient 
of access to parties doing business in New York, and 
tend to encourage immigration. 


St. Paurs Free Chapel ■wa.s built by a number of the 

friends of religious interests at College Point and else- 
where The Flushing Bible Society had for several years 
employed a colporteur, a Mr. Caldwell, at this place; but 
decided in 1859 to discontinue his services. A Sunday- 
school having been started by him, and growing rapidly 
in attendance, being held at the district school-house, it 
was determined to erect a free chapel, hoping that such 
an effort would crystallize the different elements of relig- 
ious faith here, and encourage assistance from more fa- 
vored localities. W. O. Chisholm, F. A. Potts, C. W. 
Whitney, Spencer H. Smith, W. H. Stebbins jr., and 
H. A. Bogert became a committee to carry out the pro- 
ject. Mr. Poppenhusen generously donated a plot of 
ground, and nearly $3,000 was raised by subscription. 
The building was completed January ist i860. 

St. Fidclis Roman CatJwlic Church was built at College 
Point in 1856, the corner stone having been laid in July, 
and the dedication occurring on the ist of November, 
Bishop Loughlin, of the diocese of Brooklyn, officiating. 
The church is a frame building, seventy-five by 
thirty-three feet. The founder of the parish was Rev. 
Joseph Huber, a native of Austria, who was ordained at 
Albany in 1853 and served as assistant pastor of Holy 
Trinity Church of Brooklyn until he was sent to this 
place to organize a parish, which now consists of perhaps 
one hundred and fifty families, about equally divided be- 
tween the English and German speaking residents. The 
Sunday-school is in charge of Father Huber and a Miss 
Delaney and has an average attendance of sixty. A week 
day school, with about seventy-five scholars, in charge of 
a secular teacher, who is the church organist, and St. 
Fidelis Society — a co-operative relief association of about 
forty members, of which Jacob Becker is president — are 
the principal auxiliaries to the work of the church. 

One of the most imposing events in the history of St. 
Fidelis Church was the celebration of the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of the pastor's ordination, which occurred on 
May 2ist 1878, in the presence of Bishop Loughlin, 
seventy priests and a host of friends. The church build- 
ing is located on Fifteenth street, near High. 

The German Evangelical Lutheran Church (unaltered 
Augsburgian confession) is named St. Johannes, and 
stands at the corner of Sixth avenue and Fourteenth 
street. Some members of the Lutheran Trinity Church 
in Ninth street, New York, Rev. Th. J. Brohm, had 
moved to Strattonsport, and Mr. Brohm came and 
preached at their request to the German settlers in the 
new place. On March 15th 1857 the first regular meet- 
ing was held and an organization formed. There were 
six members, viz.: H. Bannewitz, V. Dissen, P. lUers, 
E. Grube, C. Otto and J. Hebel. They are all still 
residents of the vicinity except Mr. Dissen, who moved 
away. The first services were held in the public school- 
house. G. Loeber, a nephew of the Rev. Mr. Brohm, 
organized a school, and preached Sundays until the end 
of the year 1857, when he received a call to Chicago. 
About this time the building of a church was resolved 
upon, money was collected among the members, as well 
as among friends in New York, Flushing and vicinity, 



and a building for church and school purposes was com- 
menced. The walls and roof of the church were erected 
and the school-house was finished, in which through 
the winter Sunday services were held. In 1858 Rev. A. 
Heitmuller was called to be pastor of the congregation. 
The inside of the church was then finished, and on the 4th 
of July the building was dedicated by Rev. Th. Brohm. 
Rev. Mr. Heitmuller remained until March 1861, when 
he was called to Elyria, Ohio, which call he accepted. 
In September following Rev. Julius Retiz, of Fort Wayne, 
Ind., accepted a call and became minister. He staid 
until June 1863. In May 1864 Rev. A. Ebendrik was 
called to the pastoral care of the congregation. He 
accepted and still serves. In 1879 the church, 25 by 36 
feet in size, proved too small, and it was resolved to 
make an addition of 20 feet to the length of it, which 
was accomplished. The congregation has no Sunday 
school of the kind common in this country, but every 
Sunday afternoon a public catechization of the young 
people is held by the pastor. 

In 1876 a lot adjoining the church was bought and a 
parsonage built upon it. 


The only public school in this part of the town at the 
commencement of the present century was held in a 
small red school-house near the sound. John McDer- 
mott, who taught here for several years, was one of the 
first teachers, if not the first, in Whitestone. The build- 
ing becoming inconvenient in size and location a new 
one was decided on, and on May ist 1818 a lease from 
Hewlett Kissam, of a lot 45 by 20 feet, was granted to 
the district at a rental of three dollars. On this a small 
plain building was erected at a cost of $250. The first 
trustees were John L. Franklin, William Powell and 
Hewlett Kissam. This building was in use about twenty 
years. The first to teach in it was Thomas R. Starkins. 
Among the pupils who attended were Joseph Harris, 
James Fowler, George L. Smith and Edwin Powell — now 
among the most honored citizens of the town of Flushing. 

In 1838 the school had grown too large for its buildmg 
and it became necessary to remove to the basement of 
what is now the Catholic church; a building owned at 
the time by Samuel Leggett, which is spoken of else- 
where, and the use of which was donated to the board 
by the philanthropic owner. Hon. B. W. Downing and 
William Thickett were teachers here for some time. 

After the death of Mr. Leggett his executor decided 
to charge rent for the basement, which fact, added to the 
dampness of the rooms, led to an effort to build a suit- 
able school-house. This was met by an attempted se- 
cession of the part of the district near Bayside, which, 
after a long struggle, was foiled; and a new building was 
erected in what was then the central portion of the vil- 
lage, at a cost of $800. The first term of school taught 
there was under the care of William Thickett. 

Until the year 1857 the school was supported by the 
payment of part tuition by the parents, John D. Locke 
very generously paying a dollar for every child who at- 

tended from the families of the employes in his large 
factory. On the i6th of April in the year last named a 
special law was obtained, making tuition absolutely free 
and providing for a board of education. This law went 
into effect June ist 1857. Charles A. Roe, Aaron C. 
Underbill, W. H. Schemerhorn, Edwin Powell and 
Thomas Leggett jr. were appointed the first board of 
education. Under this system the school has continued 
prosperous. In 1873 the building then in use by the 
schools was purchased by the village council, who re- 
modeled it into a town hall. The board then erected 
the present building, a two-story brick structure con- 
taining nine rooms, seven of which are separated by 
sliding panels. Its entire cost was about "^13,000. The 
schools are now consolidated into a union graded school, 
taught by seven teachers and with an average attendance 
of from two hundred and fifty to three hundred. The 
managers of the school state that its relations with the 
community are harmonious, and its reputation good. 

A school known as Leisemann's Institute from a small 
beginning grew to be quite well known and successful. 
Three or four years ago it was purchased by Adolph Von 
Uerhtritz, the present manager. Otto Fuerst established 
a boys' school, called Fuerst's Institute, about 1874, 
which he conducted until his death in 1879. Mrs. 
Clark's private school is one of the local educational 
enterprises of the present time. 


The brewing interests of this place have been among 
its most important business enterprises. The first one 
was started by Nicholas Centner, a German, who came 
from Newark, N. J., in 1854, and opened a place on 
Sixth avenue, between Fourteenth and Fifteenth streets, 
which was discontinued in 1856. 

The most important of them, however, has been the 
establishment founded in 1868 by Adolph Levinger & 
Co., who came here from New York city. The 
buildings are on Eleventh street, built of brick, and oc- 
cupy a space two hundred feet square, with storing vaults 
below having a capacity of fifty thousand barrels, which 
is the annual capacity of the brewery. In 1872 the 
property was purchased by Jacob Hirsch, of New York, 
who removed here with his family in 1878. He has 
added to the buildings an ice-house, erected on the op- 
posite side of the street, where the summer's supply of ice 
— 5,000 tons — is annually stored. On the first of July 
1880 George Herman, of Brooklyn, purchased an inter- 
est, and the brewery is now conducted under the firm 
name of Hirsch & Herman. About forty men and 
twelve teams are employed constantly, and the products 
of the brewery have acquired a wide demand among the 
lovers of the Teutonic beverage in many of the markets 
of the world, large quantities being bottled and shipped 
to Australia and other antipodal parts. 


Harmo7iie Soricfy. — This is the oldest society at College 
Point. It was organized August 24th 1855, and incor- 



porated in 1874. It owns a good library, including a 
great number of music books; its hall is provided with a 
stage. The charter members were Dr. Weitzel, F. A. 
Zoeller, Frederick Busch, Gottlieb Schwieger, C. F. Simon, 
G. A. Fritz, F. G. Meyer, H. Glaser and Peter Buhl. 
The first officers were: C. F. Simon, president; F. A. 
Zoeller, vice-president; Peter Buhl, secretary; H. Glaser, 
secretary; G. A. Fritz, treasurer; Dr. Weitzel, F. G. Meyer 
and H. Glaser, finance committee. 

The successive presidents have been C. F. Simon, 
H. Zuberbier, J. H. Rehlander, Alexander Brehm, C. 
Glaeckner, C. Schiller and Matthias Conrad. The of- 
ficers in 1880 were: Matthias Conrad, president; Moritz 
Roesler, vice-president; J. Neumann, secretary; Ernst 
Foeller, assistant secretary; Eugene Luthi, librarian; F. 
Hohn, assistant librarian; N. Beiderlenden, treasurer; 
G. Golsner, G. Schubert, C. Schmidt, P. Wacker, Anton 
Klarmann, Nicholas Rosenbauer and C. Koppmeier, ex- 
ecutive committee; Albert Steinfeld, director. The 
membership is eighty-three. Regular meetings are held 
the first Sarurday of each month, and singing lessons 
given every Saturday evening in Gaiser's Hall. The 
property of the society is valued at ^2,500. 

Union Hose Company, No. i, was organized February 
17th 1857, with the following first officers and original 
members : Messrs. Haubeil, foreman; Hebel, assistant 
foreman; Meier, treasurer; Schrell, secretary; Kannewitz, 
Winter, Corell and Wuerz. The successive foremen have 
been Messrs. Grossman, Nicholas Cauzet, Feldhaus, 
Henize, M. Jorch, F. Funk, A Ruebsamen, H. Mueller, 
C. Bauer, J. Becker, J. Wieners, Philip Lebknecher, 
Nicholas Becker, J. Strauss and F. Koch. The present 
(1881) officers, besides the foreman, are : Alvis Reiss, 
assistant foreman; M. Braentigam, treasurer; H. Geiger, 
secretary. Meetings are held on the first Tuesday of 
each month in the Turn Hall. 

Society Krakehlia. — This is the name of a singing so- 
ciety organized August 15th 1858, with F. Trunk, Theo- 
dore Feldhaus, John Meyer, Richard Lutters and Robert 
Lutters as members. F. Trunk was the first president ; 
W. Kaufman, vice-president; Richard Lutters, secretary; 
W. Mehus, treasurer, and Jacob Blank, musical director. 
F. Trunk was president five years, and was succeeded by 
W. Mehus, C. Regity, A. Rausch, W. Mehus, C. Krum- 

me, Lieber, R. Lutters, Philip Rattman (five 

years), F. Lutters (three years), James Blank and Jacob 
Huber, the present incumbents (1881). The other 
officers at that time were: Philip Lebknecher, vice-pres- 
ident; H. Dana, secretary; F. W. Mehus, treasuier; C. 
Doering, librarian; C. Decker and J. Steinbeck, archi- 
vists; C. F. Haas, director. Meetings are held at Krae- 
mer's hall every Saturday evening at eight. The objects 
of the society are vocal culture and social amusement. 
It has a good library. 

Marvin Lodge, No. 252, /. O. O. F. was organized 
October 26th 1870, with the following named first officers 
and charter members; William O. Duval, N. G.; Wil- 
liam Heinge, V. G.; F. W. Grell, secretary; F. Lutters, 
treasurer, and C. Stender. The following members have 

been elevated to the chair of noble grand : William O. 
Duval, William Heinge, F. W. Grell, F. Lutters, H. 
Kraemer, J. F. Wieners, Charles Marse, A. Jackers, F. 
Buckley, Joseph Blank, T. Miller, Matthew Frees, Eu- 
gene Luthi, F. W. Dackendorf, F. Ewers, Charles Frey- 
gang, F. Hunold, William Grimm, H. Kraemer, and P. 

The officers in 1881 were: A. K. Hunter, N. G.; John 
Kraemer, V. G.; F. W. Dackendorf, secretary, F. Ewers, 
treasurer; John Friedman, C; H. Williams; W.; Jacob 
Williams, S. W. ; William Heinge, R. S.; William Grimm, 
L. S.; A. Jacobs, chaplain. Meetings are held at 8 p. m. 
Wednesdays, at the Poppenhusen Institute. 

Deutsche Rhein Lodge, No. 287, D. O. H. — This so- 
ciety was organized September 22nd 1872, and meets 
every Tuesday evening at Turn Hall. Its charter mem- 
bers were : Henry Horn, Jacob Huber, John Mangier, 
Moritz Levinger, H. Kugelberg and P. Hoffman. The 
first officers were : John Brehm, O. B.; John Mangier, 
U. B.; Moritz Levinger, secretary; H. Kugelberg, trea- 
surer; H. Horn, accountant. The successive presiding 
officers have been John Mangier, Jacob Huber, H. 
Horn, Henry Dana, Joseph Dackendorf, H. Decker, F. 
A. Mueller, F. Lutters, William Knote, Karl Klein, 
Augustus Meyer, John Rech^ John Schmidt and H. 
Grosskurth. The officers in i88i were: H. Grosskurth, 
Ex.-B.; John Weitzel, O. B.; F. Dackendorf, U. B.; F. 
Lutters, secretary; Henry Decker, treasurer; Frank 
Reindel, accountant. 

The Sick Relief Association of College Point was or- 
ganized February nth 1873. The charter members 
were Carl Haubeil, Michael Braentigam, Daniel Barth, 
Gottfried Mahler, Mahler, Fr. Hetzer, Nicholas Rosen- 
bauer, George Hoffman, Nicholas Cauzet, August Ken- 

The first officers were: Carl Haubeil, president; 
Michael Braentigam, vice-president; Gottfried Mahler, 
secretary; Daniel Barth, assistant secretary; Nicholas 
Rosenbauer, treasurer. 

The singing society Alpenrocsli was organized January 
nth 1880. The charter members were A. Noetzli, J. 
Graefli, E. Luthi, J. Duerenberger, Th. Dannacher, Th. 
Bollier, M. Bollier, J. Wagner, G. Benz, E. Frey, William 
Recher, J. Hertner. 

The first officers were: A. Noetzli, president; J. Graefli, 
secretary; E. Luthi, vice-president. 

The presiding officers to this time have been A. Noetzli, 
E. Luthi and J. Graefli. 

The officers in 1881 were: J. Graefli, president; J. 
Duerenberger, vice-president; Th. Bollier, secretary; 
William Cooper, treasurer; A. Steinfeld, director. 

Singing lessons are taken every Monday evening. 

This .society received a silver goblet as a prize at the 
international singing festival ir. Newark in August i88r. 

The Germania Sick Relief Association was organized 
July 5th 1881, with the following charter members: John 
Wahl, George Seibert, John Haunfelder, Seb. Pickel, 
Nicholas Neu, August Kersten, Max Eisner. The first 
officers were: John Wahl, president; George Seibert, 



vice-president; John Haunfelder, first secretary; Fer- 
dinand Schneier, second secretary; Nicholas Neu, 

The officers in 1881 were: Jacob Mueller, president; 
George Hoffmann, vice-president; Michael Schaefer, 
first secretary; August Kendell, second secretary; Fr. 
Landes, treasurer; Conrad Schmidt, Heinrich Meyer, 
Fr. Kutger, finance committee; August Kersten, Jacob 
Ehm, John Schuetter, trustees. 


Bayside, a pleasant line of handsome villas and sub- 
stantial farm houses, was settled very soon after the first 
immigration to Flushing. Here the Indians lived on 
friendly terms with the whites until the edicts of the 
Dutch governor required their disarmament, when they 
drifted to the south side of the island. Dr. John Rod- 
man, an eminent Quaker physician and minister, lived 
here some forty years, and died in 1731, respected by all 
who knew him. His family were some of them residents 
till long after the Revolution; and one of them, John 
Rodman, recovered in 1787 a judgment against the in- 
famous Hamilton of ^2,000 for the wanton destruction 
of his spruce timber by the tories, who were quartered 
here during his administration. The fine view of the 
sound and the healthfulness of the locality made it known 
as an eligible locality for country residences, and in 
Revolutionary times some of its residents were New York 
business men. The larger proportion of the property 
owners are of that class, including a number of retired 
professional men and a few Southern families. It is and 
probably always will be a country home; and as the sur- 
veyed village plot contains some five thousand building 
lots there will be ample room for years to come for all 
who are attracted by its many advantages. The enter- 
prise and refinement of the residents of Bayside have led 
to important improvements. 


This school was organized from school district No. 2, 
which now has a population of about one thousand. The 
date of its establishment is January 15th 1864. The 
building, which was erected in i860, is on leased ground 
on the property of James Cain; but the sum of ^1,000 
was voted in 1880 for the purchase of a site, and steps 
are being taken to select a more convenient location and 
one fully under control of the school board. 

Hon. Luther C. Carter was the first president of the 
board, and served in that capacity until his removal to 
New York. The school has two carefully selected li- 
braries, one of which, containing some four hundred 
volumes, was the gift of President Carter. 

Three teachers are employed; the school is graded, 
and the reports for 1880 show a school population of 
300, with a registered attendance of 170. The total 
valuation of the district is $460,500, and the tax rate 
averages twenty-five cents to $100. 

The board of education for 1881 consisted of John 

W. Harway, James W. Cain, Abraham Bell, John Strait- 
ton and John W. Ahles. 


In November 1868 the late Edward R. Sheffield 
organized an educational society, and it was named 
after the place. Its object was mutual improvement in 
reading, recitations and debate. Its meetings were held 
weekly during the winter season, at the school-house, 
and a large membership was attained. In 1872, the 
older members having mainly withdrawn, the school 
board refused to allow the society the further use of the 
school-house, which was perhaps the very thing needed 
to quicken it into life again. Meetings were held that 
winter at the homes of the members and others, and on 
February 7th 1873 articles of incorporation were obtained 
by Eugene C. Roe, James W. Cain, James O'Donnell, T. 
Whitney Powell and Frank C. Bouse as trustees for the 
Bayside Literary Society — an organization for the pur- 
pose of encouraging home talent and the cultivation of 
the art of debating, as well as for literary and scientific 
purposes generally. 

A fine plot of ground, one hundred feet square, was 
donated to the society by Messrs. Straitton & Storm, and 
on Decoration day 1874 the corner stone of a hall was 
laid by Robert Willets, president, in presence of a large 
gathering of people. Hon. L. Bradford Prince delivered 
an address, and an important work was pleasantly and 
safely inaugurated. On the i6th of October of the same 
year the building was completed and formally opened. 
Bands and glee clubs from adjacent villages discoursed 
music, and Hon. B. W. Downing, Hon. L. B. Prince, J. W^ 
Covert, Eugene C. Roe and M. D. Gould made short 
and appropriate addresses, congratulating the people on 
the successful completion of Bayside Literary Hall. 

The trustees of the institution in 1881 were John 
Straitton, John W. Harway, James W. Cain, Frederic 
Storm and William Ahles. 


Some years since a feeble effort was made to establish 
a class of the Methodist Episcopal denomination, which 
resulted in failure. On the completion of Bayside Liter- 
ary Hall its trustees voted its use to any and all religious 
denominations who would make an effort to establish reg- 
ular services on Sunday. Immediately after the open- 
ing of the hall St. George's P. E. Church of Flushing ac- 
cepted the offer and established here a Sunday-school 
and mission, under the care of George R. Vandewater, 
lay reader, then in the theological seminary, now rector 
of a prominent church in Brooklyn. The meetings, which 
at first were largely attended, are still conducted, and 
with the Sunday-school form the only local religious 

Some time about the year 1861 the Society of Friends 
contributed a fund with which they erected a small frame 
building on land the use of which was donated to them 
by Mrs. Bell, and opened a school, which they 
supported until 1877, when, the necessity for it having 



ceased by reason of the excellent character of the public 
schools, it was abandoned. 


Messrs. Straitton & Storm, of New York, who built 
here country seats for themselves and homes for some 
eighteen or twenty families of the skilled workmen in 
their great cigar factory, have recently introduced the 
Holly water system, by an arrangement with the village 
of Flushing which permitted the tapping of one of its 
mains, and during the past year have effected a thorough 
system of sewerage on an improved plan, which applies 
to all of their buildings here and adds materially to their 
value from a hygienic stand point. 

James Cain, a well knov/n and active Democratic poli- 
tician in the last generation, came to Long Island in 1828, 
engaging in farming and the milk business on land now 
covered by parts of Fifth avenue and Bergen street 
Brooklyn, and at one time tilled land within two blocks 
of where the City Hall now stands. He afterward oc- 
cupied the place known as Washington's headquarters, 
the farm-house on which was built in 1692. For twenty- 
three years he supplied a milk route in New York, and 
during eighteen years of that time claimed that he had 
never failed to serve his customers twice daily. In 1852 
he became a resident of Bayside, purchased the farm on 
which he died, and took a general interest in political 
matters, though never as an office-seeker or in any official 
position. He died December 7th i88o, at the advanced 
age of seventy-six years. 


Little Neck, in the extreme eastern part of the town, 
on a bay of the same name, is one of the most interesting 
localities in the town from an archaeological point of view. 
The vast quantity of clams and oysters found here made 
it a favorite residence of the Indians, and here much of 
the wampum used by the Five Nations was said to have 
been manufactured. Traces of Indian occupancy are 
frequent, and a large variety of relics has been unearthed 
in the vicinity. The part now known as Douglaston was 
first settled in the latter part of the seventeenth century 
by Thomas Hicks, who, assisted by a party of adherents 
from the mainland, drove off the Indians and forcibly 
seized their lands. This is perhaps the only part of the 
town of Flushing where such rank injustice was practiced 
The Hicks family have been represented in the locality 
down to the present time, although what was afterward 
called Point Douglass passed from them to one Shief, a 
Hollander; thence to Thomas Weeks, who sold it to 
Wynant Van Zandt, who in 1824 constructed the causeway 
connecting it with Flushing, and built the bridge at his 
own expense. His course was marked by the utmost 
liberality in all things, and the people of the town and of 
his neighborhood have in Zion's P. E. Church, which he 
erected and furnished, together with the glebe donated 
to the people of the place, a monument to his memory 
that will be far more lasting than any which wealth or 
affection could have erected for him. 

A post-office was established in 1859, with J. A. Chap- 
man as postmaster. 

A woolen-mill was built here at a place called " the 
Alley," by John Bird, who operated it until 1850, when it 
was destroyed by fire, entailing a loss of ;|io,ooo and 
putting an end to the manufacturing interests of the 

The Van Zandt farm on Douglass Point was sold to 
George Douglass, and by his son W. B. Douglass has 
been laid out in a village plot and thrown on the market. 
Inducements are offered to purchasers that have been 
taken advantage of to some extent, and as the place is 
supplied with fair railroad facilities hopes are entertained 
that it will eventually become a popular place of residence 
for city people. 

The principal industry now carried on at Little Neck 
is the shipment of the clams, now famous throughout 
the country. In this a number of sloops are engaged. 
The bay was planted with oysters and for several years 
the yield was satisfactory, but, owing to the depredation 
of oyster thieves, the supply is now nearly exhausted. 

The docks were built in 1862, and are now used prin- 
cipally by the Van Nostrands for the coal business. 


This neck of land putting out into the sound east of 
Whitestone remained an unimportant farm district, owned 
by the family whose name was given it, until the com- 
mencement of the late war, when a speculator, noting its 
strategic value, purchased it of the owners, and soon 
after transferred it for a large sum to the United States 
government, which commenced the erection of a massive 
fortress that was to command the approaches to the East 
River. In May 1861 a Maine regiment was quartered 
here, and during the war, while the erection of the fort 
was being, carried on, the reservation was used to some 
extent as a hospital. 

The revolution in maritime warfare begun by the 
" Monitor," and completed by the torj^edo, proved the 
futility of such defenses as this, and the government wisely 
decided not to complete it, but to establish here a head- 
quarters for a general system of coast and harbor de- 
fenses, by forming a permanent camp and school for the 
engineer corps of the regular army. It would be inter- 
esting to know how much of the success that the public 
attributes to skillful generals and brave soldiers is really 
due to this little body of men, whose organization up to 
1846 consisted only of a few commissioned officers, and 
whose first company of sappers, miners and pontoniers, 
organized during that year and drilled by Lieutenant 
George B. McClellan, were the forerunners of the brave 
body of hard workers who were sneered at during the 
war for the Union as " McCIellan's Pets." This com- 
pany first saw service in the Mexican war, where during 
the siege of Vera Cruz they proved their value. From 
that time to 1861 the members of the company were 
scattered throughout the entire army, surveying, superin- 
tending the construction of forts and roads, and at West 
Point giving practical instruction to cadets. In 1861 



four additional companies were created, making a total 
of five companies, with lo sergeants, lo corporals, 2 mu- 
sicians and 128 privates in each. After their laborious 
services in the late war — the worth of which every mili- 
tary man now appreciates — it was decided to make Wil- 
let's Point the headquarters of the engineering depart- 
ment, with three companies forming its garrison. (One 
company went to Goat Island, on the Pacific coast, an- 
other to West Point). Two reductions ordered since 
then have reduced the garrison at headquarters to 5 ser- 
geants, 4 corporals, 2 musicians and 39 privates in each 

The importance of this post consists in the fact that it 
I3 the only military engineer depot of the United States, 
the arsenal tor all sapping and mining tools and pontoon 
material needed for the equipage of its armies, the school 
for submarine mining, and the depot for all material per- 
taining to the present system of torpedo defenses. 

Here are to be found men bearing only the rank of pri- 
vate who are trained to be good mining engineers and fair 
mechanics, and given a knowledge of the proper method 
of handling armies, as well as of constructing buildings, 
bridges and entrenchments, that fits any one of them for 
the command of a division of men. Such men cannot 
be readily found in the rank and file of an army, but 
they have been, and the enlistment of intelligent men is 
encouraged by the high pay offered and the advantages 
which such training might afterward afford in private life. 

The department and post are under the command of 
General Abbott, who has been in charge here since 1865 
He is a courteous and accomplished gentleman, and his 
influence and that of his family, who reside with him, 
have had a refining effect on the men of his command, 
difficult to measure, but readily seen by any one conver- 
sant with the tendencies of garrison and camp life. 

The reservation contains — besides the incomplete fort 
of huge masses of granite, presenting a semicircle of 
port-holes toward Hart's Island, and the really strong 
and fine earthworks crowning the point and commanding 
the entire • sound — the parade-ground, a few hundred 
yards from the parapet of the fort, and on the west side 
of this the residence of the commandant, facing the bar- 
racks of the troops, which are ranged to the east of the 
parade. The south side is enclosed by three buildings 
containing oflficers' quarters and the " castle," a casino 
for them. On the north of the parade is the headquar- 
ters building, flanked on the right and left by two large 
buildings, accommodating married officers. The hos- 
pital and a few smaller buildings complete the immediate 
surroundings of the parade. In the background the 
company kitchens, post theater, model rooms, engine 
house, observatory, photographic and lithographic build- 
ings on the south, with a line of gardens between them 
and the parade, and from the hospital south the post 
school, library, and six buildings each sheltering the 
families of four married soldiers, form a street leading to 
the quartermaster's and subsistence departments; with 
shops for carpenters, painters, tinsmiths, blacksmiths 
and other artisans, warehouses, bakery, coal and wood 

yard, with stables and wagon yards closing on the south- 
western portion of the miniature city, which is covered 
with sheds and warehouses containing the entire pontoon 
bridge materials for an army, wagons to transport them, 
and also a fire-proof building where are stored large 
quantities of valuable instruments. 

The garrison seems composed of a busy, energetic, 
soldierly body of men, well satisfied with their lot but 
willing and ready to put their training into practice 
whenever it is needed. They have many friends among 
the citizens, and are the recipients of frequent invita- 
tipns to entertainments, both public and private, outside 
the reservation. 


Creedmoor, widely known as the location of the na- 
tional rifle ranges and the scene of spirited contests be- 
tween the sharpshooters of this and other countries, lies 
on the southern border of the town. It derives its name 
from the Creed family, its former owners. It was selected 
by the National Rifle Association as a suitable place for 
rifle practice, land was bought, and the ranges were fitted 
up. It has a hotel and restaurant, owned by the associa- 
tion, and a post-office established for their convenience. 
Dreary and desolate in winter, it is in summer thronged 
by thousands of lovers of the range, and the scene of all 
the more important trials of skill between those who aim 
to shoot aright. The members of the association are 
but few of them residents of Queens county; and as the 
information most desired by those interested in such 
matters is already contained in the very complete annual 
reports issued by them, and to be had on application at 
their offices in Park row, New York, it is unnecessary 
to say more in a work of this character. 


It is to be regretted that there can be found no definite 
date of the first settlement within the present village 
limits, although the early ownership of the soil indicates 
that it was made on what is now the Parsons estate, in 
1645, by the Bowne family. Early records give but 
little clue to business interests at that period, but 
it is believed that Michael Millnor kept the first inn, 
prior to 1657, and that at a corresponding date a man 
whose name was forgotten long since opened a small re- 
tail store at the landing, where farm products were re- 
ceivable for molasses, salt, and a few other necessaries 
of life that could not be coaxed from the fertile soil. Dr. 
Henry Taylor was the first physician, who is known to 
have practiced during the last years of the seventeenth 
century, and the town clerk, Edward Hart, supplied the 
good offices of a conveyancer, and so made good the 
void which the absence of lawyers — of whom we find no 
mention until a much later date — must have otherwise 

The village, being for so many years merely the center 
of a farming country and devoid of manufacturing inter- 



ests, was of slow growth, and its first onward impetus is 
believed to have been gained from the success of Prince's 
Linntean Gardens, which furnished employment for a few 
men. The events of the Revolution tended to increase 
its population temporarily, and at the commencement of 
the present century there were probably more houses 
" to let " than can be found at present. In 1800 the 
village presented a somewhat forlorn appearance. Main 
street was a rough, hilly country road; what is now Broad- 
way was so narrow that it was with difficulty that two 
vehicles could pass each other. The water front was a 
disagreeable swamp, and near the foot of Main street, 
where is now the Town Hall, was a noisome frog pond. 
The entrance to Prince's nursery was at what is now the 
southeast corner of Broadway and Prince street, and 
Bloodgood's nurseries were a long way out of town. 
The old guardhouse at the corner of Union street and 
Broadway was the eastward terminus of the village. 
Main street had perhaps a dozen buildings on it, and in 
the radius of a mile might have been counted fifty 
dwellings, not one in five of the streets now crowded 
with human habitations having at that date any existence 
save perhaps in the imagination of some enthusiast whose 
vagaries were frowned upon as unwise and reckless. 

But within a few miles lay a city outgrowing its bounds, 
with thousands of people panting for country air and 
country quiet; and long ere convenient arrangements for 
transportation were effected the farmers of Flushing 
were selling corner lots, and two or three enterprising 
men were building to meet this growing want. Among 
these we have reason to mention Cyrus Peck and the 
senior Parsons, as well as Dr. Samuel Bloodgood, who 
became the village physician in 181 2. The labor re- 
quired to grade and open streets involved a large ex- 
pense, and after the incorporation of the village, in 1837, 
some ^25,000 was paid out by individual subscriptions 
for such purposes. Private schools found a footing here 
• at an early day, and the movement in favor of the free 
school system was inaugurated about 1841, and carried 
into successful operation in 1848. 

St. George's church, a small frame building, and the 
Friends' meeting house, were the only church buildings 
in the village prior to the building of an African M. E. 
church. Besides the nurseries of the Messrs. Prince, 
Bloodgood and Parsons, a sandpaper factory and the 
shipping and lumber business of the Pecks gave employ- 
ment to a considerable number of persons; and when, in 
1837, the people of the village decided on incorporation, 
the population had increased to about two thousand peo- 
ple. The hard times following the panic of that year 
checked the growth of all places, and temporarily de- 
stroyed the value of real estate; but under judicious 
management Flushing village held her own, and in 1855 
reported a population of 3,488 — nearly one-half that of 
the entire town. 

Real estate speculation has of course been rife; but 
while at times prices were perhaps too high for business 
sites and houses on the most popular streets, there has 
never been a time that a family of moderate means could 

not build for themselves a home in a really pleasant 
locality at much less expense than in many other of the 
suburbs of New York city, as these semi-metropolitan 
villages may be termed. 

The earliest direct communication with the city by 
stage was made by Willett Mott, in 180 1. It consisted 
of a daily coach running from this village through New- 
town and Bedford to Brooklyn. He continued it seven 
years, charging fifty cents for a single fare. His succes- 
sors were Carman Smith and Mesrs. Greenwall, Kissam 
and John Boyd, who commenced running to Williams- 
burgh, across Grand street ferry, up Grand street, New 
York, to the Bowery, and thence to Chatham square, for a 
fare of fifty cents. This route was run until 1854, when the 
opening of the Flushing and North Shore Railroad ren- 
dered it no longer necessary. As has been said, canoes 
and sailboats were the first means of transfer by water, 
and the old landing was where the Peck coal docks now 
are. After the erection of the bridge a water dock was 
built. A packet run by Howell Smith was the next im- 
provement, and this, run afterward by Samuel Pryor and 
finally by Jonathan Peck, who replaced the old vessel by 
one with more ample and luxurious fittings, was the chief 
means of water communication until 1822, when a small 
steamboat ran as an experiment, and was followed, in the 
ensuing year, by one built expressly for this route, and 
commanded by Captain Peck, the son of the old packet 
master. This boat was named the " Linnaeus," and is 
said to have been well built and neatly furnished. In 
1833 she was transferred to the New Rochelle route, and 
has since been followed by the " Flushing," Captain 
Curtis Peck; the "Statesman," Captain Elijah Peck; the 
" Star," by the same; the " Washington Irving," Captain 
Leonard; " Island City," Captain S. Reynolds, and 
"Enoch Dean," Captain William Reynolds. In 1859 a 
company krrown as the Flushing, College Point and New 
York Ferry Company was organized, who purchased the 
" Enoch Dean," and built the People's line. 

The channel in Flushing Bay has required the outlay 
of considerable sums to make it available for general 
travel by large boats, and has been the subject of various 
government grants. It was dredged and deepened in 
^^33, 1857, 1859, 1880 and 1881. 

The opening of the two railroads which pierce the 
village has made it convenient of access, and with its 
steamboat facilities renders it to a great extent independ- 
ent of those attempts at extortion which carrying com- 
panies have been known to practice at places where there 
was no competition for the business. 

The first post-office in the town was at what wa? known 
as the Alley or Little Neck, and was kept in a woolen 
factory there until about 1822, when it was removed to 
the village. Mandeville relates that many of the villagers 
were opposed to the change, as they said that their let- 
ters and papers were " now left at the public-house, 
where they could get them at any time, which they could 
not do if the office was kept in the village, and only open 
at certain hours." The present postmaster is John W. 
Rickey. Among early incumbents were Curtis Peck, 



William Peck, Dr. Joseph Bloodgood, Dr. Asa Spaulding, 
Francis Bloodgood and Charles W. Cox. 

The charter of the village of Flushing bears date 
April 15th 1837. At the first election Robert B. Van 
Zandt became president of the board of trustees, whose 
first meeting was held June 6th 1837. The number of 
real estate owners assessed that year was one hundred 
and three, and the assessed valuation $465,300. 

Up to the year 1843 the meetings of the village officers 
were held at the places of business or residences of the 
members; but in that year a town hall was built at a 
cost of $1,000. 

Education in the Past and Present. 

The first school-teacher in the town is believed to have 
been John Houldon, who taught a private school from 
about 1660 to 1670, and of whom nothing more is known. 
Elizabeth Coperthwaite, a daughter of the Quaker 
preacher,' who was a power among his people, taught 
from 1675 to 1681. John Urquhart, who is first 
mentioned in 1690, was a man of family and kept board- 
ing scholars to some extent. 

The Quakers, foremost in good works, seemed to tire 
of this desultory system of education, and in 1803 took 
steps toward purchasing a lot and erecting a school 
building. It is probable that this plan was abandoned 
eventually, for when their meeting-house was repaired 
in 1705 an upper floor was laid and the story thus con- 
structed was divided into two rooms, which were used 
for school purposes. The first male teacher employed 
there is believed to have been Thomas Makins, who after- 
ward became a somewhat noted teacher in Philadelphia, 
and is credited with the authorship of a number of Latin 

The interest thus early awakened in public instruction 
has been well sustained ; and in the early years of the 
present century the village of Flushing was more than 
ordinarily well supplied with private schools and academ- 
ic institutions. Lindley Murray Moore, and after him 
Joshua Kimberand William Chase, taught a boys' school, 
dating back to about 1810 and closing its doors finally 
in 1858. In 1818 a building was erected for an academy 
at an expense of $1,250, which was borne by John As- 
pinwall, Hutchins Smith, William Prince and two other 
gentlemen. It was opened by Professor William A. 
Houghton, in 1819, and conducted until 1825, when its 
place was filled by other institutions, and it was aban- 
doned. The building was afterward used many years 
as a lecture room for St. George's church. Rev. Charles 
Carpenter kept a boarding school from 1820 to 1824, a 
few doors above the Ewbank store, on Washington street. 
Mrs. Sarah K. Roberts's young ladies' school dates back 
to about 1854. Other private schools were short lived 
and of little note. 

The following are the most important of the educa- 
tional institutions of to-day: 

The first public school in this village was opened in a 
dwelling standing near the site of the present negro 
school, in Liberty street, on the 6th of April 1814, with 

nineteen scholars. It was at first taught gratuitously by 
members of the Flushing Female Association, two of 
whom served at a time. In July of that year this associ- 
ation, which was the founder of the school, engaged a 
teacher, paying a salary of $60 a year, and an allowance 
of $2 per week for board. The school was regularly 
visited by members of the guardian society, and on June 
roth 1815 the first public examination occurred, " to the 
satisfaction of the audience, several being present from 
New York, one of whom evinced his approval by a do- 
nation of $20 to the school, and $10 to the teacher for 
her becoming behavior on the occasion." It was at first 
supported by voluntary contributions, scholars both white 
and colored being admitted free of charge, except where 
the parents were able and willing to pay. ' In 1829 schol- 
ars were required to pay two cents a week. The number 
in attendance on the day of opening was nineteen, which 
was afterward swelled to more than one hundred. The 
original idea of its founders was the education of the 
colored children, sums of money having been bequeathed 
by several Quakers for that purpose, and it was believed 
by them that the advantage of free instruction would also 
draw in all the children of the poor white people in the 
village. This hope, to a great extent, proved delusive, and 
since about 1844 the school has been taught exclusively 
for colored children. It has a revenue of about $300 a 
year, derived from the income of the following bequests: 
Thomas Tom, $250; Thomas Lawrence, $roo; Nathaniel 
Smith, $500, and James Boyd Matthew Franklin, ^^150 
(the interest to be applied to buying books for poor negro 
children, and also toward paying their schooling), and 
from fees of members of the association, which also 
erected the building in 1819, at a cost of $845, and still 
owns it. 

the public schools. 

At the time of the incorporation of the village its ter- 
ritory included nearly all of district 5, a small part of 
districts 2, 3 and 4, and a considerable portion of district 
6; the only buildings within the corporate limits being 
that of No. 5 and the school just mentioned. 

By an act of the Legislature in 1841 the boundaries of 
district No. 5 were defined as follows : Beginning in the 
southwest corner of the village, running easterly to the 
street called Long lane; thence southerly along Long 
lane to its end; thence by the road eastward to a point 
two hundred yards southeast of the dwelling of G. S. 
Mitchell; from thence northwardly to a point one hun- 
dred yards east of the dwelling of Willet Bowne; thence 
northwesterly to a point one hundred yards east of the 
farm-house of Walter Bowne; thence in the same direc- 
tion one hundred yards east of the dwelling of Daniel 
Higgins; thence also in a northwesterly direction to a 
point one hundred yards north of the house of G. S. 
Howland; thence westerly to Flushing Bay at a point 
two hundred yards south of the dwelling of Piatt Strat- 
ton; thence southwardly by the west line to the place of 

The first entry on the earliest village school records in 



the possession of the present secretary is that of the 
meeting for organization under the law just quoted, at 
which John W. Lawrence, John Wilcomb, W. W. Valk> 
Samuel Willet and Robert B. Parsons were elected 
trustees. Steps were then taken toward the erection of 
a new school building, for which ^400 was appropriated. 
This was afterward increased to $950. The building 
erected then, the Garden street school-house, was in 
1844 supplemented by the basement of the Macedonia 
church, which, consisting of two rooms, accommodated 
the pupils until 1848, when the friends of education can- 
vassed the subject of free schools, and on due notice a 
special meeting was held March 29th of that year, when 
the question was decided in the affirmative, by a vote of 
140 to 87. A school-house site was then purchased of 
the Orthodox Friends, for the sum of $630, and a new 
building commenced. At the next regular meeting, 
November 27th 1849, new by-laws were adopted, and 
Thomas Harrison was engaged as principal, at a salary 
of $900. In 1855 the principal's salary was increased 
^50 per annum, and at this time three lady teachers were 
employed. In 1855 an offer was made by the Flushing 
Female Association to turn over the colored school to 
the board of education, renting to them the building 
occupied by it, and agreeing to furnish suitable teachers 
for $300 per annum. As under the general school law 
this offer was advantageous to the district it was accept- 
ed, and that school has since been a part of the depart- 

The rapid growth of the village and the demand for a 
hig,her standard of popular education led the board in 
1873 to decide upon the issue of bonds and the erection 
of a high school building, which should be adequate to 
the wants of an increasing population and creditable to a 
village whose wealth and refinement had already placed 
it foremost in the list of rural municipalities. Here, as 
is sometimes the case, the friends of better schools met 
with the opposition of a class of taxpayers who regarded 
the question of cost as of prime importance; and after a 
long struggle they failed to secure the two-thirds majority 
necessary for their purpose. At the next meeting of the 
Legislature, however, a bill was passed making a majority 
vote sufficient, and after its passage the necessary vote 
was taken, and bonds to the amount of $40,000 were 
issued, grounds purchased of James B. Parsons, at a 
cost of $9,500, and the erection of the present handsome 
edifice commenced on the corner of Barclay street and 
Sandford avenue; the corner stone being laid October 
17th 1873, with impressive ceremonies, in the presence of 
a large assembly, comprising many of the best known 
friends of public schools on the island. The board of 
education under whose care this important work was 
completed consisted of W. H. Farrington, Thomas Leg- 
gctt jr. and Samuel B. Parsons. In 1876 the present 
efficient secretary, Marquis D. Gould, became a member 
of the board, and steps were taken to form the inde- 
pendent district of Flushing, with boundaries corres- 
ponding to the village lines, which was consummated by 
act of Legislature of June 15th 1877. The only town 

district suffering materially by the change was district 
No. 6, which lost thereby some $30,000 of assessable 

Acts of the Legislature in 1876 and 1878, conferring 
increased prerogatives and placing the school under the 
supervision of the regents of the university, have added 
to its efficiency, and made it popular with a class of non- 
resident pupils, who can here secure the benefits of an 
academic course at a low price, and of whom the reports 
for 1880 show over fifty in attendance. 

Some indication of the growth of the schools may be 
found in the fact that at the time of opening the high 
school building 416 pupils were reported on the rolls; 
while during the year 1880 there were 1,210 in attend- 
ance. The board reports to the regents in 1880 showed 
the number jof children in the district to be 2,167; num- 
ber of buildings (inclusive of the negro school building, 
leased), 3; value of buildings owned, $67,000; bonded 
indebtedness, $53,000; mortgage indebtedness, $11,000; 
number of volumes, 1,339, valued at $961.93; apparatus, 
globes, etc., $755.14. 

The teachers consist of one superintendent, who is also 
principal of the high school, at a salary as principal of 
$1,000 and as superintendent of $800 annually, and 
twenty lady teachers at salaries ranging from $120 to 
$600. The assessed valuation of the district is $1,745,341. 

The members of the board for 1881 were: W. Downing, 
whose term expired during the year; C. W. Brown, whose 
term expires in 1882; Marquis D. Gould, whose term ex- 
pires in 1883; Isaac Bloodgood, who serves until 1884, 
and Samuel C. Parsons, whose term of office runs until 
1885. Of these Isaac Bloodgood is president, Samuel B. 
Parsons treasurer, and M. D. Gould secretary. 


The property occupied by this institution was first used 
for educational purposes by Rev. Dr. W. A. Muhlenberg. 
He came from New York to Flushing in 1826 to take 
charge of St. George's Protestant Episcopal parish for 
two years. Hearing some gentlemen conversing one day 
about building an academy, with provision for a family 
and boarding pupils, he said if they would erect such 
a building as he desired he would occupy it and conduct 
the institution himself; and so the Flushing Institute 
was built, the corner stone being laid, with appropriate 
ceremonies, August nth 1827. 

In April 1845 Ezra Fairchild transferred to the insti- 
tute from New Jersey the school which he had begun in 
1816. It is now conducted by his son E. A. Fairchild, 
as principal, and A. P. Northrop as vice-principal. It is 
a private institution, unsectarian, and is designed for the 
higher education of young men and boys. 

ST. Joseph's academy. 

St. Joseph's Academy is the most imposing institution 
in Queens county, and one of the most popular educa- 
tional establishments in the county. The buildings are 
large and commodious, having a front of 150 and a 
depth of 180 feet. They were erected at a cost of 



$300,000. The grounds are beautifully laid out in 
shady walks and choice parterres. The traveling accom- 
modations are unsurpassed, the trains of the Flushing 
and North Side Railroad making hourly trips to New 
York. The course of study is divided into three grades, 
primary, grammar and academic; and at its completion 
diplomas are conferred on the successful competitors. 
Some two hundred graduates have already gone forth 
from the academy. From almost exery State in the 
Union pupils have come to this calm retreat of learning, 
and in many of the most distant homes of the land there 
are those who cherish the sweetest and happiest memo- 
ries of St. Joseph's. 

Merch.'vnts of Flushing. 

The name of the first resident trader, who exchanged 
salt, molasses, spices and rum for wampum and leaf 
tobacco, is unknown. The next is believed to have been 
John Bovvne. From his day for many years the retail 
trade was mainly conducted by boatmen, who trans- 
ported produce to New York, and brought back the 
goods ordered by the shippers, thus obtaining freight 
both ways. The next resident merchant of any note was 
John Foster, who in 1736 suffered the loss of his house, 
store and contents by an incendiary fire. The New York 
Gazette reported but little saved, and the loss about 
^2,000. In 1757 Samuel Borden advertises in the 
New York Mercury that owing to his advanced age " he 
is leaving off trade and offers for sale his merchant shop 
in Flushing." In 1760 John Wilson ran a sloop between 
the village and New York and kept a stock of goods. 
About the same time the ubiquitous Jew makes his ap- 
pearance, and Hart Aaron and Jacob Cohen become dry 
goods dealers in the village. From the last date up to 
the close of the Revolutionary war there was no lack of 
mercantile establishments, nor has the village had cause 
to complain of their scarcity during the present century. 
The most prominent of the last generation of merchants 
here were the Peck family, who introduced the coal 
trade about 1820, and the Lowerrees, who were active 
and enterprising dealers. 

The most important mercantile house of to-day is that 
of Clement & Bloodgood; while in specialties there are a 
number of houses worthy of mention. In coal and lum- 
ber George B. Roe & Co., J. Milnor Peck and the North 
Side Coal Company (successor to Robert Peck) share the 
trade. The book trade conducted by F. L. Prine, on 
Main street, includes as complete an assortment of 
literary, musical and artistic articles as can be found 
outside the counters of some large city house. In ice 
J. K. P. Bennett has practically a monopoly, but one 
judiciously and honestly managed. Mr. Prigge has a 
capital of $15.00° invested in the manufacture and sale 
of confectionery and ice cream, and employs four men, 
besides the saleswoman in his retail store. S. J. Hallett 
& Co. are the principal furniture dealers, and F. G. Fowler 
a prominent undertaker. The number of small stores, 
bakeries and groceries is legion. 

Industrial Establishments. 

The sash, blind and lumber-mill of J. Milnor Peck 
and the Flushing Lumber and Building Company was 
erected by Isaac Peck sen. and his son, the present 
owner, in 1851, the original intention being to supply 
a local demand for builders' fittings. In 1868 the 
present proprietor commenced, in addition, the build- 
ing of ready-made portable houses, under a new 
and improved system, which branch of the business 
is now conducted under the name of the Flushing 
Lumber and Building Company, which is understood 
to mean Mr. Peck and those interested in the patents. 
A trade in articles of this nature is always slow of estab- 
lishment, but after a severe struggle against adverse cir- 
cumstances a growing trade has been opened through 
resident agents with South Africa, the West Indies, South 
America and the Isthmus, that indicates a successful 
future for a house well worthy of it. Mr. Peck also con- 
ducts the lumber and coal business, and employs, in all 
his enterprises, about forty men. 

In 1857 George B. Roe, Charles A. Willets and Charles 
C. Hicks associated themselves together under the firm 
name of George B. Roe &: Co., for the purpose of carry- 
ing on the lumber business. At first they rented a small 
yard on the south of Bridge street, now Broadway, where 
they kept a fair assortment of building materials. They 
continued at that place eight years, when they purchased 
the property they now occupy. Two years later Mr. 
Hicks withdrew from the firm. The property of the firm 
is on Flushing Creek, with a water front of 900 feet, a 
frontage of goo feet on Lawrence street, and 160 feet on 
Broadway. The only steamboat dock in the village is on 
this property. The firm extended its business by erect- 
ing a steam mill and placing therein all kinds of wood- 
working machinery, for planing, sawing, turning and 
making scroll-work, mouldings, &c. In addition to a 
large and varied stock of all kinds of lumber, the firm 
deals largely in brick, lime, cement, plaster and stone, 
and also largely in coal for domestic purposes, handling 
more, perhaps, than is handled at any other two yards in 
the county. Messrs. Roe & Co.'s facilities for handling 
coal are very complete. The coal is elevated by steam 
some thirty feet and dumped in iron cars, which hold 
one ton each. The cars pass over a tramway, on which is 
laid a T rail. This tramway is two hundred feet long, 
with turntables to enable the cars to run in any direction. 
The coal is then dumped in large "bunkers," capable of 
holding about 15,000 tons. From a comparatively small 
beginning Messrs. Roe & Co. have built up a large and 
lucrative business. 

Messrs. George B. Roe and Charles A. Willets are 
both natives of the village and town of Flushing. Their 
ancestors for several generations have also resided there. 

The following notice of this concern is from the Trade 

'' There is little doubt in our mind that one of the most 
extensive, if not the largest coal, lumber, lime, brick and 
shingle yard on Long Island, outside the boundaries of 



the city of Brooklyn, is that of George B. Roe & Co., 
corner of Broadway and Lawrence street (ofifice No. 9 
Main street), Flushing. The operations of the firm are 
extensive and varied, and of course occupy a large space 
in the industrial interests of the handsome suburban vil- 
lage that lies at the head of Flushing Bay. A reporter 
of this paper visited Flushing a few days ago, and among 
other establishments he visited in quest of information 
for readers of the Trade Review was the yard and ofifice 
of the above firm. He was at once impressed with the 
extent and great value of its business, and on retiring 
found his note-book well filled with items of trade interest, 
of which in this article we will make liberal use. The 
firm of George B. Roe & Co. is one of the oldest in 
Flusiiing. It owns extensive properties, both on the 
water line and in the town. Its docks have a frontage 
of 900 feet, and the line of the yard has a corresponding 
length, with a depth of 140 feet. In this yard are im- 
mense coal sheds, filled with the various sizes and grades 
of coal, both hard and soft; many cords of pine,oak, 
ash and hickory wood for kindling, which are sawed and 
split on the premises, for the use of those who consume 
it in the town; a splendid planing and band saw-mill, 
where every class of moulding is made for the trade. In 
this mill turner work is also done by hand and machinery, 
and in every style that may be desired; and finally there 
are stocks of fine lumbers, lime in barrels, lath, brick 
from various well known yards, shingles in bundles, and 
additional to these tiling, and piping for draining, 
cement, and every other article needed by the carpenter 
and the mason for building or for repairing. The capital 
carried by the firm in general stock ranges from ^80,000 
to ^ In exceedingly active seasons it rises above 
the last named sum. The trade in coal, which is only 
one of the branches of the firm's business, is of itself no 
light matter. The sales average about one thousand tons 
per month. Of course the demand for coal as well as for 
kindling wood is larger at certain seasons than at others, 
but at the end of the year the wood runs into hundreds 
of cords, and the coal reaches and sometimes goes be- 
yond twelve thousand tons. Of the work of the planing 
and sawing-mill we have no special record, beyond the 
general statement that it is kept busy during the working 
hours of the day — the machinery, all of the best and most 
improved modern kinds, being driven by steam — and that 
to meet the demands of the trade a respectable number 
of hands are employed. In receiving and moving coal 
the firm has many advantages. Among the leading ones 
are ready capital, by which purchases from first hands 
can be made with the usual percentage deduction, a 
barge (the firm's property), as also the docks, yards, mills, 
etc., by which not only coal but lumber and other stock 
is floated up the bay to the wharves and then stored in 
the adjoining yard. Mr. Roe, assisted by a son, has 
charge of the out-of-door business, which of course in- 
cludes the docks, barge, yard, planing and sawing-mill 
and general stock; while Mr. Willets, with his son, has his 
field of operations in the ofifice, where orders are received 
and business details and financial transactions are en- 

tered on and concluded. An idea of the business trans- 
acted in Flushing and its immediate neighborhood by 
this firm may be obtained when we state that in average 
seasons eight carts and wagons are needed to convey coal 
and lumber to customers; and that on busy days, such as 
are liable to come to them when least expected, they have 
to go outside of the yard and employ extra assistants." 

Murray's Monumental Works, on Jaggar avenue and 
Bradford street, were established by J. F. Murray, a 
practical workman, and employ from two to four men 
in the manufacture of monuments, headstones, mantels 
and plumbers' slabs of marble or granite. 

There are several cigar shops, one of them doing a 
wholesale business. Jules E. Cartier, manufacturer of 
cigars and wholesale and retail dealer in tobaccos, es- 
tablished business here in 1875, with a capital of ^4,000. 
His store and shop is at 99 Main street. He now em- 
ploys five men, has one team on the road, and does an 
annual business of about $20,000. 

The Ireland flouring mill, situated south of the vil- 
lage limits and run by the action of the tide, is believed 
to be on the site of the old Burling mill, of the seven- 
teenth century. It has been in the hands of a branch of 
the Bowne family since 1800, at which time the present 
building was erected. It is a frame structure forty feet 
square and four stories high, and has four runs of stones. 
It is owned and operated by the Bowne Brothers, dealers 
in flour, feed and grain at 83 and 85 Broadway, Flushing. 

The Flushing Gas Light Company 

was incorporated October 6th 1855, with a cash capital 
of $20,000 and the exclusive right of supplying gas to the 
village of Flushing for twenty years. Its first ofificers 
were: James R. Lowerree, president; Gilbert Hicks, 
treasurer; Charles A. Willets, secretary. The first year's 
business of the company amounted to the putting in of 
fifty meters, supplying that number of customers; and it 
W..S not until five years later that they were able to re- 
port one hundred meters and eighteen street lamps, with 
a total of two and one half miles of street mains laid, and 
a monthly consumption of 100,000 cubic feet. The long 
distance to which pipes were laid to obtain custom, and 
the distances between the residences of patrons, rendered 
the cost of establishing a remunerative business very 
great; but the managers had a faith in the future of the 
village which was amply justified by the results, and 
continued to supply asked-for extensions, in many cases 
at a total loss for years. At one time one of the mains 
two miles long supplied but three meters. In 1868 the 
old works were replaced by the present substantial build- 
ings, with a generating capacity equal to the demand for 
many years to come; and the capital was increased to 
$41,000. The condition of the business in 1880 was as 
follows: Total length of street mains, nine miles; street 
lamps supplied, 101; private consumers, 271; monthly 
consumption, 5,110,000 cubic feet. The ofificers were: 
President, J. B. Brewster; secretary, R. S. Tucker; 
treasurer, C. A. Willets; superintendent, Dennis Sul- 




Professional Men. 

Perhaps there is no village in the United States of its 
size that can count among its residents so many profes- 
sional men as this; and to that class of brain workers it 
still offers unusual advantages, as convenient to the great 
metropolis, and yet sufificiently remote from the dirt and 
turmoil of the ?cene of daily contests to offer home in its 
best sense lo the weary votary of ambition or science. 

The earliest known physician here was Dr. Henry 
Taylor, an Englishman, at one time an ardent advocate 
of royalty. A court record of 1675 relates his complaint 
against Francis Bloodgood and Myndert and Coerter for 
seditious words. In 1707 his barns at the village were 
destroyed by fire. The term of his residence and the 
time of his death are alike unknown; but, as his name 
appears prior to 1675 and after 1707 as that of a phy- 
sician in practice, more than thirty years of his life must 
have been passed here. Very nearly cotemporaneous 
with him was the well and widely known Rodman, 
physician, minister, farmer and Friend. 

A community having in it such families as the Law- 
rences, Bownes and Bloodgoods was not at a loss for legal 
advice on the simple real estate titles of the day; but for 
some years the business of conveyancing seems to have 
been delegated to Edward Hart, the clerk of the town. 
Thomas Hicks, of Little Neck, was, with David Golden, 
of this village, engaged in the practice of law prior to the 
Revolution; and as he was of marked tory proclivities, a 
Connecticut whaleboat robbed his house one night, car- 
rying off his library, which the Yankee skipper might 
have deem.ed bad law and responsible for his ill-timed 

Of those whose birth or residence here has identified 
them with the history of the place we need only mention 
the youger Golden and Chancellor and Senator Sanford, 
who made his home here at the close of his marked pro- 
fessional and ])olitical career, and, after erecting the 
noble edifice known as Sanford Hall, died in 1837. These 
give some indications of the class of professsional men 
with whom the generation just passed away was familiar; 
while of the attorneys of to-day Hon. L. Bradford Prince, 
Judge Onderdonk, R. S. Bacon, LL. D., Robert G. 
Embree, Judge Lawrence and Messrs. Covert, Bogart, 
Downing, Van Bergen, Gibson, Johnstone, Frame, Roe, 
Treadwell, Hildreth and Van Nostrand are a few of the 
best known of Flushing's citizens " who to the law in- 
cline," and are, with but few exceptions, descendants of 
old Queens county families; many of them tracing their 
ancestry back in the town's history for five generations. 

So much cannot be said of the medical profession, as 
its practitioners are men whose term of residence here 
has not exceeded fifteen years, with the exception of Dr. 
Hicks, who has spent the greater portion of his life here, 
and attained a respectable reputation as a general prac- 
titioner. Drs. J. Howard Leven and E. A. Goodridge 
are partners, and occupy a handsome double house on 
Main street. Dr. J. Foster Maynard has an ofifice on 
Farrington street, and Dr. Badger one on Locust street. 

Dr. E. P. Lawrence, a young physician graduated in 
1879, is rapidly attaining a wide circle of patrons; a test 
of his popularity was made by his friends not long since, 
when a case of surgical instruments was to be given at a 
church fair to the most popular doctor on the island; 
although the contest was in Brooklyn, and Dr. Lawrence's 
competitors Brooklyn physicians, the prize was voted to 
him by a large majority of the votes cast. Dr. I,eggett, and 
Mrs. Dr. Leggett, who has an ofifice in New York, and Dr. 
Allen, a young homoeopathist and an ardent habitue of 
the Niantic Club and advocate of athletic exercises, com- 
plete the list of general practitioners with whose diplomas 
or claims on the profession the writer has any knowl- 

MACDONALii's Insane Asylum. 

To the list of physicians it might be well to add the 
name of Dr. J. W. Barstow, who in 1854 succeeded Dr. 
Buell as resident physician of Macdonald's private in- 
sane asylum, at Sanford Hail, and since that time has 
been in charge of it. Repeated efforts to obtain infor- 
mation relative to this institution have resulted in the 
writer's being referred to Mandeville's " Flushing." 
Taking this as a guide it is found that Dr. James Mac- 
donald and his brother Allan Macdonald, somewhat 
known in insurance circles in New York, were formerly 
owners of a private asylum on Murray hill. The doctor 
had been in the employ of the State in the care of insane 
patients at Bloomingdale, where he obtained the post of 
resident physician when only twenty-one years old. 
Before he reached the age of thirty he was sent by the 
governors of the New York Hospital as a commissioner 
to Europe to visit the various asylums and report im- 
provements with a view to their adoption at Blooming- 
dale. Every important improvement in the care and 
treatment of the insane has been forced upon our notice 
by the asylums of Europe; and even now our asylum and 
hospital authorities are making frequent use of restraints 
and relics of barbarism long since discarded by similar 
institutions in England, France and Germany. After a 
tour of inspection lasting sixteen months Dr. Macdonald 
was invited to take charge of Bloomingdale, and make a 
practical use of his discoveries. He remained there 
about four years, and in 1839 revisited Europe. On his 
return, in 1841, he, with his brother, as stated, opened 
the private asylum as a business enterprise; and finding 
a rural site better adapted for it they purchased Senator 
Sanford's country seat — a beautiful marble building said 
to have cost nearly $130,000 to erect, and set in a natural 
park of considerable extent — and to this place they re- 
moved their patients in 1845. The cost of purchasing 
and remodeling the place for its present use is not known, 
but must have been large; and tends to prove the profit- 
able character of that class of practice. Dr. Macdonald 
was evidently devoted to his profession, and conscientious 
in his care of the unfortunates to whom those marble 
halls were but the dingiest of prison cells. It is believed 
that too close application to the duties and studies of 
his position was the inciting cause of his death, which 



occurred May 5th 1849, after an illness of but three 
days. From the death of its founder the institution was 
continued by the surviving partner and the doctor's 
widow until General Macdonald's death; since which 
time a firm known as Macdonald & Company, composed 
it is believed of members of the old family, have had it 
in charge. Since i86o there are no data obtainable 
through official sources. In that year Mandeville reports 
the average number of patients treated as forty-eight. 
Dr. Barstow has remained in charge twenty-seven years, 
which would seem to indicate that his services are satis- 
factory to the owners. 

One of the most beautiful places in this beautiful vil- 
lage, Sanford Hall is also the saddest, and the writer 
would have been glad to have had it in his power to 
throw some rays of light and hope among those whose 
friends are within its walls, by the publication of tables 
showing progress made in the successful treatment of the 
various forms of mania, and that skill and good manage- 
ment were annually increasing the ratio of cures. This, 
however, is impossible; and he can only hope that in 
the near future there will come a day when the managers 
of such institutions will learn that the real cause for the 
uneasy feeling as regards them, the anxious criticism of 
laws relating to lunacy, and the dark suspicions that have 
clung to and crippled some of the best of their class, is 
the cautious manner in which they seek to prevent inter- 
course between patients and their friends except in their 
own presence, and set up obstacles to furnishing infor- 
mation to the public, which is just as much its due as 
that contained in the catalogue of a college or seminary. 

The Flushing Press. 

The first newspaper published in Flushing was the 
Church Record, the initial number being issued in 1840; 
it continued until 1844, about 3^^ years. It was 
edited by Rev. Dr. F. L. Hawks and published by C. R. 

The Flushing Jour)ial, which is published daily and 
weekly, is the oldest and largest newspaper in Flushing. 
It was started in 1842, its founder being the late Charles 
R. Lincoln. 

In 1869 and again in 1873 the y^wr/;^;;/ changed hands. 
Since the latter date it has been edited and published by 
Charles W. Smith, who has added greatly to the value 
of the concern in a business sense, as well as in the 
character and appearance of the paper itself. 

The Journal is perhaps the most widely read paper 
in Queens county, and enjoys a very large advertising 
patronage. The job printing office, which was fitted up 
expressly for the purpose, is probably not excelled outside 
of the great cities, and several publications have been 
issued from it which take equal rank with Harper's or 
Appleton's of New York. 

The Evening Journal was first published by C. W. 
Smith in 1878. Politics, Democratic. 

The Flushing Pomologist was published in 1848 by 
William R. Prince, and had but a short career. 

In 1852 the Public Voice was started by George W. 

Ralph, and in 1855 its name was changed to the Long 
Island Ti>nes. Up to September ist 1881 it continued 
to be published by Walter R. Burling, its founder, who 
also established the Flushi/ig Daily Times on September 
ist 1865. During Mr. Burling's ownership it was 
neutral in politics. On September ist 1881 the pro- 
prietorship of the Long Island Times and Flushing Daily 
Times became vested in a joint stock company under the 
name of the Long Island Times Publishing Company 
(limited), which paid ;|i 2,000 for the concern. The edi- 
torial and general management of the papers is in charge 
of George R. Crowly, who was editor for a length of 
time under the former proprietor. E. A. Allen is presi- 
dent. Captain J. W. Dixon secretary, and A. K. P. 
Dennett treasurer. It is now Republican in politics. 

The Journal of the Institute was published for about 
three years between 1855 and 1859. 

Clubs and Societies. 

The close relation sustained so long between the peo- 
ple of Flushing and the city of New York is undoubtedly 
the reason why, notwithstanding the age of the town, the 
establishment of local societies, lodges and clubs is a 
matter of recent date. 

Pacific Lodge, No. 85, /. O. O. F. — This lodge was 
chartered April 17 th 1843, and organized two days later. 
The charter members were: C. Hilton, N. G.; J. S. Clut- 
terbruck, V. G.; A. S. Wheeler, secretary; A. Winhamjr., 
treasurer; P. Stevenson. The successive noble grands 
have been as follows: 

C. Hilton, J. S. Clutterbruck, A. S. Wheeler, A. Win. 
ham jr., Thomas Trenchard, James B. Devoe, William 
Knighton, Uriah Mitchell, James Taylor, John Milburn, 
George W. Huntsman, John W. Lawrence, Garret R. 
Garrelson, Abraham Bloodgood, H. C. Smith, Henry S. 
Hover, Edward Roe, Cornelius VV. Howard, Edmund 
Howard, John H. Cornell, Charles Vandervoort, William 
Samnis, George B. Roe, William W. Balk, Charles H. 
Hedges, John M. E. Balk, Banardus Lamberson, John 
Purchase, Charles P. L. Balk, George Pople, Charles W. 
Cox, Frederick Thorp, Thomas Webb, Charles H. Miller, 
Richard Sanders. Thomas Elliott, Abram Johnson, John 
Conn, William H. Clark, George Lewis, Seahan W. Pur- 
chase, William Millne, Frederick Clages, George Fair- 
brother, George Hannett, Joseph Vedder, Charles A. S. 
Van Nostrand, Charles W. Brown, James W. Covert, 
Charles R. Baker, Henry F. Lincoln, Oscar F. Leek, 
Benjamin Byrd, William J. R. Clark, Henry A. Foreman, 
Frederick Webb, Fernando T. Whiting, James H. Samnis, 
John R. Conn, James H. Lowerree, George P. Smith, 
William C. Ellis, J. Harvey Randolph, Joseph Dyke, 
John M. Dannott, Frederick Quarterman, William E. 
Phillips, John A. Young, John R. Lawrence, Frederick 
Schmidt and Charles H. Higgins. 

The present officers of the lodge (i88i) are: Thomas 
Heasely, N. G.; John Cleater, V. G.; John A. Young, 
treasurer; James H. Lowerree, secretary; Edmund 
Howard, permanent secretary. 

Meetings are held semi-monthly in Odd Fellows' Hall, 
in the Queens County Savings Bank building. 

Ridglcy Encampment, No. 60, /. O. O. F. — Ridgley 
Encampment was chartered August 23d 1871. The 
following were the charter members ; George Pople, 



Charles W. Brown, Henry F. Lincoln, Oscar C. Leek, 
William J. R. Clark, John R. Clark, Fred. Webb and 
James H. Samnis. 

A Rifle Company was organized in January 1849. It 
belonged to the 15th regiment, and was known as the 
Hamilton Rifles. Its officers were: Captain, George B. 
Roe; first lieutenant, Henry A. Peck; second lieutenant, 
Henry S. Barto. 

The Flushing Library Association was founded in 1858 
and nurtured by the most prominent citizens of the town. 
Its second annual report showed a metmbership of three 
hundred and twenty nine and a library of 1,100 volumes. 
Its president for many years was Hon. L. Bradford 
Prince. During the early years of the association the 
secretary and librarian was selected from among its mem- 
bers, and served without pay. This was found to work 
badly and a salary was voted which has been sufficient to 
keep the office filled by a faithful and attentive librarian; 
Miss Treadwell has been acting in that capacity for a 
long time. In 1876 the library contained 4,000 volumes, 
and a well arranged and finely printed catalogue was 
issued. Some additions have been made since that date, 
sufficient to keep up with the range of thought in the 
scientific department, but the number of volumes is about 
the same. The library occupies a pleasant room on Am- 
ity street, and the fittings and book cases are in good 
tastes. The insurances amount to ^5,000. As the asso- 
ciation is not endowed, and depends almost exclusively 
on the slender membership fee of ^2 per annum, liter- 
ary and dramatic entertainments have occasionally been 
given for its benefit. Mr. E. R. Pelton, the publisher of 
the Eclectic Magazine, and for years one of the warmest 
friends of the institution, is the president of the associa- 

The Sylla Dramatic Association is the outgrowth of a 
desire to furnish the people of the place with a class of 
dramatic entertainments adapted for the family circle, 
and free from the objectionable features of professional 
plays. Its members are drawn from the best people of 
the village, and its success in accomplishing its end may 
be judged from the fact that while it always plays to well 
filled houses it requires a professional troupe of much 
more than ordinary ability to draw a paying audience 

Knig/its of Pythias. — This order is represented in 
Flushing by Oak Lodge, 166, which was instituted 
March 21st 1881, by Grand Chancellor O. M. Shedd. 
The first officers elected were: Chancellor commander, 
G. A. Roullin; vice-chancellor, G. Roskell Crowly; 
prelate, S. J. Hallet; M. of E., Frederick Schmidt; 
M. of F., A. Foster King; K. of R. and S., M. Posner; 
M. at A., R White; past chancellors, Hon. W. F. J. 
Youngs, J. F. Huss, Charles L. Van De Water; trus- 
tees, J. F. Huss, C. Fichtner, A. F. King. There 
were 17 members when the lodge was instituted and 23 
when the grand lodge granted a charter in July 1881. 
Since then the growth has been rapid, there being now 
30 members. 

The Niantic Club was organized in i860, by Morris 

Franklin, Robert Tucker, R. L. Bowne, Robert Loudon, 
W. B. Lawrence and others, its object being the encour- 
agement of social intercourse. It comprises the most 
prominent citizens of Flushing, and has of late taken a 
lively interest in the development of athletic sports. It 
had in 1880 a membership of sixty, with an athletic aux- 
iliary comprising one hundred and twenty members. In 
1878 it secured grounds comprising five or six acres, 
bounded by Jaggar and Maple avenues, Irving place and 
Division street, which were enclosed and on which a 
club-house was erected. The rooms of the club are on 
Sanford avenue at the corner of Parsons, where it has 
leased the large house formerly occupied by Mr. Graham 
of Schuyler, Hartley & Graham, New York, and adjoin- 
ing which it has built a bowling alley. Its rooms 
are furnished with all the appliances of a first-class club- 
house, and supplied with all the leading periodicals. 

The officers of the club for the year 1881 were: Morris 
Franklin, president; Robert Loudon, J. F. B. Mitchell 
and J. S. Tucker, vice-presidents; W. A. Allen, secre- 
tary; F. Elliman, treasurer. Its annual meetings occur 
on the first Friday in December, and monthly business 
meetings of the board of managers on the first Friday of 
each month. The morale of the institution is excellent 
and a membership in it is sought for by the most refined 
and intelligent citizens of Flushing. 

The Nereiis Rowing Club was organized in June 185-, 
with the following members: H. L. Bogart, H. T. Van 
Nostrand, C. H. Van Nostrand, L. E. Embree, F. L. 
Northrup, E. Bowne, L. M. Franklin, J. Burdelle, J. J. 
Thompson, R. J. Loudon, E. M. Franklin, C. A. Willets 
jr. L. M. Franklin was elected president, C. A. Willets 
secretary and E. M. Franklin treasurer. The officers for 
1880 were: President, L. M. Franklin; vice-president, R. 
S.Tucker; secretary, J. Q. Thompson; treasurer, Charles 
A. Willets; captain, John A. Walker; lieutenant, Frederick 
A. Guild. The fleet consists of one four-oared barge, 
one six, two four and two two-oared gigs, together with 
two double gigs, one four-oared shell and a number of 
single sculls, owned by individual members. The boat- 
house is on Flushing Creek, off Jackson avenue. The 
rowing course is over Flushing Bay, and on the creek in 
rough weather. The membership had increased to forty- 
nine in 1880. Articles of incorporation have been se- 
cured, and although the club is independent it is governed 
by the usual rules of amateur boating associations, and 
participates to some extent in regattas. Its business 
meetings are held monthly from April to November. 
The present captain, J. A. Walker, is a somewhat noted 
oarsman, and under his leadership the club bids fair to 
become expert in the fascinating exercise of rowing. 

A Young Men's Christian Association was organized in 
1858 and supplied with a well-selected library of religious 
works. It held weekly meetings for prayer and literary 
exercises every two weeks. Some of its members were 
active in conducting mission Sunday-schools, distributing 
tracts and encouraging attendance on religious meetings. 
Peter Gorsline was its first president. 

Cornucopia Lodge, No. 563, F. 6^ A. M. — A dispen- 



sation for the formation of this body was issued by M. W. 
Clinton F. Paige, September 12th 1864, and the lodge was 
duly warranted by the grand lodge of the State of New 
York in June 1865, and constituted by M. W. Robert D. 
Holmes, G. M., June 21st of that year. The following 
are the names of the masters and the years in which they 
were elected: C. W. Brown, 1864-67, 1873-75; L. Brad- 
ford Prince, 1868-70; J. L. Frame jr., 1869; Alexander 
Rogers, 1871; George Pople, 1872; William L. Seaman, 
1876; E. H. Frame, 1877-79; W. T. James, 1880. Past 
Masters Brown, Prince and E. H. Frame have held the 
position of district deputy grand master — the last named 
being the present incumbent. Cornucopia Lodge has 
one of the most spacious and elegant rooms in the vil- 
lage; its charities are numerous, and its public entertain- 
ments and receptions are always welcomed by the people 
of Flushing, as they have always been of the highest 
order of merit. 



It is believed that the first meetings of this body of 
believers were held in private houses at as early a date 
as 1648, although no regular organized body existed un- 
til 1660. From the erection of the old Bowne house, in 
166 1, to 1695 the meetings were held there and on the 
adjoining grounds when, as was sometimes the case, the 
crowds were too great to gain admittance to the house. 

Perhaps the most prominent members were the Town- 
send brothers, Henry and John, who removed to New- 
town and Oyster Bay within a few years, where they 
still witnessed for the faith ; the Hicks family; John 
Lawrence, who became a convert through the influence 
of his wife; John Bowne, whose exile to Holland we 
have already related; his wife, who became a well known 
and powerful preacher; the Cornells, Farringtons, Hugh 
Cowperthwaite, Matthew Franklin, and, in latter days, 
the Parsons, Roe, Cocks, and Titus families. 

The following marriage certificate will give the reader 
an idea of what families were connected with the society 
in the old time, as the families of both bride and groom 
were prominent people, and the attendance at the mar- 
riage at least fairly representative. 

"Whereas, there hath been intentions of marriage be- 
tween Richard Lawrence, son of Joseph Lawrence, and 
Hannah Bowne, daughter of Samuel Bowne, both of 
Flushing, in Queens county and province of New York ; 
now this is to certifie ye truth to all people whom it may 
concern that said Richard Lawrence and Hannah Bowne 
did propose their aforesaid intention of marriage at 
several men and women's meetings of Friends in Flush- 
ing, by whom they were ordered to wait till inquiry was 
made whether they were clear from all others on that 
account. Inquiry being made and nothing appearing to 
hinder their proceedings, the) having consent of parents 
and relations, the meeting gives them liberty to accom- 
plish their intended marriage, according to the good 
order used among us. And accordingly on this sixth day 
of ye second month, 17 17, at a meeting at the meeting- 
house in Flushing aforesaid, the said parties Richard 
Lawrence and Hannah Bowne took each other by ye 

hand, standing up in ye assembly, did solemnly declare 
they took each other to be husband and wife, promising 
with ye Lord's assistance to be true and loving husband 
and wife to each other till death separate. 

"And for further confirmation hereof they have here- 
unto set both their hand ye day and year above written, 
she taking ye name of her husband according to the 
custom of marriage. 

" Richard Lawrence. 
" Hannah Lawrence. 

"And we, whose names are under, with many others, 
are witnesses: Joseph Lawrence, Samuel Bowne, Mary 
Lawrence, Griffith Owen, John Salkeld, John Rodman, 
Hugh Copperthwaite, John Ryder, William Burling, Ed- 
ward Burling, Joshua Low, Joshua Delaplaine, John 
Hunter, George Aston, John Embre, John Lewis, Mary 
Lawrence, Mary Rodman, Mary Horn, Sarah Frankly, 
Mary Kinnin, James Jackson, Obadiah Lawrence, Joseph 
Thorne, Jacob Thorne, Thomas Horn, Jane Latham, 
Anne Bowne, Thomas Lawrence, Sarah Rodman, Franklin 
Ogden, Esther Delaplaine, Sarah Farrington, Mary 
Bowne, Elizabeth Catharine Field, Susannah Hedger, 
Mary Jackson, Robert Field, Jane L. Thorne, John 
Bowne, Elizabeth Bowne, Joshua Lawrence, Hannah 
Field, Sarah Bowne, Benjamin Potter, Rebeckah Jackson, 
John Rodman jr., Joseph Thorne, Martha Thorne, Han- 
nah Field, Deborah Lawrence, Field, Sarah Law- 
rence, Samuel Harrison, James Clement jr., Phebe J. 
Clement, Isaac Thorne, Adam Lawrence, Ann Haight, 
Benjamin Thorne, Hannah Bowne, Eleanor Bowne." 

One of the earliest large gatherings of Friends in 
Flushing is mentioned by the noted English Quaker 
Samuel Bownas. In his diary he says that he spoke to 
two thousand people on the Lord's day following his first 
arrest and while he was in the hands of the people. This 
was in 1702. 

The visit of the celebrated George Fox, in 1672, was 
an important event, and so great was the crowd that 
flocked to hear him — some coming from a distance of 
thirty miles — that the meetings were held out of doors, in 
the shade of two magnificent oaks, one of which is still 
standing, the other having been leveled by a storm in 
1842, to the grief of all lovers of old landmarks and 
relics of the past. The trees have since been known as 
the Fox oaks, and have been the subject of many essays 
and poems. Fox's visit here strengthened the hands of 
the society, and it is said to have led to some important 
accessions. In all its history the society has been rich in 
good works; among them the first effort was made to 
educate the children of the slaves. 

The written records of the Friends comprise matters 
interesting to lovers of pioneer history sufficient in 
amount to fill a large volume, but the editor can only se- 
lect from them a few of the incidents that tend to mark 
the course of the society on questions of general interest, 
and give the reader some idea of what must have been 
the influence of such an earnest, self-sacrificing body of 
men and women on the morals of the community at 

On the nth of 7th mo. 1676, John Bowne sells a par- 
cel of land for a burying place for i^^ 4s., being in the 
northwest bounds of his plantation whereon he now 
dwells, being five rods long and five broad. 

1687, 7th of 2nd mo. — Friends are to speak to Wm. 



Noble about liis selling of drink and to bring into the 
next meeting what he saith. 

1695, 2nd of nth mo. — Samuel Deane. Samuel Haight, 
]ohn Way and John Farrington are to take care that the 
advice from the Philadelphia yearly meeting relating to 
the plainness of apparel should be put in practice here. 

1700, 7th mo. — Wm. Penn visited Flushing and was 
the "uest of Samuel Bowne, who went with him on a re- 
ligious visit to Jamaica, and there disbursed on account 
of entertainment for him and other Friends the sum of 

jQi IS. 

1703, 5th of 6th mo. — A schoolmaster bemg judged 
necessary for the town of Flushing, it is thought fit that 
Samuel Hoyt and Fr. Doughty seek out for a convenient 
piece of ground upon Richard Grififin's lot upon the 
cross way, which is near the center of the town, to pur- 
chase it and build a school-house thereon for the use of 

1707,4th of loth mo. — Friends at Rocky Hill desire 
a meeting to be at James Jackson's every Third day. 
Granted; and it is to begin at 11 o'clock. 

1709, 5th of 3d mo. — Thos. Makins, schoolmaster, sig- 
nified his willingness to sit with his scholars in the meet- 
ing and take care of them, which the meeting think well 
of, and desire him as much as may be to bring all Friends! 
children with him to meeting on Fifth day, and also 
unto the meeting day appropriated for the youth's meet- 

1712, 24th of 3d mo. — The yearly meeting at Flushmg 

moved to send to Friends in Europe and offer to receive 
and take care and pay the passage of about ten persons, 
such as shall come recommended from some meeting of 
Friends there — they serving such a time as shall be ad- 
judged reasonable and equal between all parties. The 
meeting order ^19 to be lent to Jacob Doughty to pay 
for James Scriven's freedom till he shall be able to re- 
pay it. 

In 17 16 a proposition was made by Horsman Mullene.x 
concerning buying negroes for slaves, and at the next 
yearly meeting was tenderly spoken to, and postponed 
for further consideration, and in 1718, 1719 and 1720 
was still before the meeting and developing considerable 
opposition. Several Friends declared they were fully 
satisfied in their conscience said practice was not 
right in the sight of God. In 1718 William Burling, of 
this meeting, published an " Address to the Elders of 
the Church " on slavery. This is perhaps the oldest 
anti-slavery publication in the country. In 1765, 5th of 
9th month, Samuel Underbill, of New York, is dealt with 
for importing negroes from Africa. He condemns the 
practice and hopes to conduct himself more agreeable to 
Friends' principles in such matters. In 1775, 6th of 9th 
mo., " a committee is to visit such Friends as hold negro 
slaves, to inquire into the circumstances and manner of 
education of the slaves and give such advice as the nature 
of the case requires. 1776, 2nd of 5th mo., the commit- 
tee on negroes report that many Friends have them, but 
seem disposed to free them. Some have manumitted 
them, and instruct their children in necessary learning. 
Some justify their bondage. 2nd of 10 mo. the " com- 
mittee are desired to labor with Friends who keep these 
poor people in bondage, in the ability that truth may af- 
ford, for their release; and if they continue insensible, 
then Friends can have no unity with them so far as to 
employ them or accept of their services in the church or 

receive their collections. No Friend shall hire any negro 
held in bondage, neither take any negro or other slave 
that is not set free when of age, nor to do any act 
acknowledging the right of slavery." In 1778, ist of 7th 
mo., the monthly meeting conclude to testify against all 
Friends that do not free their negroes. In 1781 they de- 
cide that something is due manumitted negroes who 
have spent the prime of their life in their masters' ser- 

In 1 781 John Bowne and Matthew Farrington report 
that the fines of Friends in Flushing for not training or 
serving in the army amount to ;^i94 ns. lod. 

There is a stern, uncompromising honesty about the 
records given above that commends them as one of the 
most valuable and remarkable additions ever made to the 
literature of freedom. Not a word of bluster, no criti- 
cisms on the conduct of others, but a calm decision ar- 
rived at after fifty years of deliberation and discussion 
as to the duty of Friends " whom the truth hath made 

1692, 15th of loth mo., John Bowne and John Rod- 
man for ^40 buy three acres of land for a meeting- 
house, in the town-spot, with the dwelling and orchard 
on it, with 60 acres more lying in the woods. 

From the erection of the meeting-house, in 1695, the 
most perfect harmony existed until the Hicksite contro- 
versy, relating to matters of doctrine and the author- 
ity of the London meeting, divided the society; the be- 
lievers in Elias Hicks's views retaining the meeting-house 
and property, and the others erecting a plain frame build- 
ing a little north of the old house, and becoming known 
as the Orthodox society. This latter body was blessed 
with many excellent members, among them James Par- 
sons, who was an eloquent and impressive preacher and 
for many years president of the New York yearly meet- 
ting ; yet the defection of the rising generation has so 
far weakened them that, although they maintain their 
meetings for worship, they are too few in numbers to 
transact business as a separate church. The other body, 
known as the Hicksites, still occupies the old meeting- 


The early efforts on the part of the British governors 
to secure a foothold for the Church of England in 
Flushing were rendered, in a great measure, abortive by 
the very means taken to perfect them. The people who 
had embodied in their charter a clause that freed them 
from the authority of a State church would not consent 
to nullify that charter, although many of them felt kindly 
toward the established forms of worship of their mother 
country. Ministers from Newtown were appointed to 
the charge of this field, but uniformly found great trouble 
in executing the edicts of the governor and awakening 
any very decided interest in church matters. Too short- 
sighted to see the real cause, the blame was laid upon 
the Quakers, and, British power having been thwarted, 
British philanthropy took up the losing cause. In 1691 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 



Parts discovered in Philadelphia a missionary whom it 
deemed a power for good, in the person of Rev. George 
Keith, a native of Aberdeen, Scotland, who had been a 
Quaker, held the office of surveyor general in New Jer- 
sey, and, having abjured the faith of the Friends and 
taken orders, was then acting as a tutor to the children 
of some wealthy families in Philadelphia. He was a 
learned and able man, with a fearless and unyielding dis- 
position and more suited for the role of martyr in a per- 
secution than that of a messenger of peace and good will 
to erring Friends. The society, however, believed that, 
having belonged to the Quakers, his influence for the 
church would be great in a Quaker community, and sent 
him to Long Island in 1702, in time to meet the eminent 
Samuel Bownas, who had recently arrived from Mary- 
land, and who, after refusing to dispute with Keith, had 
been followed by him to this place. He visited the 
Friends' meeting-house on a Sunday and interrupted 
their exercises by an attempt to address them. He was 
attended at that time by Rev. Mr. Vesey, of New York, 
Rev. John Talbot and several members of the Jamaica 
church. The scene that followed must have been a 
novel one, and well worthy of an artist's pencil. In his 
own words : " After some time of silence I began to 
speak, standing up in the gallery where their speakers 
use to stand when they speak; but I was so much inter- 
rupted by the clamour and noise that several of the 
Quakers made that I could not proceed." The Friends 
who had been familiar with his course charged him with 
having caused the arrest of their missionary, Bownas, and 
declined to hear him, but did listen to an address from a 
member of their own society for about an hour. A discus- 
sion followed, in which he says that he was charged with 
defrauding the poor of fifty pounds. The Friends' version 
of this is that he was warned by one of them that he was 
"liable in law for disturbing them, and that he had thus 
put himself in the Queen's debt fifty pounds." 

In December of the same year he renewed his efforts, 
and he says; "I visited again the Quaker meeting at 
Flushing, Long Island, having obtained a letter from 
Lord Cornbury to two justices of peace to go along with 
me to see that the Quakers should not interrupt me as 
they had formerly done; but, notwithstanding the two 
justices that came along with me to signify my Lord 
Cornbury's mind, by his letter to them, which was read 
to them in their meeting by Mr. Talbot, they used the 
like interruption as formerly, and took no notice of my 
Lord Cornbury's letter more than if it had been from any 
private person." Thus his efforts were again unsuccess- 
ful. It is not known that he made any further attempt to 
establish a church here; and during the following year 
he returned to England, becoming rector of Edburton, 
where he died. 

In 1704 Rev. Mr. Urquhart, of Jamaica, writes that he 
" preaches on the third Sunday, and prays at Newtown 
twice and Flushing once a month on the week days, and 
by the blessing of God the congregations in the respec- 
tive towns daily increase." 

Rev. C. Congreve, in his report to the society above 

named for the same year in which RectorUrquhart's hope- 
ful message is written, takes another view of the case. 
He says: " Flushing is another town in the same county; 
most of the inhabitants thereof are Quakers, who rove 
through the country from one village to another, talk 
blasphemy, corrupt the youth, and do much mischief." 

In July 1 7 10 Rev. Thomas Poyer became rector of the 
Jamaica church. He writes that his parish is fifteen 
miles long and six and a half broad, and his salary 
thirty-nine pounds sterling. This was paid to the Presby- 
terian minister,and expensive and tedious lawsuits resulted. 
He complains to the society at home that he is necessi- 
tated to keep two horses, "which is very expensive, and 
consumes me more clothes in one year than would serve 
another, who is not obliged to ride, for three or four. In 
Newtown and Flushing, for want of conveniences of pri- 
vate houses I am forced to make use of public ones, 
which is a very great charge to me, for I bring some of 
my family generally with me. If I did not they would be 
one-half the year without opportunities of public wor- 
ship." He finally asked to be relieved and allowed to 
return to England. He, however, remained until his 
death, January 15th 1731, and in his twenty years' min- 
istry found his way to the hearts of a number of the 
most prominent people of Flushing. Rev. Thomas Col- 
gan, who succeeded him, writes in 1735: "Several of the 
Quakers of Flushing do as often as it is my turn to 
officiate there attend upon divine service." In 1744: 
" The several churches belonging to my cure, Jamaica, 
Newtown and Flushing, are in a very peaceable and 
growing state." The services at this village were held in 
the old guard-house; but in 1746 Captain Hugh Went- 
worth, who had a country seat here, donated to the 
church a plot of ground, and a small frame building with 
a spire was erected. John Aspinwall and Thomas Gre- 
nell are credited with defraying the expense of the spire, 
and Mr. Aspinwall presented the church with " a very 
fine bell of five hundred pounds' weight." The number 
of communicants was then about twenty, and the date of 
the organization was probably about 1744, but of that 
there is no record. The Bible given by the home society, 
at the request of Rector Colgan, a prayer book, dated 
1746, and the chancel rail of the old building are now in 
possession of the rector. 

In 1749 the rector relates a somewhat remarkable inci- 
dent: " It may be thought worthy of notice that a man 
who had for many years strictly adhered to the principles 
of Quakerism, when the new church was opened and a 
collection made, gave money for the use of the church; 
but, thinking he had not put enough in the plate, went 
immediately after service and gave more to the collect- 
or." Mandeville in his " Flushing, Past and Present " 
remarks, in a cynical mood, for which his cloth is a suffi- 
cient excuse: "A thousand pities that he had not told 
his name; that such an example of liberality in sentiment 
and purse might have been perpetuated for the benefit of 
succeeding generations." 

In 1761 a charter of incorporation, under the name of 
St. George's Church, was granted by Governor Golden. 



The petitioners were John Aspinwall, Joseph Bovvne, 
Francis Brown, Charles Cornell, John Dyer, Isaac 
Doughty, Benjamin Fowler, Thomas Grenell (Grinnell '), 
Joseph Haviland, Foster Lewis, John Morrell, Jacamiah 
Mitchell, John Marston, Christopher Robert, Daniel 
Thorn, Jacob Thorn, Nathaniel Tom, William Thorn, 
Benjamin Thorn, Charles Wright and John Wilson. In 
their petition they say that they have no minister of their 
own; that divine service is seldom performed, as there 
is but one minister for Jamaica, Newtown and Flushing; 
that they have erected a decent church, and intend to 
provide for the support of a clergyman. 

It will be noticed that among the above names are 
several of marked Quaker antecedents. This may be 
explained in this way: The French war had aroused the 
patriotism of the people, and the call for troops found 
many willing to respond, or at least disposed to furnish 
substitutes; the young men particularly were enthusiastic. 
The measures taken by the Quakers, who insisted on 
entire neutrality and the strictest interpretation of their 
noncombative theory, put them in an unpleasant posi- 
tion. They must either forego their ideas of patriotism 
and submit to heavy fines for not training in the militia, 
or withdraw from the society and find some church 
militant where they could both " worship God and keep 
their powder dry." The latter alternative was taken by 
several, and to this is attributable, in a great measure, the 
fact alluded to. 

From 1795 to 1797 there was a controversy between 
the three churches about the arrangement of services; 
and in 1797 St. George's church called to its pastorate 
Rev. E. D. Rattoone — Jamaica uniting in the call. This 
gentleman resided midway between Flushing and Ja- 
maica, and was dependent for his support on the interest 
of ^900 and the pledge of ^100 additional if it could be 
raised. He presented to the church its present corporate 
seal, but was afterward repaid by the vestry. In 1802 
Mr. Rattoone resigned, and, a disagreement arising be- 
tween this church and that at Jamaica, owing to the 
latter soliciting and obtaining subscriptions from the 
members of St. George's, this church decided to separate 
from Jamaica and unite with Newtown in the support of 
a pastor. In 1803 the two churches called Rev. Abra- 
ham L. Clark, who continued to officiate for both until 
October 3d 1809, when he confined his services to New- 
town, and the pulpit of St. George's was vacated, to be 
filled on November 4th of that year by Rev. Brazilla 
Buckley, who thus became the first sole rector of this 
church, and he remained so until his death, March 9th 
1820. In August of that year Rev. J. V. E. Thorne was 
called, and a new church building was agreed upon. 
James Bloodgood, Thomas Phillips and Isaac Peck were 
the building committee, and on May 25th 182 1 the edi 
fice, now standing in the rear of the church and used for 
school purposes, was consecrated. 

The list of rectors from that time to the present is as 
follows: Rev. W. A. Muhlenberg, D. D., called in 1826; 
Rev. W. H. Lewis, D. D., called in 1829; Rev. J. M. 
Forbes, 1833; Rev. S. R. Johnson, 1834; Rev. R. B. Van 

Kleek, 1835; Rev.Frederick Goodwin, 1837; Rev. George 
Burcher, 1844, and died in May 1847; and Rev. J. Car- 
penter Smith, D. D., called in 1847, and still the faithful 
and untiring pastor, whose life here has been eloquent of 
good works. For some years he has been assisted by a 

In 1838 the church was enlarged, at a cost of $1,700, 
and in 1853 the corner stone of the present imposing 
edifice was laid. The building is of dark cut stone and 
cost some $33,000. Isaac Peck, Allan Macdonald and 
William H. Schemerhorn were the building committee. 
It was completed and consecrated in June 1854. 

The grounds and churchyard on Main street have been 
in possession of the society since 1746, and the old bell 
presented by John Aspinwall was on the erection of the 
new church remelted and incorporated in the new one 
now in use, at the expense ot a descendant of Mr. As- 


The first Methodist church in the town was organized 
among the colored people, in 181 1, known as the Mace- 
donian Church, and supplied by white preachers until 
1816, when it became connected with the African M. E. 

At that time there were no white Methodists in the 
town; and it is said of Rev. Benjamin Griffin, who was 
junior preacher on the Jamaica circuit in 1815, that when 
he preached at Flushing he was accommodated with food 
and lodging by the colored people. 

The first Methodist minister that preached to a con- 
gregation of white people was Rev. Samuel Cochran, who 
in 1820 addressed an audience of twelve persons in a 
dwelling house on Liberty (now Lincoln) street, east of 
Garretson's seed stores. The nucleus was thus formed 
of a society that afterward worshiped at a private house 
on Main street, and in 1821 in a school-room. 

The first white Methodist family of which we have any 
account was composed of William, James and Jane Quan- 
tock, from England, as it was in their house, on Lincoln 
street, that the first meeting was held. Gold Silliman 
soon after came here from Brooklyn, and proved an ac- 
tive member many years. Charles and William Peck ar- 
rived from New York, and by their zeal and efficiency 
gave great encouragement to the little class. 

In 1822 the society bought two lots on Washington 
street and erected a frame building, in which it wor- 
shiped until 1843, when a new church was built on Main 
street, north of Washington. In 1859, when Rev. J. L. 
Peck was pastor, the building was repaired, a tower erect- 
ed, an organ bought, and other improvements effected, 
at a cost of $4,500. In order to obtain a more commo- 
dious and central location the church building was re- 
moved to its present site on Amity street in 1875, when 
it was rededicated, Revs. L. R. Dashiell, D.D., and J. S. 
Willis assisting. There is no record of either of the for- 
mer dedicatory services. 

In 1823 Rev. Luman Andrews was appointed to the 
" mission on the west end of Long Island," and out of 



this mission Flushing circuit was organized August 14th 
1824. The persons present at the quarterly meeting at 
which this action was taken, which was held at the resi- 
dence of Charles VV. Carpenter, were Rev. Laban Clark, 
presiding elder; J. Luckey and J. W. Lefevre, circuit 
preachers; C. W. Carpenter, local preacher; Charles 
Peck and Joseph Harper, class leaders; and Daniel 
North. The circuit was composed of Flushing, New- 
town, Hallet's Cove, Williamsburgh, Yellow Hook and 
New Utrecht. The financial report of this meeting shows 
that the " quaterage and traveling expenses " paid the 
presiding elder and circuit preachers for the previous 
three months amounted to $30.36, which was one cent 
in excess of the receipts. 

The following year the circuit paid $134.92 salary to 
Rev. Robert Seney, whose son has recently made gifts to 
Wesleyan University, and toward founding a Methodist 
hospital in Brooklyn, of more than half a million of dol- 

In 1834 the Flushing church separated from the circuit 
and became a station, with Rev. Alexander Hulin as its 
first resident pastor. Charles Peck was the first class 
leader and William Peck the first steward. Caleb Smith 
was appointed class leader in 1838, and has held the 
office continuously since that time. The singing was 
first conducted by Samuel Post, whose brother William 
was for more than thirty years the chorister. Instrumental 
music met with some opposition, and the first melodeon 
was placed in the church gallery near midnight on Satur- 
day, in order to obtain a test of its availability before 
some indignant opponent could prevent it. 

The Sunday-school was first held on Saturday after- 
noon and consisted of a small class taught by Miss Han- 
nah Peck, afterward the wife of Joseph W". Harper, of 
Harper & Brothers. William Peck was superintendent 
many years. The school attained its greatest interest 
.and membership during the superintendency of Orange 
Judd, who was elected in 1858 and served fourteen years. 

Since becoming a station this church has had pastors 
as follows: 1834, Alexander Hulin; 1835, David Plumb; 
1836, John L. Gilder; 1837, 1838, William Thatcher; 
1839, Daniel Wright; 1840, George Brown; 1841, Elbert 
Osborn; 1842, John J. Matthias; 1843, 1844, Benjamin 
Griffin; 1845, 1846, D. Osborn; 1847, J. W. B. Wood; 
1848, 1849, J. B. Mervine; 1850, Samuel W. Law; 185 1, 
Abraham S. Francis; 1852, 1853, Ira Abbott; 1854, 1855, 
W. F. Collins; 1856, 1857, T. H. Burch; 1858, 1859, J. 
L. Peck; i860, i86r, E. L. Janes; 1864, 1865, Horace 
Cooke; 1866-68, G. R. Crooks; 1869-71, G. Taylor; 
1872-74, W. H. Simonson; 1875, 1876, George Stillman; 
1877, 1878, Levi P. Perry; 1879, Arvine C. Bowdish; 
1880, Robert W. Jones. 

ST. Michael's roman catholic church. 

In October 1826 the Catholics of Flushing, then only 
twelve in number, invited the Rev. Father Farnham, of 
Brooklyn, to come and minister to them. He complied, 
and the first mass was celebrated in a small house on 
Main street. Their numbers increased gradually until 

too great for their place of meeting, and a larger house, 
on Liberty street, was bought and fitted up, where ser- 
vices were held once a month by Father Curran,- of As- 
toria. This building, after being twice enlarged, proved 
insufficient to accommodate the increasing congregation; 
and on the 8th of June 1841 four lots were bought on the 
corner of Union street and Madison avenue, where the 
church now stands; and a frame church seventy-two by 
thirty-five feet was erected. The building of the church 
brought considerable acccessions to the numbers of the 
congregation, and at the request of the people Bishop 
Hughes sent Father Wheeler to minister here; he thus 
becoming the first resident priest. After a few years he 
was succeeded by Rev. Joh.i McMahon. 

In 1854 the church, a slightly built edifice, became too 
dilapidated to be enlarged to meet the demands of a still 
growing assembly, and a new and more elegant building 
was decided on. The Rev. James O'Burne, who was 
at that time the pastor, took the matter in charge, and 
was aided by the heartiest efforts of all his people. The 
corner stone was laid on the 24th of June 1854, and on 
the following Christmas day the building was so near 
completion that mass was celebrated within its walls. 
The work from that date progressed slowly, assisted by 
munificent gifts from many ladies and gentlemen of dif- 
ferent denominations, and on the 4th of October 1856 it 
was dedicated by Bishop Loughlin, of Brooklyn. 

The church is a beautiful gothic structure of cut stone, 
and is the most costly church building in the town. 

St. Michael's parochial school was organized August 
ist 1853, under the patronage of the pastor. Father 
.McMahon. It had its origin in the objection of Catholic 
parents to having their children learn the Protestant 
Scriptures, which were read in the public schools. A 
meeting was held, a school decided on, and in a few 
weeks funds were raised for the erection of a building, 
from which has grown the handsome edifice accommo- 
dating the successful school of to-day. In 1858 the at- 
tendance was more than three hundred daily, and three 
teachers were employed, the school being entirely free to 
all. In 1880 the attendance was larger and the school 
was in every sense a success. 


The Protestant Reformed Dutch, now known as the 
Reformed, Church is of comparatively recent origin. 
The history of this denomination is somewhat analogous 
to that of the Episcopal church in its early efforts and 
failures. As is well known, it was the State church of 
Holland, and Governor Stuyvesant's attempts to establish 
it here have already been referred to. About the year 
1645 Rev. Francis Doughty — who had left England on 
account of religious persecutions, and, coming to New 
England, found, as he expressed it, that he had " got out 
of the frying-pan into the fire " — was banished from Mas- 
sachusetts on account of his religious vagaries, and be- 
came the minister at Vlissingen. In a report to the 
classis of Amsterdam " Dominies Megapolensis and 
Drisius say in 1657 at Flushing they heretofore had a 




Presbyterian preacher, who conformed to our church, but 
many of them became endowed with divers opinions, and 
it was with \.\\txn (]uot homines, tot sentcntiae. They ab- 
sented themselves from preaching, nor would they pay 
the preacher his promised stipend." On June loth 1645 
the record contains the following: " William Gerritse 
sings libelous songs against the Rev. Francis Doughty, 
for which he is sentenced to be tied to the May-pole." 
In 1653 or 1654 the Rev. Mr. Doughty appears against 
William and John Lawrence, John Hicks and Captain 
Underbill for back salary. Underbill, who was nothing 
if not quarrelsome, had locked the church doors against 
him, because, as he said, Doughty preached against the 
government. Underbill about that time had inaugurated 
a little private rebellion of his own against his Knicker- 
bocker rulers. The defense to the action was that Gov- 
ernor Stuyvesant had forced the town to sign the call to 
Doughty against the wishes of the people. The contract 
for salary had been burned a year before the trial, by 
Mrs. William Lawrence, who with a woman's habitual 
disregard for business papers (a trait she must have been 
cured of when as Lady Carteret she afterward became 
acting governor of New Jersey) had put it under a pie in 
the oven. Disheartened and financially embarrassed. 
Doughty left Flushing for Virginia, but left a son behind 
him, who in 1766 brought his father's suit against the 
town to a successful issue, and obtained a verdict of 
six hundred guilders in payment of six years' salary. 

Dominie Doughty was undoubtedly the first religious 
teacher in the place. He removed to Virginia in 1656; 
was said to have been imbued with some peculiar doc- 
trines and opposed to infant baptism. His family, the 
descendants of a son and daughter who married here, 
were afterward for many years identified with the Qua- 
kers, and the ancestors of a large and widely scattered 
family of that name. 

From the time of Doughty's departure there is no 
record of his place having been filled by any resident 
preacher; and it seems probable that during the re- 
mainder of the Knickerbocker administration preaching 
was supplied by preachers from Newtown and Jamaica, 
at which points churches had been erected. 

For nearly two hundred years a total blank occurs in 
the history of the denomination here. The arm of flesh 
failed to uphold the church, and it was not until the 
names of the old bigoted Knickerbockers had been lost 
to history that a successful effort was made to found a 
Reformed church in Flushing. Rev. William R. Gordon, 
of Manhasset, commenced holding services about the 
year 1841 in a hall on Bridge street, and in 1842 he or- 
ganized a chuch of six members. Soon afterward Mr. 
Gordon was induced to become its pastor. Services were 
held in a school room on Church street, with an increas- 
ing congregation, until 1845, when Gardner G. Howland 
and William Henry Roe were appointed a building com- 
mittee, and the church edifice was erected, at a cost of 
$12,000. It is pleasantly located at the corner of Prince 
and Washington streets, and is built of cut stone, which 
was brought from Blackwell's Island. The tower con- 

tains a fine bell (which is also used for a fire alarm) and 
the town clock. In the spring of 1859 the church was 
enlarged and repaired, and an organ built, at an expense 
of 03, 000. The lecture room is a neat building on a lot 
adjoining the church. 

In 1850 Mr. Gordon resigned and removed to New 
York, and after remaining vacant for nearly eighteen 
months the puljMt was filled by Rev. G. Henry Mande- 
ville, who accepted the pastorate July 28th 1851. Dur 
ing a term of eight years' service Mr. Mandeville was 
instrumental in largely increasing the membership and 
strength, and in his hours of leisure pre]:iared, and after 
ward published, a breezy little volume entitled "Flush- 
ing, Past and Present," to which the present writer is 
indebted for much of the material used in this historical 
sketch of the town. In August 1859 he removed to New- 
burgh, N. Y., and in September following Rev. W. W. 
Halloway was called and settled as pastor. 


The movement which resulted in the organization of 
the First Congregational Church of Flushing began in a 
meeting which was held in the chapel of the Flushing In- 
stitute, January 23d 185 1. At this meeting it was unan- 
imously voted that it was "expedient to unite in a 
new organization for the public worship of God." This 
conviction was reaffirmed at a meeting held at the house 
of D. S. Williams February i8th of the same year; and 
at this meeting a committee, consisting of D. S. Wil- 
liams, S. A. Smith and B. L. Fowler, was appointed "to 
take iniatory steps for the organization of a (new and 
independent) church, and to draw up a confession of 
faith, covenant, and standing rules for its government, 
to be reported at a future meeting of those who propose 
10 unite with it." 

The denominational complexion of the new organiza- 
tion was determined April 4th, and steps were taken to 
secure a place for holding worship. The union school- 
house on Church street was rented and fitted up for this 
purpose, and on April 20th the first religious services 
were held, the Rev. Charles Parker, of New York, offi- 

The articles of faith, the covenant, the form of admis- 
sion, and the standing rules were adopted at various 
meetings held during the months of May and June, and 
on June 9th a committee was appointed " to invite the 
attendance of a council of ministers and relegates to or- 
ganize a Congregational church," if it should be deemed 
expedient. Pursuant to the invitation a council convened 
at the union school-house Tuesday July ist 185 i. Rev. 
D. C. Lansing, D.D., was chosen moderator, and Wil- 
liam C. Oilman scribe. After listening to the report of 
the committee appointed by those who proposed to enter 
the new organization, and examining the confession of 
faith and covenant, the council signified approval of the 
action taken, and assigned the public services of recog- 
nition as follows: Introductory prayer, reading of Scrip- 
tures and sermon. Rev. George B. Cheever, D.D.; read- 
ing the articles of faith and the covenant, and co:istitut- 



ing prayer, Rev. D. C. Lansing, D.D.; fellowship of the 
-churches. Rev. R. S. Storrsjr.; address to the church 
■and concluding prayer, Rev. Henry Ward Beecher; bene- 
diction by the moderator. Rev. Dr. Lansing. On the 
-saine evening those who had applied for admission to 
"Tnembership in the new organization, and whose applica- 
tions had been approved, publicly assented to the articles 
of faith and the covenant, and were received to member- 
ship. The church, as thus constituted, consisted of 
■eighteen members, as follows: Robert B. Parsons, John 
B. Holmes and Richard Cornell, received on profession 
-of faith; Scoville D. Foote, Mrs. Martha W. Foote, Ben- 
jamin L. Fowler, Mrs. Jane S. Fowler, Gilbert G. Weeks, 
Mrs. Cornelia M. Weeks, John Fowler, Mrs. Letitia Ann 
Fowler, S. Addison Smith, Mrs, Mary E. Holmes. Mrs. 
Nellopee C. Rickey, by letters from the Reformed Dutch 
■church at Flushing ; Jeremiah De Graff and Mrs. Caro- 
line De Graff, by letter fro'm the Presbyterian church of 
Newtown; David S. Williams and Mrs. Phila A. Williams, 
'by letter from the Broadway Tabernacle Congregational 
-church, New York city. 

The ordinance of the Lord's Supper was celebrated for 
the first time September 7th 1851, Rev. Joshua Leavitt, 
■of New York, officiating. 

The first board of officers was as follows: Deacons, 
Thomas F. Harrison, John Fowler; clerk, David S. Wil- 
liams; treasurer, Benjamin L. Fowler; prudential com- 
•mittee, Richard Cornell, S. Addison Smith, Robert B. 
Parsons. Mr. Harrison resigned soon after his election, 
•and at the first annual meeting, April 2rst 1852, Gilbert 
■«G. Weeks was chosen in his stead. 

On the 9th of September 185 1 the congregation met 
-and organized a religious society in accordance with the 
laws of the State, under the corporate name of " The 
•First Congregational Society of Flushing, L. I." The 
following persons were elected trustees: Robert B. Par- 
sons and John Rickey for one year, Thomas F. Harrison 
and Rufus Leavitt for two years, Edward Roe and David 
S. Williams for three years. 

The first pastor was Rev. Charles O. Reynolds, of East 
Hartford, Conn., who was ordained October 28th 1851, 
and dismissed by council September 5th 1854. His suc- 
cessors have been as follows: Rev. S. Bourne, of Hart- 
ford, ordained December 6th 1859; Rev. Henry T 
Staats, of Princeton, ordained February ist i860, dis 
missed by council October 26th i860. After Mr. Staats's 
resignation Rev. P. M. Bartlett supplied the pulpit si.x- 
teen months, from January 1861 to May 1862. Rev. 
Henry H. McFarland was ordained June i6th 1863, and 
was dismissed by mutual council April 24th 1866. Rev. 
John A. French was engaged as stated supply in Sep- 
tember 1866, and ministered about two years. Rev. 
Martin L. Williston began his labors in June 1869, was 
ordained March 3d 1870, and dismissed by council May 
7th 1872. Rev. Albert C-. Reed was called in June 1873, 
installed October 30th 1873, and dismissed by council 
April 3d 1878. Rev. James O. Averill, the present in- 
cumbent, was ordained June 17th 1879. He has preached, 
as stated supply, since January 19th 1879. 

The first church building was erected on the east side 
of Union street, near what is now Washington street, and 
adjoining the present primary school building. Work 

was begun upon it about the ist of December 185 1, and 
it was dedicated January 29th 1852. Its seating capacity 
was about 275, and its cost about ^800. This first edi- 
fice was subsequently removed to its present location on 
Lincoln street, in the rear of the church, and it is now 
used as a chapel and Sunday-school room. 

The large and commodious edifice in which the church 
now worships was built in 1856, on the southwest corner 
of Bowne avenue and Lincoln street, on ground presented 
to the society by the Messrs. Parsons. The auditorium 
is 75 by 55 feet, and has a seating capacity of about five 
hundred. The building and its furniture are valued at 

A Sabbath-school was established soon after the or- 
ganization of the church, and it has been steadily main- 
tained ever since. D. S. Williams was the first superin- 
tendent, and for twelve years or more he was annually 
elected to that office, until failing health compelled him 
to relinquish it. R. B. Parsons is the present superin- 
tendent. There are about one hundred names on the 
rolls of the school, and the average attendance is eighty. 
There is a small but well selected library of Sunday- 
school books, and a parish library of one hundred and 
fifty volumes. The Sabbath-school meets at 9 o'clock 
every Sabbath morning. 


This body was organized January 17th 1857, two hun- 
dred years after the first attempt to instill the doctrines 
of the denomination here and the first act of persecu- 
tion, which the colonial records relate as follows: " In 
1656 William Wickendam, a cobbler from Rhode Island, 
came to Flushing, and began to preach, and went with 
the people into the river and dipped them. For this he 
was fined ^100, and ordered to be banished. As he was 
poor and had a family the fine was remitted. Hallet, the 
sheriff, had dared to collect conventicles ,in his house, 
and had permitted Wickendam to preach and administer 
the sacraments, though not called thereto by any eccle- 
siastical authority. For this he was removed from office 
and fined ^50. 

Wickendam, who was a personal friend of Roger Wil- 
liams, submitted to his sentence, and the interest that 
had been awakened died out or was absorbed by the 
Quaker revivals of the time; and, strange as it may seem 
to those who know the fearless zeal and untiring mission- 
ary spirit of this denomination, no attempt to organize 
seems to have been made prior to the date first given 
above. The first meetings of the church were held in the 
school-rooms of a Miss Hammond, and in 1857 a neat 
little church was erected at the junction of Jamaica and 
Jaggar avenues. Rev. Howard Osgood was the first 


at what is known as " the head of the Vleigh," was 
built in 1858, Thomas Whitson donating the land and 
Mrs Mary Pell subscribing the largest part of the cost of 
its erection. It has been occupied by a union Sunday- 
school and for mission services by the clergymen of dif- 
ferent denominations from the adjacent villages. During 
the winter of 1880-8 1 Rev. J. W. Smith, of Jamaica, held 
services there. 




Robert M. Bell is a son of Richard and Rachael 
(Moore) Bell, and is of Irish extraction on his father's 
side; his mother was a Quakeress. 

Mr. Bell was born about six miles west of Port De- 
posit, in Cecil county, Md., March 3d 1807. Orphaned 
at the age of ten, by the death of his father, Robert went 
to live, with his mother, at Sadsbury, Lancaster county, 
Pa., and remained there and with other relatives in the 
vicinity until 1824, when he was induced to take charge 
of the farm of his uncle, Abram Bell, in the town of 
Flushing, Long Island, of which a small part of Mr. 
Bell's present farm formed a portion. December 19th 
1832 Mr. Bell married Miss Catharine H. Lawrence, a 
sister of Cornelius, Joseph and Richard Lawrence, who 
were all at one time prominent and influential citizens of 
New York, who died January 7th 1880. 

Mr. Bell has two children, a son and a daughter, 
named respectively Ricluird M. and Lillie, the latter 
now the wife of Mr. John W. Ahles, a member of the 
Produce Exchange of New York. Richard M. Bell 

married Miss Julia Black, of Mt. Holly. N. J., whose 
father was for six years president of the Mt. Holly Bank. 
Left early, in a measure, on his own resources, Mr. 
Bell learned that self-reliance which, combined with 
accurate judgment, energy, perseverance and a wise ad- 
ministration of business affairs, has enabled him to carve 
out his own fortune successfully, and to stand at the 
present time among the best known and most respected 
of Flushing's citizens. In 1830 Mr. Bell bought the old 
Lawrence farm, consisting of 160 acres, which, together 
with other lands and property, constitutes his estate. 
Upon the marriage of his son he provided an ample 
homestead from the paternal property for him and his. 
In all matters of local public interest Mr. Bell has ever 
been prominent, and has always aided with his time, 
judgment and means all efforts for the benefit of his 
townsmen. His home, which is located in one of the 
pleasantest spots in the town of Flushing, is presided 
over by a sister of his late wife, who supplies, as far as 
may be, the place of her who has gone to her reward. 




VIC-. .^-^ ^'-^ 



Major Roemer's Battery. 

The Flushing Guards was the first uniformed military 
organization in the town. It was commissioned as light 
infantry, and attached to the old 93d regiment as a flank 
company November ist 1839. Its first parade, January 
i6th 1840, turned out twenty-six uniforms. Attaining a 
high degree of discipline, its designation was changed in 
1843 to artillery; and in June 1845 to light horse artil- 
lery and it was attached to Storm's famous ist brigade, 
in which it took high rank. The brilliant movements of 
the battery attracted the attention of the general in com- 
mand, and its parades called together the most celebrated 
tacticians of the Stale, who styled it " the incomparable," 
and gave it the name of Bragg's battery — the hero of 
Buena Vista not then having become a traitor to his flag. 
At the outbreak of the Mexican war the battery, eager to 
prove that its members were not carpet knights, volun- 
teered its services, but they were not needed. A time 

was to come, however, when the test of soldierly qualities 
was to be fully and severely made. 

The first captain was Charles A. Hamilton. On his 
promotion he was succeeded by William O. Mitchell, 
and he by Thomas L. Robinson, who was in command 
when the late war broke out. The battery soon aban- 
doned the name by which outsiders had christened it, 
and adopted that of the old commander, by which it was 
known for some years. 

Responding to the call of President Lincoln for three 
years' troops the Hamilton Light Artillery was recruited 
to its full complement early in June 1861, and 156 men, 
under Captain T. L. Robinson, First Lieutenant Jacob 
Roemer, Second Lieutenant Standish, Third Lieutenant 
Hamilton and Fourth Lieutenant Rowelle, marched to 
Washington, where in the spring of 1862 the battery was 
reorganized: Lieutenant Roemer becoming its captain. 
Lieutenant Rowelle first lieutenant, Standish second 
lieutenant, Cooper third and Heasely fourth; and the bat- 




tery was attached to the 2nd N. Y. light artillery as Bat- 
tery L, and assigned to duty in the loth army corps. 
The first engagement of the command was at Cedar 
Mountain, August 9th 1862, in which six of the horses 
were shot. On the 29th and 30th days of the same month 
occurred the memorable battle of Manassas, or the sec- 
ond Bull Run, as it is sometimes called. During the first 
day Battery L sustained no losses; but on the second the 
left wing of the Union army was driven in by a charge 
and during a hot engagement, lasting but about five 
minutes, 56 rounds were fired, Captain Roemer and thir- 
teen men were wounded — one mortally — and twenty 
horses killed. The next trial of the metal of this battery 
was at Antietam, September i6th and 17th 1862, when it 
supported the infantry who charged the Antietam bridge, 
and lost two men wounded and three horses killed. 
After this decisive victory the battery was assigned to 
duty with the 9th corps, and for twenty-seven days was 
stationed on picket duty before Fredericksburg; on the 
nth and 12th of December it sustained a sharp engage- 
ment, in which one man was killed and two were wounded. 
After that date the corps fell back to Falmouth Heights, 
and went into winter quarters. On February 5th 1863 
the corps struck tents and, marching to Acqua Creek, 
embarked for Newport News. After a stay there of 
three weeks it was ordered to Baltimore, and from thence 
sent to Lexington, Ky., to join the army of the Ohio, 
under Burnside. After three weeks the corps started in 
pursuit of Mosby, following him through Winchester, 
Stanford, Crab Orchard and Huckman's, back to Lexing- 
ton, and on the 3d of June marched for Vicksburg, where 
it arrived'on the i8th, taking position on Haines's Bluff. 
On the 4th of July occurred the memorable surrender of 
Vicksburg, and immediately afterward this battery was sent 
to Jackson, Miss., where with the gih corps it took posi- 
tion on the nth, bombarding that city for six days, when 
it was abandoned by the enemy. The next movement was 
a return to Lexington, and an advance to the Cumber- 
land Gap, the taking of which and the march to Knox- 
ville were without incidents of especial interest. After 
the capture of Knoxville commences a thrilling chapter 
in the history of this battery. 

The next movement of the army of Burnside was di- 
rected againt Johnston's advance, and the 9th and 24th 
corps were marched to Blue Springs, where a sharp en- 
gagement, without decisive results, was sustained, Battery 
L suffering a loss of but one man wounded. Moving to 
Loudon the army was ordered into winter quarters, 
which were, however, disturbed three days later by the 
advance of the rebel army. Meanwhile the time of the 
men's enlistment had expired, and the battery re-enlisted 
in the veteran corps as an independent organization of 
light artillery. Longstreet's advance drove them back to 
Knoxville, in a series of sharp encounters, during which 
the battery was almost constantly engaged, and Captain 
Roemer was on horseback five successive days and nights 
without sleep. Hotly pressed by the foe, the Union 
forces had but little time to prepare for the defense of 
Knoxville before the rebel batteries commenced the 

bombardment. Completely exhausted by the severe 
struggles of the last five days, when the streets of that 
city were reached and the order to halt was given the 
troops lay down in the ranks and slept two hours. They 
were then awakened and the meagre force employed to 
the best advantage to protect the important stronghold 
against the attack of four times their number, composed 
of the flower of the rebel army, flushed with victory and 
headed by their most popular and bravest leader. Bat- 
tery L took position on East Tennessee College Hill, 
overlooking a redoubt, afterward named Fort Sanders. 
For twelve days the siege was continued, with famine 
staring the men in the face — only one-fourth of a pound 
of bread being given to each man. Five thousand horses 
and mules were driven out of the city and abandoned, 
and to the rest three or four ears of corn apiece were 
doled out daily. Charges and counter charges filled the 
history of the working hours of that eventful fortnight, 
until 5 o'clock on the morning of the 29th of November, 
when, under the starlight, a picked body of volunteers 
5,000 strong, led by their favorite commander-in- 
chief, Longstreet, moved to the storming of Fort 
Sanders, the key of the defense. Only a few hun- 
dred strong, the half starved defenders were, however, 
led by men whose courage never flinched, and whose en- 
thusiasm was contagious. Captain Roemer had been 
ordered to send one section of his battery under Lieu- 
tenant Heasely to the fort, and to furnish fifty rounds of 
shrapnel with twenty-second fuses to be thrown by hand 
into the trenches at points which the guns of his battery 
did not command. The charge was gallantly made, and 
desperately resisted. Once the rebel flag was planted on 
the rampart, but an instant after it fell, with its bearer 
a corpse, to the trenches. The gun at which Captain 
Roemer was stationed fired twenty-seven rounds of double 
canister, at every flash mowing a wide swath through the 
advancing column. It was loaded with its last remaining 
charge as onward through the storm of fire came the 
reckless, maddened foe. They swarmed up through the 
trenches, and a rebel major, laying his hand on the muz- 
zle of the piece, shouted: " Cease firing, the gun is ours!" 
At that instant a white puff of smoke, a blinding flash, 
and the officer and fourteen files of men fell to rise no 
more. Terror stricken, seven hundred rebels threw 
down their arms, and entered the porthole as prisoners 
of war. The charge was over, the glory of the rebel 
army lay dead, dying and prisoners; and the cheers of 
the defenders of Knoxville were heard by Sherman's ad- 
vance forces, who came in sight that day. The siege 
was over; Longstreet was pressing every nerve to with- 
draw his shattered army to a safe distance from the ap- 
proaching Union army. The best of the rebel guns had 
been trained on the single piece of light artillery that had 
contributed so signally to the victory; and yet but two 
men were wounded in Battery L. 

The gallant captam stood wearily leaning against his 
sword when General Burnside rode up. " Good morning, 
captain." '" Good morning, general." " Captain, what 
made your shells explode so this morning ?" " Oh, gene- 



ral, how should I know ?" " What did you tell the ser- 
geant list night ? " " Don't remember, general ; I said 
much it were best to forget." " Well, I remember, and 
am proud of it. Captain Roemer and his battery will not 
be forgotten." This conversation had this source : On 
the night before the attack it was found that but little 
available ammunition, except some shells that had been 
buried by the rebels and dug up by our forces, could be 
found ; and that these had corroded, so that but few ex- 
ploded. Captain Roemer called for a volunteer to as- 
sist him in boring out the fuses of these shells — a work 
fraught with great danger. Sergeant Kauffman, of the 
46th N. Y., immediately consented to help, saying that 
if the captain could afford to risk his life he could. Tak- 
ing their ammunition box they crept close under the 
•shelter of the ramparts to avoid the chance of a flying 
shot, and were busily engaged when a shell from a rebel 
battery struck the rampart and exploded, covering them 
with dirt and destroying the ammunition box, containing 
twelve shells, which, fortunately for the garrison, did not 
explode. The sergeant mildly remonstrated : — " Cap- 
tain, if you keep on you'll blow us all up." " Never 
mind," said the captain. " Better be blown up here than 
go to Richmond." "All right, captain, just as you say," 
was the only response ; and the duty of filling the shells 
for their terrible morning work was grimly resumed. It 
was this incident of coolness and self sacrifice that had 
reached the ear of the commanding general. With such 
officers the defense of Knoxville was possible; without 
them no troops could have resisted the accumulated hor- 
rors of the situation. 

But little time was spared for rest ; for on the 2nd the 
troops were marched in pursuit of Longstreet, as far as 
Strawberry Plains and Church Mountain, and encamping 
at the foot of the mountain lay there until January 19th, 
when the long-hoped-for veteran furlough order was re- 
ceived, and the battery was ordered to Albany for review 
and assignment of title by the governor of New York. 
Arriving in that city February 9th, under command of 
Captain Roemer and Lieut. HeaFely (Lieut. Rowelle hav- 
ing previously been detached for duty on the staff of 
General Sturges), they were reviewed by Governor Mor- 
gan on the loth, and given the name of the " 34th N. Y. 
independent battery light artillery;" and on the loth they 
filed into Flushing, sixty-nine men and two officers, amid 
the cheers of their admiring townspeople. Here a grand 
reception awaited them. Grave clergymen, judges and 
lawyers took off their coats and served as waiters at the 
table filled with the tanned and battered artillerymen ; 
while the silks and laces of Flushing's lovely daughters 
fluttered wondrously close to the faded coats of blue, 
whose occupants found it a glorious rest after having 
traveled 9,600 miles in " Burnside's Caravan " to no 
softer music than the boom of cannon. 

Thirty days' rest was to be given to all; but the gallant 
captain, knowing the need of artillerists, resolved to fill 
up his ranks, and immediately commenced the work of 
recruiting, which was successful in enlisting eighty-five 
new men. No sooner was this work completed than the 

furlough expired, and the 34th was ordered to Fort 
Schuyler, whence it was transferred to an ocean steamer, 
having on board 700 more recruits, who were put under 
Captain Roemer's orders, and the transport sailed for 
Fortress Monroe, from whence they joined the reorgan- 
ized 9th corps at Annapolis. On the 4th of May the 
army crossed the Rapidan, and fighting with Lee's army 
was renewed the following day, the battery being en- 
gaged on the left in a dense wood, with no loss. From 
the 8th to the loth occurred the march to Spottsylvania, 
and on the nth the battery crossed the creek and en- 
gaged the enemy, falling back at night to its quarters. 
The battle of Spottsylvania Court-House occurred on the 
following day, and the 12th of May is marked in the an- 
nals of the battery as the hottest of its many engagements. 
Stationed on the extreme left at Dr. Beverly's house, it 
repelled the constant efforts of the enemy to turn that 
flank and withstood repeated charges, its well trained 
guns firing seven rounds per minute some of the time 
and throwing in all 1,800 rounds of shell, doing terrible 
execution, the 34th sustaining a loss of five men wounded, 
including the captain, who had as yet scarcely recovered 
from his wounds received in the west, and who, his repu- 
tation as an artillerist having gained him a soubriquet 
among the rebels more forcible than polite, was a special 
mark for their sharpshooters. 

To the tent of the wounded captain came the bars of a 
major, forestalling a commission, which will be for gen- 
erations to come a source of pride to his descendants, 
reading, " Promoted for meritorious services rendered 
on the field of battle, and particularly on the 12th of May 
1864." The honor was justly earned; the battery held, 
as it were, the key to the position, and had it been taken 
or flanked the consequences would have been serious. 

From that time through that terrible forty-five days 
in which Grant opened the road to Petersburg the battery 
was engaged almost daily, losing at Cold Harbor one 
man killed before crossing the river, another afterward 
and two wounded, and having twelve horses shot. On 
the i6th of June the siege of Petersburg was undertaken, 
and this battery built Fort Wilcox in front of the " cra- 
ter," and held it seven weeks, during which seven men 
were wounded. In August the 34th was sent to the left, 
where several engagements occurred, the most severe 
of which was at Pegram's Farm, where the 34th bat- 
tery lost three killed, four wounded and had six horses 
killed. During a change of line soon after, the battery 
was again placed in front of Petersburg, and owing to the 
exhausted condition of the men and horses was sent to 
the rear for two months. In November it advanced and 
took position on Crow Nest, where a winter of watchful- 
ness but comparative rest was passed. On the 25th of 
March Major Roemer was ordered to occupy Fort 
McGilvery, near Appomattox. In the small hours of the 
ensuing morning the rebels surprised and captured Fort 
Stedman, situated immediately to the left, and under 
cover of its guns attempted to storm Fort McGilvery in 
the rear. Loading three guns of his light battery, and 
placing one en barbette in the rear of the fort, under the 



charge of a sergeant, the advancing rebels were met by 
twenty rounds, so rapidly and skillfully fired that every 
shot told, and, totally demoralized, the foe threw down 
their arms and surrendered. Just as the last shot was 
f red by the barbette gun, at which Major Roemer had 
taken his post, a thirty-two pounder belonging to the 
rebels exploded and a flying piece struck him on the 
shoulder, crushing in his collar bone and severely injuring 
him, and, glancing, killed one of the men at the gun. So 
galling had been the fire from the improvised barbette 
defense that thirteen rebel cannon had been trained on it 
in an attempt to silence it; yet, besides the loss just 
named, but six of the 34th were wounded. 

From the date of this unsuccessful attack fighting was 
almost continuous until the morning of April 3d, when 
the successful assault on Petersburg was made. The 
last gun fired at a foe by the 34th was discharged at four 
o'clock on that morning; and when, as the report died 
away, the mighty cheer rolled back from the charging 
lines, and through the lifting pall of smoke could be seen 
the Union flag floating where had hung so long the stars 
and bars, Major Roemer raised his head from the wheel 
of the gun which, in spite of his feeble condition, he had 
aimed and fired all the morning, and quietly remarked, 
"Cease firing, boys; it's my birthday to-day, and Peters- 
burg is ours." 

The events that followed the surrender of the only im- 
portant rebel stronghold in northern Virginia are matters 
familiar to all. The 34th had fought and won its last 
battle, and soon after received orders to repair to Alex- 
andria, where the men bade farewell to the guns which had 
been so long and so gallantly manned, and embarked for 
Hart's Island, where, June 21st 1865, they, to the num- 
ber of 118, were mustered out of the service. On their 
arrival in Flushing they were once more welcomed with 
open arms and hands. 

Of the history of this body, of which Flushing is justly 
proud, there is little more to say. The well-kept books 
of the captain show that from the date of entering the 
service until its discharge there had been enlisted 585 
men; that the battery traveled during that time 18,700 
miles, lost 20 men killed in battle, fought in fifty-seven 
engagements, fired 10,073 rounds, and lost 307 horses. 

The compiler of this record of gallant deeds deems it 
not out of place here to add a brief record of the distin- 
guished commander of the battery. Major Jacob Roe- 
mer was born in Hesse Darmstadt, April 3d 18 18, and 
served in the cavalry of the German army; but pur- 
chasing his discharge came to this country in 1839, 
settling in New York city, where he married, and from 
whence he came to Flushing in 1842. He enlisted in the 
Hamilton light artillery in 1845 as a private, and worked 
his way up from the ranks, securing his commission 
as captain after the battery's reorganization by the War 
Department by a competitive examination. Early recog- 
nized as a practical artillerist he was intrusted with the 
defense of the most critical points, and, as has been re- 
marked, won the rank with which he retired on the field 
of battle — the commission bearing with it the appoint- 

ment as chief of artillery on the staff of Major-General 
Wilcox. At the close of the war Major Roemer resumed 
the business of a boot and shoe dealer in Flushing, and 
he is still one of her most successful business men and 
honored citizens. 

The following is the muster roll of the officers of the 

Captain, Jacob Roemer, commissioned June 6th 1862; 
date of rank, March 4th 1862; breveted major U. S. V.; 
mustered out with battery. 

First Lieutenants — Isaac B. Richmond, commissioned 
July 2ist 1862; date of rank, June 4th 1862; commis- 
sioned first lieutenant in the ist N. Y. artillery, July 
2ist 1862; discharged November 14th 1864. Henry J. 
Standish, commissioned June 6th 1862; date of rank,. 
January i6th 1862; resigned, October 1862. Moses E. 
Brush, conmiissioned October 25th 1863; date of rank, 
ditto; resigned, November 8th 1863. Thomas Heasely, 
commissioned February 26th 1864; date of rank, Novem- 
ber 8th 1863; mustered out with battery. 

Second Lieutenants^] erome Van Nostrand, commis- 
sioned June 6th 1862; date of rank, January i6th 1862; 
resigned, October 8th 1862. Alonzo Garretson, commis- 
sioned May 3d 1864; date of rank, ditto; resigned, Jan- 
uary 26th 1865. George H. Durfee, commissioned April 
22nd 1865; not mustered. Moses E. Brush, commis- 
sioned November 29th 1862; date of rank, October 8th 
1862; promoted first lieutenant, October 25th 1863. 
Thomas Heasely, commissioned October 25th 1863; 
date of rank, ditto; promoted first lieutenant February 
25th 1864. Charles B. Lincoln jr., commissioned Feb- 
ruary 26th 1864; date of rank, February 21st 1864; re- 
signed, May 31st 1864. John J. Johnston, commissioned 
November i6th 1864; date of rank, May 31st 1864; mus- 
tered out with battery. William E. Balkie, December 
20th 1864; mustered out with battery. 


The Prince family had its origin in the portion of 
England bordering on Wales, and can be traced back to 
a remote antiquity. Its coat of arms — " gu/es, a saltire 
or, surmounted of a cross engrailed, ermine " — was not 
granted, however, till the year 1584, in the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth. Shrewsbury and Abbey Foregate,. 
Shropshire, were then the headquarters of the family. 
From this vicinity came John Prince, the ancestor of the 
Princes of Salem and Maine, in 1633; and about thirty 
years later came another John Prince, who was the pro- 
genitor of the Long Island family, and landed at Boston. 
He had two sons, Samuel and Robert, both of whom 
came to Long Island and settled at Flushing. Samuel's- 
seven children were all daughters, so that the family 
name was not continued in that branch. Robert married 
Mary Burgess and had six children: Margaret, William, 
Elizabeth, Samuel, Robert and Susannah. Of these 
Margaret had two husbands, respectively named Phillips 
and Roe; Elizabeth married Arthur Burtis; Susannah 




married a Montrose. Neither Robert, Elizabeth nor 
Susannah left children, so far as is known. 

Samuel Prince, who was born May 20th 1728, married 
Ruth Carman April 24th 1751, and had nine children, 
named respectively Robert, Elizabeth, James, Mary, 
Samuel ist, Samuel 2nd, Elizabeth 2nd, Margaret and 
Susannah. Prince street in New York city was named 
from this Samuel Prince, who had a considerable tract 
of land there. 

From Robert is descended the Wintringham family of 
Long Island; from Mary, the Winter family; and Samuel 
(2nd) has very many descendants, named Prince, Wat- 
rous, Bass, McKeen, etc. William Prince who was the 
immediate ancestor of the present Flushing family mar- 
ried Ann Thorne, and lived until January 1S02; having 
had thirteen children, of whom nine died young. Those 
who arrived at maturity were John, Sarah, William and 
Benjamin. John Prince moved from Flushing to Prince- 
town, near Schenectady, where he had large flour mills. 
He was a member of the Legislature in 1797 and 1798, 
and died without issue, October 1862. 

Sarah married Major Charles McNeill, who resigned 
from the British army after the Revolution, and had seven 
sons, who are the progenitors of the McNeill families of 
Long Island, Washington and elsewhere. Benjamin 
married Rebecca Willets, and had two children, Anna 
and Rebecca. Anna married Charles Townsend and had 
one son, now deceased. Rebecca married Effingham 
W. Lawrence and had three children, William Henry, 
Francis and Frederick A. 

Francis was the rector of the Church of the Holy 
Communion, New York, at the time of his death, in 1879. 

William Prince born November lolh 1766 married 
Mary, daughter of Eiiphalet Stratton, December 22nd 
1794, and died April 9th 1842. His children were: 
William Robert, born November 6th 1795; Mary Ann, 
born August 5th 1797; Alfred Stratton, and Edwin, the 
last of whom died young. 

Mary Ann (still living — 1881) married Thomas H. 
Mitchell, of Richmond, Virginia, by whom she had two 
daughters, Rosalie A. and Josephine H.; and afterward 
married J. Dayton Harris, of New York. 

Alfred S. married Hannah Smith, and had two sons, 
Linnaeus and Charles A. William R. Prince married 
Charlotte G., daughter of Governor Charles Collins, of 
Rhode Island, October 2nd 1826, and died March 28th 
1S69, having had four children — Charlotte Collins, Sera- 
phine Collins, William, and L. Bradford, all of whom sur- 
vived him. 

Charlotte C. married Edwin Henry, March loth 1853, 
aud lives at Flushing, having three children — Florence 
L., Anna C. and Cornelia C. Florence married Wilson 
L. Gill, of Columbus, Ohio, in 1880. 

Seraphine C. married Henry F. Cox, of Racine, Wis., 
January loth 1857, and died childless in 1870. 

William, born July 9lh 1833, died December i8th 
1880, unmarried. 

L. Bradford, born July 3d 1840, is spoken of in a 
separate sketch. 

Samuel Prince the elder lived on Great Neck, a little 
west of the church; and his brother Robert lived in 
Flushing. Samuel is named as a witness on the trial of 
Edward King for the murder of William Smith in 1733. 
The first establishment of the nursery which afterward 
became so famous was by Samuel Prince at Great Neck, 
about 1725; but it must soon have been followed by the 
nursery at Flushing, which continued during five genera- 
tions and over 130 years in the family. 

Robert Prince and his son William occujjied the land 
south of Bridge street, extending from Lawrence street 
to the middle of the block between Prince and Main 
streets, and on the south about to the Reformed Dutch 
church, the family mansion being on Lawrence street, 
just northeast of the "Effingham Lawrence" house. 
The old mansion, which was of rounded shingles, re- 
mained until about 1863, when it was taken down. 

It was at this house that the Duke of Clarence, after- 
ward Kfng William IV. of England, was received when 
he visited the town, and here also General Washington 
and his distinguished party were entertained in 1789. In 
Washington's journal (1789, October icth) he speaks of 
this visit as follows: "I set off from New York about 9 
o'clock, in my barge, to visit Mr. Prince's fruit gardens 
and shrubberies at Flushing. The vice-president, gover- 
nor, Mr. Izard, Colonel Smith and Major Jacobs accom- 
panied me." 

It was at this house also that the bust of Linnc'eus was 
crowned by De Witt Clinton at the celebrated meeting of 
foreign and American scientists in 1823. 

In 1793, June 26th, William Prince the second (1766- 
1842) purchased from Bayard, Le Roy and Clarkson the 
property on the north of Bridge street, containing 80 
acres, lying between the present railroad on the west and 
Farrington street on the east, and established his nursery 
there, calling it the " Linnaean Nursery," while his brother 
Benjamin remained on the old homestead and called his 
establishment the "Old American Nursery." Ultimately 
they were again consolidated. The residence of William 
Prince was on the north side of Bridge street, just where 
Linnaeus street now is. 

This William Prince was a man of great energy of 
character, excellent judgment and much kindness of 
heart. In the language of Mandeville's History of 
Flushing, he "was of an enterprising, amiable and kindly 
character, universally esteemed in life and regretted in 
death." He may truly be called the father of the pros- 
perity of Flushing. 

Before his time the route to New York had been by 
Jamaica or the Head of the Vleigh to Bedford, and thence 
to Brooklyn ferry, a distance of 17 to 20 miles. In 1799 
Mr. Prince organized a company, of which he was 
president, to build a bridge over Flushing Creek; this 
was accomplished in the next year. Soon after this, by 
his exertions, aided by Joshua Sands and others of 
Brooklyn, a bridge across the Wallabout was built, 
greatly shortening the route to the New York ferry. 
The amount of labor in accomplishing these matters was 
very great. In the work of getting a turnpike con- 




structed from Flushing to Newtown, which was shortly 
afterward accomplished, he counted that he liad traveled 
over a thousand miles. 

Mr. Prince was a zealous churchman, being con- 
firmed at the first episcopal visitation ever made to the 
village, by Bishop Provoost, June 28th 1802. He was a 
vestryman of St. George's Church as early as 1798, and 
was a member of the vestry thirty-two years, during 
fourteen of which he was warden. 

He was devoted to botany and natural science gener- 
ally ; was a corresponding member of the Linnsean 
Society of Paris, the horticultural societies of London 
and Paris, and the Imperial Society of Georgofili, at 
Florence, and the author of the " Treatise on Horticul- 
ture," published in 1828. 

His son William R. Prince inherited his father's love 
of botany and his great energy. He was connected with 
the American Institute, National Pomological Society, 
and many other leading societies, in whose transactions 
he took a prominent part; was the author of the " Treat- 
ise on the Vine," 1830, the " Pomological Manual," 1832, 
and " Rose Manual," 1835, and in his later days re- 
ceived the degrees of M. D. and LL. D. 

After his marriage he bought (July 8th 1827) the Em- 
bree property, corner of Bridge street and Clinton (now 
Lawrence) avenue, where he continued to live until his 
death, and which is still the family residence. 

Although never holding any public office he was en- 
thusiastic in politics, especially as a friend of Henry 
Clay. In 1848 he was a member of the national conven- 
tion at Harrisburg, which ultimately nominated General 
Taylor, goi-ng as a Clay delegate. In 1831 he delivered 
the 4th of July oration at Hempstead. 

William Prince the son of William R. Prince was a 
man of extraordinary scientific attainments. He entered 
the army as a private at the breaking out of the Rebel- 
lion, and served till wounded at Antietam. Subsequently 
he became an officer in the 155th N. Y. (volunteers), and 
soon afterward was appointed a lieutenant of ordnance, 
U. S. A., passing a most brilliant examination on his ad- 
mission to the corps in 1864. He was twice brevetted 
■for "gallant and distinguished services;" became suc- 
cessively first lieutenant and captain, and died at Wash- 
ington in 1880. During his service he was chief ordnance 
officer of the middle military district (Va.), of North and 
South Carolina, and on duty at the arsenals of Water- 
vliet, Washington, Frankford, New Orleans and Spring- 


L. Bradford Prince was born at Flushing, on the 3d of 
July 1840. He is a lineal descendant on the maternal 
side of Governor William Bradford, of Plymouth, one of 
the " men of the Mayflower," and had for great-grand- 
father and grandfather respectively Governors Bradford 
and Collins of Rhode Island. His paternal ancestors 
are mentioned in the sketch of the " Prince Family." 

Owing to the delicate health of Mr. Prince much of 
his early life was passed in the south. As he grew to 

manhood he engaged in horticultural pursuits at his 
father's place, in Flushing, but after a short experience 
abandoned this line of employment to study law. Enter- 
ing Columbia College law school, he passed through the 
course with special honor, and upon graduating received 
the ^200 prize in political science. 

From his youth he has been exceedingly active in all 
matters affecting the welfare and improvement of his 
native town. In 1858 he originated the Flushing Library 
Association, obtaining the first subscriptions, drawing its 
constitution, acting three years as secretary and afterward 
as president; for several years he was chairman of the 
village lecture committee, conducting courses of lectures 
in 1859, i860 and 186 r, which have never since been 
equaled in the town. For five successive years, 1861 to 
1865, he was chairman of the "Fourth of July commit- 
tee," which had charge of the public exercises and dis- 
plays on the national holiday. In 1863 this committee 
erected the liberty pole at the west end of the park, and 
in 1865 inaugurated the movement for the building of 
the " soldiers' monument." To this latter Mr. Prince 
devoted himself for over a year, in raising money and 
collecting the names of the fallen heroes. He was also 
the originator of St. George's Brotherhood, a religious 
society, organized in 1868 and still doing an active and 
increasing work. On many public occasions, such as the 
foundation of the new public school, the opening of the 
opera house, the celebration at the introduction of water, 
etc., he has delivered appropriate public addresses. 

Very early in life he developed an extraordinary apti- 
tude for political matters, and the activity he displayed 
in his district during the Fremont campaign won for him 
a vote of thanks from the town club, of which his age — 
he was then but a lad of sixteen — prevented his becoming 
a member. In the canvass of i860, though still a minor, 
he was secretary of the local political organization, and 
worked enthusiastically for the success of the Lincoln 
ticket. In 1861 he was chosen a member of the Repub- 
lican committee of Queens county, on which he served 
continuously almost 20 years, during several of which he 
was its secretary and chairman. He was a delegate to 
State conventions during the years from 1866 to 1878 
with scarcely an exception; was elected a delegate to 
the national Republican convention held at Chicago in 
1868, and the following year became a member of the 
State committee. The political labors of Mr. Prince at 
this period were all the more honorable from the fact 
that they were pursued purely as a matter of principle, 
and without the least expectation of personal advance- 
ment, the district in which he resided being strongly 
Democratic. His qualifications for filling a responsible 
position were, however, too apparent to be neglected, 
and in 1870 he was elected to the Assembly, 
receiving a majority of 1,415 votes, members of 
all parties joining in his support. In 1871 he was 
re-elected to the Assembly by a large majority, 
although his opponent was the strongest Democrat in 
the district and an experienced legislator, who had 
already served both in the Assembly and in the Senate. 



The following year he received the extraordinary com- 
pliment of a request for his continuance in office, 
signed by more than two thousand voters, irrespective of 
party; and, having been nominated by acclamation, was 
re-elected without opposition. In 1873, having declined 
a nomination to the Senate, he was again returned to the 
Assembly, almost without an opposing vote. In the fall 
of 1874 the Democrats made a determined effort to 
redeem the district, which now for four years had been 
lost to their party, and placed the Hon. Solomon Town- 
send — who had served three terms in the Legislature and 
in the constitutional conventions of 1846 and 1867 — in 
opposition to Mr. Prince. The canvass was an exciting 
one, but resulted in a victory for Mr. Prince, who se- 
cured a majority of 771 votes. There is believed to be 
no other instance on record of a person being elected 
five successive limes in a district politically opposed to 
him. In the canvass of 1875 Mr. Prince received the 
Republican nomination for the Senate, and, although the 
Democrats were successful in the district on the general 
ticket by nearly 2,700 majority, he won the election by a 
majority of 904, running 3,594 ahead of the ticket. 

The legislative career of Mr. Prince was an exceedingly 
useful and highly honorable one. In 1872, 1873 and 
1874 he was chairman of the judiciary committee, per. 
forming the multifarious and arduous duties in the most 
creditable manner, and rendering valuable service to the 
State. While filling this position over eleven hundred 
bills came into his hands for reports — a larger number 
than were ever submitted to any other committee, either 
State or national, in a similar length of time. During 
the winter of 1872 it became his duty to conduct the 
investigation into the official conduct of Judges Barnard, 
Cardozo and McCunn. This investigation extended from 
the middle of February to about the middle of April, 
during which time 239 witnesses were examined, and over 
2,400 pages of evidence taken. The thoroughness and 
fairness with which the investigation was conducted won 
the approval of fair-minded persons of all shades of 
political belief, and its results form one of the bright- 
est pages in the history of the recent " reform move- 
ment." The reports of the committee in favor of 
impeaching two of the judges and removing the other 
met with general public acquiescence, and were adopted 
by the house, and Mr. Prince was chosen one of the 
managers to conduct the impeachment trial, receiving 1 10 
out of 113 votes cast on the ballot in the Assembly. He 
was also appointed to proceed to the bar of the Senate 
and formally impeach Judge Barnard of high crimes and 
misdemeanors. He was active in the matter till the close 
of the trial, and it has been generally conceded that to no 
other man is the judiciary of the State so much indebted 
for being relieved of the disgrace that would have 
attended the retention of Barnard and Cardozo on the 

The recent amendments to the constitution of the 
State received from Mr. Prince special attention. In 
1872 he introduced, and succeeded in getting passed, the 
bill for the constitutional commission. During the ses- 

sions of 1873 and 1874 he had charge of the proposed 
amendments, both in committee and in the Assembly, 
and the task of explaining and defending them fell 
almost exclusively to his lot. Just previous to these 
amendments being submitted to the people for ratification 
— in the fall of 1874 — Mr. Prince, at the request of the 
Council of Political Reform, wrote a pamphlet on the 
subject, which was widely circulated as a campaign 
document, and tended largely to their success at the polls. 
In the session of 1875 he prepared and introduced 
nearly all the bills required to carry the new constitu- 
tional system into effect, that work being assigned to him 
by general consent, although the Assembly was Dem- 

The reformation in the system of legislation in New 
York occurred wholly during Mr. Prince's terms, and its 
history is worthy of record, if only to show ihe results of 
persistent effort. During his first month in Albany Mr. 
Prince introduced two resolutions, one in relation to the 
organization of cities under general laws, and the other 
including the whole question of special legislation. On 
this latter he made a careful speech in February 
1 87 1; but the proposition to do away with special legisla- 
tion was met with opposition and almost derision by all 
the old and leading members. In no way discouraged, 
he renewed the fight next year, made a striking speech 
on the " Evils of Hasty Legislation " in February, and 
later, as chairman o( the judiciary committee, presented 
a report on " Reform in the Methods of Legislation," 
which has been the foundation of all action on the sub- 
ject since. At the same time he introduced a bill for a 
constitutional commission to report the necessary amend- 
ments. The next winter he succeeded in getting the 
commission to report in favor of his propositions to pro- 
hibit special legislation; and, as we have before seen, 
championed these amendments for two years in the As- 
sembly, and then before the people. In November 1874 
he had the pleasure of seeing all the reforms which he 
had first proposed in January 187 1 placed in the organic 
law of the Srate — the fruit of nearly four years of steady 
and untiring effort. 

While in the Legislature Mr. Prince gave special at- 
tention to the canal system of the State, and the question 
of transportation from the west to the seaboard. He 
made several speeches on this subject in the Assembly, 
as well as at the organization of the Cheap Transporta- 
tion Association, at Cooper Institute in 1874, and at the 
great Produce Exchange meeting in 1875. '^ '^^ New 
York Chamber of Commerce twice formally acknowledged 
these services to the mercantile community by votes of 
thanks. In 1874 he was chairman of the Assembly com- 
mittee to conduct the United States Senate Committee 
on Transportation Routes through the State; and per- 
formed that duty in September of that year. At differ- 
ent tmies during 1874 and 1875 he lectured on this sub- 
ject of transportation in New York, Albany, Troy, 
Poughkeepsie, etc. 

In May 1876 Mr. Prince was a member of the national 
Republican convention which nominated Hayes and 



Wheeler. In 1877, though tendered a unanimous re- 
nomination to the Senate, he declined to serve again, on 
the ground that he could not afford longer to neglect his 
private business. 

Mr. Prince's reputation is not, however, confined to 
the field of politics. As a lawyer he occupies a high 
position, his clear, incisive reasoning power and rare 
ability as an advocate rendering him eminently success- 
ful. In 1868 he was chosen orator of the alumni associ- 
ation of the Columbia College Law School, and for two 
years was president of the association. In 1876, hav- 
ing again been chosen alumni orator, he delivered an 
oration in the Academy of Music on "The Duties of 
Citizenship," enforcing the idea that men of character 
and education should take the lead in political affairs. 

Mr. Prince is well known also as a thoughtful writer 
and lecturer on various topics, among which those re- 
lating to legislative and governmental reform have at- 
tracted wide attention. His lecture on " Rienzi " has 
been delivered over 20 times; and a satirical one on 
" Queen Fashion " much oftener. 

A work from his pen entitled "' E Pluribiis Unu??i, or 
American Nationality," a comparison between the con- 
stitution and the articles of confederation, passed through 
several editions in 1868 and received the warmest com- 
mendations from statesmen and political scientists. In 
1880 a Chicago firm published a work of Mr. Prince's 
on a somewhat similar subject, entitled " A Nation or 
a League ?" 

As a speaker he is well known throughout the State, 
having been active in the general political canvass every 
year when, not himself a candidate, and in 1876 speak- 
ing over 40 consecutive nights, from Rochester and 
Salamanca to Plattsburg and Brooklyn. 

On occasions like the Fourth of July and Decoration 
day his talents have naturally been called into requisi- 
tion, and he has delivered the orations at various times 
at Brooklyn, Sag Harbor, Ronkonkoma, Hempstead, 
Flushing, Katonah, Farmingdale, Ballston, Oneonta, New 
Brighton and Elmira. 

He is also a prominent member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity, having been district deputy grand master of 
Queens and Suffolk counties for the years 1868, 1869 
and 1870, and again in 1876. In 1877 he was appointed 
on the grand master's staff as grand standard bearer. 
He is now grand representative of New Mexico to the 
grand lodge of New York. Mr. Prince has always taken 
a lively interest in all that pertains to the best interests 
of the farming community, and has delivered a number 
of addresses before various agricultural societies through- 
out the State — notably ihose of Saratoga, St. Lawrence, 
Tioga, Orleans, Suffolk and Cattaraugus counties. For 
ten years he was superintendent or director of the Queens 
County Agricultural Society, and in 1862 wrote an agri- 
cultural history of the county, which was published by 
that society. He is also a life member of the Long Isl- 
and Historical Society, and for 15 years — from 1864 to 
1879 — was an officer in that learned body. He is now 
first vice-president of the Historical Society of New 
Mexico. In religious affairs Mr. Prince is likewise 

prominent. He is a leading member of the Episcopal 
church, in which he has for years been a licensed lay- 
reader under the bishops of Long Island, Colorado and 
New Mexico. He has been a member of many diocesan 
conventions on Long Island, and was a deputy from that 
diocese to the Triennial General Convention at Boston 
in 1877 and again at New York in 1880. He is one of 
the corporation of the Cathedral of the Incarnation, on 
Long Island, and at the laying of the corner stone there- 
of, in June 1877, made the address on behalf of the laity 
of the diocese. 

In New Mexico he is senior warden of the church at 
Sante Fe, and chancellor of the jurisdiction of New 
Mexico and Arizona. In missionary matters he is very 
active, delivering addresses at various times in St. Peter's 
Church, Albany; Calvary, New York; St. Ann's and St. 
Peter's, Brooklyn; Grace, Jamaica; St. James's, New- 
town; Bethesda, Saratoga; St. George's, Hempstead; at 
the missionary conference of 1879 at Baltimore, etc. 

In the General Convention of 1880 he introduced the 
idea of the American Church Building Fund, and carried 
it to a successful organization. In September 1S81 he 
delivered the address at the laying of the corner stone of 
the church in Sante Fe. 

In October 1878, without any application or request 
from him, Mr. Prince was nominated by President Hayes 
as naval officer of New York, in place of Hon. A. B. 
Cornell, at the same time Theodore Roosevelt was 
nominated as collector. This inaugurated the great con- 
test in the Senate over the "New York appointments," 
between the President's reform policy and the old systen» 
of senatorial dictation. No action being taken at the 
special session, President Hayes renominated Roosevelt 
and Prince in December. After a long contest the 
nominations were rejected by a vote of 31 to 25. 

During 1879 Mr. Prince was offered various appoint- 
ments, including two in foreign countries, the marshal- 
ship of New York, the governorship of Idaho, and the 
chief justiceship of New Mexico. The latter he declined 
three times, but finally, at the urgent request of Secretary 
Evarts and the Department ot Justice, consented to ac- 
cept, and left for his new home February ist 1879. 
This position he still holds. Judge Prince is also presi- 
dent of the Territorial Bureau of Immigration of New 
Mexico, and is connected with nearly all the organiza- 
tions of the territory. He is an enthusiast as to the 
resources and future of that teriitory, and has written 
much on those subjects for eastern papers. 

On the ist of December 1879 Judge Prince was mar- 
ried at Grace Church, Brooklyn, by Bishop Littlejohn 
and Rev. Dr. Smith, to Hattie E. Childs, daughter of Dr. 
S. Russell Childs, of New York. After being entertained 
by President Hayes in Washington they proceeded im- 
mediately to New Mexico, where Mrs. Prince's beauty 
and intelligence made her a lavorite at once. But, on an 
excursion to Kansas City to celebrate the opening of 
railway communication, she caught cold, and after a sin- 
gle day of serious sickness died suddenly of pneumonia, 
at Sante Fe, on February 26th 1880. The mourning 
and sympathy at this sad event were universal through- 
out the territory. 




There are few people, in the mercantile marine of this 
State especially, who will fail to recognize in the accom- 
paying portrait an old and valued acquaintance. For 
more than a quarter of a century Captain Merritt has 
been actively engaged in maritime pursuits, and, after 
passing through the various grades of apprentice, seaman^ 
mate and captain, was appointed in 1853 agent of the 
Board of Marine Underwriters, graduated as general 
agent of that world-renowned and eminently successful 
institution the Coast Wrecking Company of the City of 
New York, and at present, in connection with his son 
Israel J. Merritt jr., is proprietor of the Merritt Wrecking 
Organization, of which he is sole manager. 


Captain Merritt is of medium height, compactly built, 
has a florid complexion, light hazel eyes, iron grey hair, 
and was born in the city of New York. August 23d 1829. 
As with very many of our most successful men, his oppor- 
tunities for obtaining an early education were exceed- 
ingly limited; yet, endowed with ambition and a strong 
will, combined with good, sound, practical common 
sense, we find him at the early age of twenty years in the 
full confidence of his employers and in command of 
a fine schooner employed in the coasting trade. 

In the service of the Coast Wrecking Company he, by 
his skill, energy and earnest efforts, added largely to its 
reputation. In the performance of his labors and duties 
as its representative he has visited repeatedly all sections 
of our seacoast and lake borders, and, being eminently 

a social and genial man, he has made hosts of warm 
friends both for his enterprises and himself. One of 
Captain's Merritt's prominent characteristics is his per- 
severence, backed by untiring patience, pluck and energy. 
He knows no such word as fear, never counts the chances 
of defeat when pursuing a cherished object, and, once 
settled in his convictions of duty and right, he never was 
known to shirk a responsibility or flag in his efforts to 
accomplish the desired results. He is zealous and posi- 
tive in whatever he undertakes, is a most agreeable, 
warm-hearted and genial companion, one of the truest of 
friends, and as such is honored and trusted by all who 
know him. He is modest and retiring when not in com- 
mand, and aside from his social and domestic duties his 
heart is bound up in his business. 

To-day, wherever commerce spreads her wings and 
the Latin and Anglo-Saxon tongues are spoken, the name 
of Israel J. Merritt, the savior of the doubly-staunch 
steamer " L'Amerique," is a "household word." 

For three long weary months, through sunshine and 
darkness, the hearts of his friends and the good wishes 
of the entire civilized world were with him in this gigantic 
undertaking, and they watched with curious interest his 
bearing through all the discouragements and embarass- 
ments of his trying position; and when success, in its 
broadest sense, crowned his efforts and he gave back to 
commerce the good ship, as staunch, strong and shapely 
as when she first touched our shores, the world was ready 
to shake his brawny hand and say how heartily it ac- 
corded to him its praise. 

In this connection it will not be deemed inappropriate 
to give some of the more notable cases in which Captain 
Merritt's brain, skill and labor have been the means of 
saving hundreds of lives and millions of dollars of prop- 
erty on our coast. Among his achievements may be 
noted the saving of the ship " Cornelius Grinnell," 
ashore at Squan, in 1852; the crew of the brig "Kong 
Thryme," on Barnegat Shoals, in midwinter of 1856, for 
which he was awarded a gold medal by the Life Saving 
Benevolent Association of New York; the ship "Great 
Republic," 3,000 tons, sunk in the East River, in 1853; 
the passengers and crew of the ship " Chauncey Jerome," 
at Long Branch, in 1853; the ship "Arkwright," at 
Long Branch, in 1862; the ship "Aquila," having as 
cargo the U.S. monitor " Comanche," near San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., in 1864; the crew, 65 in number, of the 
steamship "Black Warrior," at Rockaway Shoals, in 
1859, for which act of bravery he was presented with 
$500 in gold; the steamer " City of Norwich," sunk and 
lying bottom upwards in 120 feet of water in Long 
Island Soand, in 1866 (no other vessel ever having been 
raised from so great a depth); the steamer " Dean Rich- 
mond," sunk in 38 feet of water in the Hudson river, in 
1867, and the steamship "Australia," ashore near Galves- 
ton, Texas, in 1875. Scores and hundreds of other inci- 
dents might be mentioned, where his labors have been be- 
stowed, but the above are sufficient to show that his has 
been a busy and eventful career, and that his efforts have 
been crowned with a full measure of success. 




To these let us add some account of the crowning 
effort of his life, the salvation of the steamship " L'Ame- 
rique," his greatest achievement. This vessel, one of 
the largest of the steamers belonging to the Trans- 
Atlantic Line between New York and Havre, as all will 
remember, was driven ashore at Seabright, N. J., about 
twelve miles from Sandy Hook, during a violent snow 
storm, on the night of the 7th of January 1877, where 
she remained imbedded in the sand until liberated by 
Captain Merritt on the loth of the following April. 
During this entire period of ninety-three days he was 
constantly at his post on this ship, awaiting favoring 
winds and tides, yet with unbounded faith and confi- 
dence in the ultimate success of his labors. In the early 
part of this interval the entire cargo of the ship, valued 
at an immense figure, was saved without damage, and 
transferred to New York. In the meantime the requisite 
preparations for the saving of the vessel had been made, 
and machinery and appliances such as were probably 
never before brought into requisition were readily fur- 
nished and utilized by the Coast Wrecking Company 
under the direction of Captain Merritt. The necessity 
of these extraordinary preparations will be readily seen 
and comprehended when it is remembered that " L'Amer- 
ique " is an iron steamer of 4,845 tons capacity, 1,000 
horse power, 410 feet in length, 46 feet breadth of beam, 
and 43 feet depth of hold, equal in bulk almost to two 
blocks of ordinary three-story buildings. 

The needed appliances for moving this immense mass 
of iron being properly adjusted, then began the weary 
watching from day to day, till days grew into weeks, and 
weeks lengthened into months, and still the elements 
seemed laggard in coming to the aid of the sun-browned, 
weather-beaten man who earnestly watched and waited 
through calm and storm, upon her decks, for the oppor- 
tune moment. Storms and tempests came which forced 
him to slacken his huge, unwieldy hawsers and let the 
ship be driven still farther upon the beach, and which, in 
their fury, dashed in pieces other ships within his sight; 
and still the good " L'Amerique," like a rock of adamant, 
withstood the shocks of old Atlantic's mountain billows, 
as they came thundering and dashing against her sides; 
yet not one whit firmer stood the ship on the unfriendly 
shore than stood Captain Merritt, braving the dangers 
which encompassed him, in the calm confidence of ulti- 
mate triumph. Storm succeeded storm, yet with firm 
reliance he paced the decks of the grand old ship which, 
like himself, seemed to defy the elements, and waited, 
not patiently perhaps at all times, but confidently. 

At last came the eventful day when Old Ocean, as if 
repenting of his laggard efforts, sent bounding in upon 
the yielding sands of Seabright the long-prayed-for rol- 
lers, which, born perhaps near the sunny shores of the 
land which gave birth to the good ship and Captain 
Pouzolz, her brave and noble commander, began to surge 
upon the shore and rock the huge monster in the "cradle 
of the deep;" and ere his hoarse murmurings had ceased 
she shook the sands of old Jersey from her keel, was rid- 
ing safely at anchor far from the shore, and the waves 

were kissing her sides as if to welcome her once more 
upon the broad pathway to la belle France. 

Loud huzzas from the throats of the victors rent the 
air, and long and joyous shouts of Vive L'Amerique and 
" Le Merritt" mingled with the hoarse bellowings of the 
wind and the shrill whistles of the tugs as they bore her 
triumphantly from her prison. " L'Amerique" was free! 

Politically Captain Merritt has always been a Demo- 
crat and a consistent, liberal and disinterested worker 
for the advancement of the principles of that party; but 
he has never sought nor accepted a nomination for any 
office except at the hands of his townsmen, who have ever 
found in him a firm supporter of the best interests of the 
locality where he lives. He was instrumental in securing 
the incorporation of the village of Whitestone, and has 
most of the time since served as one of the village trus- 
tees. His interest in education has always been great, 
and he has for years been a school trustee and exerted a 
strong influence upon the management of the public 
schools of Whitestone. 

In 1853 Captain Merritt was married to Miss Sarah 
L. Nicholson, of New York, who died June nth 1879, 
at the age of 45 years, 4 months and 2 days. He has six 
children living, named as follows, in the order of their 
birth: Israel J. jr., Emma, Irene, Ida, Flora and John J. 
Captain Merritt, who for twenty-one years has been a 
resident of Whitestone, has one of the most elegant resi- 
dences on Long Island and is regarded as a most hos- 
pitable gentleman. 


Few names are better known in Queens county than 
that of the subject of this sketch, who is one of the most 
prominent men the county has produced, and a descend- 
ant of one of its oldest and most illustrious families. 
Born at "Willow Bank," Flushing, in 1800, Mr. Lawrence 
yet lives on the old home place, though the house in 
which he was born was destroyed by fire and the present 
commodious residence on the old site was erected by Mr. 
Lawrence in 1835. 

The childhood of Mr. Lawrence was passed much as that 
of others of the time and locality was passed. He may 
be truly said never to have known any boyhood, having 
engaged in active business life at the early age of sixteen, 
as a clerk in the long-ago mercantile establishment of 
Hicks, Jenkins & Co., in which capacity he continued till 
1821. Then, Mr. Jenkins having died, Mr. Hicks made a 
proposition to take young Lawrence into the firm, which 
the latter declined, entering instead into partnership with 
a fellow clerk in the shipping and commission business, 
under the firm name of Howland & Lawrence. In 1826 
Mr. Lawrence was married to a daughter of Walter 
Bowne, of another old-time family of Long Island. 

A mention of several of the more prominent of the 
business enterprises with which Mr. Lawrence has been 
connected will not be out of place as an evidence of the 
high esteem in which he has for many years been held in 




business and financial circles, both on Long Island and 
in New York city. Mr. Lawrence's fifteen years' presi- 
dency of the Queens County Savings Bank, of which he is 
now a trustee, and his presidency for seven years of the 
Seventh Ward Bank of New York, of which he is now 
the oldest director, are features of a connection with 
monetary institutions which goes back to a time when he 
was a director in the New York branch of the United 
States Bank in the stormy financial period of President 
Jackson. For a third of a century he has been president 
of the Lawrence Cement Company, and he holds a sim- 
ilar position at the head of the Rosedale Cement Company. 

By the admirable manner in which he has transacted 
all business devolving upon him, in these and many other 
enterprises of note, and the fidelity with which he has 
discharged all trusts imposed upon him, during a long 
and active business career, Mr. Lawrence has won an 
enviable reputation, which will survive him and be a 
shining example to these who may come after him. In 
public and political life Mr Lawrence has won and re- 
tained a name rivaled only by his reputation as a man of 
affairs. During the extended period of fifteen years he 
was president of the village of Flushing, and upon his 
resignation of that position the board of trustees waited 
on him in a body at his residence and requested that he 
would become a candidate for re-election. In 1840 he 
was nominated for member of Assembly from his dis- 
trict, his rival in the field being no less formidable an one 
than John A. King, whom he defeated. This was the 
"Log Cabin and Hard Cider " campaign, and the ex- 
citement over the election ran pretty high. On the night 
upon which the result became known a considerable body 
of the strongest and most active Whigs in Flushing went 
to his house, accompanied by a band of music, at 11 
o'clock and tendered him a serenade; and informed him 
through the spokesman of the occasion that, as they had 
opposed him on political grounds only, they had now 
come to congratulate him as a townsman on the success 
which he had achieved at the polls. In 1845 Mr. Law- 
rence was sent to Congress by the vote of his fellow cit- 
izens, and upon the expiration of his term was offered a 
renomination; which he declined to accept, though he 
could not but regard the act as an evidence of the con- 
fidence with which he had inspired those whom he had so 
ably represented in the council of the nation. Later he 
was tendered the nomination for the office of lieutenant- 
governor ot the State of New York. This was at a time 
when he had retired permanently from the cares and re- 
sponsibilities of political life; and, with the desire for 
quiet and rest which all men feel as years advance upon 
them, he could not be prevailed upon to allow the use of 
his name in the manner requested, though urged to do so 
by some of the foremost men in his party on the ground 
of the strength it would lend to the ticket. 

In private and public life, alike, Mr. Lawrence has 
ever held the highest esteem of all his associates and the 
respect of all, of all classes and parties, who were cogni- 
zant of his course. In Flushing, where he is best and 
most intimately known, he is regarded as the friend of 
those in need of sympathy and assistance, and the abettor 
of every measure tending to the public good and the 
public improvement. 

(^KJ^ '^L.....^.-^- 


The subject of this sketch is one of the best known 
and most prominent citizens and business men of Flush- 
ing. He was born in Lyman, York county, Maine, Au- 
gust 9th 1827, and was named in honor of Governor 
Albion K. Paris, of Maine. His parents were Jesse and 
Abigail (Hooper) Dennett. His grandfather Joseph 
Dennett was in the patriot service during the entire 
period of the Revolution. 

Mr. Dennett removed with his father's family to the 
town of Dayton, adjoining the town of his birth, when he 
was about twelve years old. He received his education 
in the common schools of that locality, and resided on 
his father's farm until the age of twenty-two, when he 
went to New York city, in 1849, and entered the employ 
of the Knickerbocker Ice Company, with whom he re- 
mained until April 1853, when he embarked in the ice 
trade in New York on his own account, remaining there 
until April 1868, when he removed to Flushing, where he 
has been since extensively and successfully engaged in 
the same trade, his office, at 18}^ Main street, being one 
of the most noticeable business places on that street. 

December 22nd 1853 Mr. Dennett was married to Jane 
M. Smith, of New York, originally of Rensselaer county, 
by whom he has a daughter, Emma Grace, now the wife 
of W. T. James, of the Flushing drug firm of Hepburn & 
James. With his entire family Mr. Dennett is a member 
of the First Baptist Church of Flushing. 

Mr. Dennett cast his first vote with the Whigs, and 
since the organization of the Republican party he has 
been a firm believer in its principles, and has voted with 
it undeviatingly since the Fremont campaign of 1856 
He has never been in the common acceptation of the 



term a politician, though ever alive to the important de- 
mands of the hour. Engrossed in his business affairs, he 
has never sought political preferment, but at the demand 
of his fellow citizens has from time to time accepted im- 
portant public trusts at their hands. He was elected a 
trustee of the village of Flushing in the winter of 187 1, 
to fill a vacancy then existing in the board, by the vote of 
that body, and so satisfactory to the people of the vil- 
lage was his conduct during his term of service that he 
was four times thereafter nominated and elected to the 
same position against his wish and protest, but positively 
refused to qualify and serve the last time. In the spring 
of 1879 he was, in opposition to his own strongly ex- 
pressed desire, nominated and elected to the position of 
supervisor of the town of Flushing, and re-elected in 

In 1858 Mr. Dennett joined Company B of the 12th 
regiment of New York State militia, of New York city, 
as a private and was elected orderly sergeant about a 
month later, serving in that capacity till April 21st 1861, 
when he was made second lieutenant, while the regiment 
was formed in Union Square, just prior to its departure 
for the seat of war in response to the demand of the 
government for three months' men. After the expiration 
of its term of service the regiment returned to New York, 
and in 1862 was re-organized, and Mr. Dennett was 
elected second and subsequently first lieutenant of Com- 
pany D. Later he was several times offered but as often 
declined the captaincy of the company. 

Mr. Dennett is emphatically one of the self-made men 
of Queens county. Early in life he set out to make his 
way in the world by his own unaided exertions, and how 
successful he has been his present enviable position at- 
tests. A man of fine presence and genial and kindly ad- 
dress he has won and retains many friends, who speak 
highly of him as a man and a citizen in all relations of life. 


Benjamin W. Downing was born at Glen Head, Long 
Island, on the first day of April 1835. His ancestry on 
one side was of Quaker stock, and members of the family 
on the paternal side had for many years had their home 
on Long Island. The subject of this sketch received his 
preliminary education at the public schools, but at an 
early age he entered Macedon Academy, at Macedon, 
Wayne county, in this State, where he completed a 
sound practical education, holding a high position in all 
of the various academic classes. Returning to his home 
on Long Island, Mr. Downing commenced the practical 
duties of life as a teacher, devoting a number of years to 
this arduous work. 

His longest term of service in this capacity was at 
Locust Valley, where he brought the public school at 
that place into great and deserved prominence by the 
introduction of new and valuable methods of instruction. 
It was while in charge of this school, in 1856, that he 
was elected to the office of superintendent of schools of 

the town of Oyster Bay; subsequently he was appointed 
school commissioner of all the schools in Queens county 
by the board of supervisors, and this promotion was fol- 
lowed by his election to the same office. Mr. Downing's 
administration of school affairs, continuing seven years 
and six months, was marked by great energy and the 
fullest success. The standard of the schools under his 
jurisdiction was greatly raised, and an impetus was given 
to the cause of popular education in the district that is 
even yet felt and realized. 

Meanwhile Mr. Downing had abandoned his old pro- 
fession of teaching, and had commenced the study of 
law in the office of the Hon. Elias J. Beach, county 
judge of Queens county. This season of law reading 
was supplemented by a severe course of study in the law 
school at Poughkeepsie, from which institution he gradu- 
ated with high honors, receiving the title of LL. B., and 
was duly admitted to practice in the supreme court of 
this State. He established his law office at Flushing, to 
which place he had removed his residence from Locust 
Valley, and at once commenced an active and successful 
professional career. 

Mr. Downing early won deserved distinction at the 
bar. His readiness in grasping the salient features of a 
case, his quick and correct application of the law to the 
facts, his faculty of building up upon the pivotal points 
involved, and the earnestness and force of his appeals to 
juries, made his professional services sought in every 
section of the county and in adjacent localities. In a 
short space of time he became recognized as the most 
able, adroit and effective practitioner at the bar of 
Queens county. Declining a re-election to a third term 
as school commissioner, Mr. Downing was elected in 

1864 to succeed the Hon. John J. Armstrong as district 
attorney of Queens county, and he has since January ist 

1865 continuously held and more than acceptably dis- 
charged the duties of that exceedingly important and 
difficult position. The same qualities which gained for 
Mr. Downing his success as a teacher, school officer and 
private practitioner have made him eminently successful 
as a public prosecutor. Queens county especially de- 
mands a prompt, energetic and able man to fill at all 
acceptably the office of district attorney. With nothing 
but the narrow belt of the East River separating it from 
New York city, it is liable at all times to be overrun with 
desperadoes of the worst metropolitan type; and it is an 
exceedingly fortunate matter for the county ihat under 
the administration of its present district attorney Queens 
has established the reputation among the criminal classes 
of being an exceedingly unpleasant place for them to be 
tried in. During the incumbency of Mr. Downing he 
has prosecuted a large number of indictments, the trials 
of which rank among the causes cehbres. We have 
space only for the enumeration of a very few 
of the more important of these cases. One was 
the trial and conviction of Lewis Jarvis and Elbert 
Jackson for the murder of Samuel Floyd Jones. The 
prisoners were subsequently executed for the offense in 
the old court-house yard m North Heffipsted, this being 







tiie first execution that had occured for many years in 
Queens county. Mr. Downing prosecuted also the in- 
dictments against William Delany for the murder of Cap- 
tain L. Lawrence on the 27th of August 1875 on board 
a vessel lying at the time at anchor in Long Island Sound 
near Port Washington. Delany was also convicted by 
the jury and subsequently executed. Mr. Downing also 
prosecuted the indictments against David Burke for the 
murder of a night watchman at Long Island City. Burke 
was defended with great zeal and ability by the late elo- 
quent John H. Anthon, who when the jury rendered their 
verdict of guilty declared that he would never again de- 
fend a man indicted for a capital offense, and this dec- 
laration was always thereafter strictly adhered to. 
Burke was sentenced to death, but the sentence was sub- 
sequently commuted by the governor to imprisonment 
for life. Other remarkable trials were those of the mur- 
derers of Garrett Nostrand, at Syosett, and the murderer 
of little Maggie Bauer, of Hempstead, some few years 
ago; Mr. Downing securing conviction in all these cases. 
He was particularly active also in the detection and trial 
of the masked burglars of Ravenswood, and succeeded 
in bringing about the conviction and punishment of this 
entire gang of desperadoes, who were sentenced to State 
prison at hard labor for terms varying from twenty to 
thirty-five years. We have specified only a very few of 
the important trials Mr. Downing has conducted as pub- 
lic prosecutor during the last fifteen years. His conduct 
of the affairs of his office has been characterized not only 
by ability but by faithfulness. He has not neglected 
the prosecution of ordinary indictments in order to shine 
brilliantly in the trial of " star" cases, but every indict- 
ment charging the commission of a criminal offence 
when brought to trial by him recived the careful, con- 
scientious treatment of a trained and skillful prosecutor, 
and it was a matter of very rare occurrence that a guilty 
man escaped just punishment when Mr. Downing prose- 
cuted. Of the trial of Elvvood T. Van Nostrand for se- 
duction under promise of marriage, which occupied the 
court of sessions for nearly three days in 1880, the Long 
Island City Star says: 

" The Hon. Judge Busteed addressed the jury on behalf 
of the prisoner, finally closing his terrific denunciations 
at midnight. It had consumed six hours of intense ef- 
fort; with the penalty of utter prostration to the great 
advocate — to the extent of his not being able to appear 
during the remainder of tlie trial or of hearing the reply 
and summing up of Mr. Downing. The address to the 
jury from the district attorney occupied four and a half 
hours. He spoke with much feeling, and it is probable 
that he would have spared denunciation but for the goad- 
ing taunts heaped on the head of the crushed girl by 
Mr. Busteed. Mr. Downing felt too thoroughly the 
frightful harangue roared with phrenzied action against 
the artless girl, who quivered under every blow as if a 
culprit under the Russian knout; and it must be ad- 
mitted that he was more than equal in repayment to Mr. 

Busteed. He had a more manly cause to vindicate, and 
easily won the hearts of the thronged body that flocked 
to hear him." 

While, however, he is zealous and indefatigable as a 
prosecutor, he yet realizes that he is an officer of the 
court charged with the administration of even-handed 
justice. The innocent man unjustly accused is and 
always has been afforded every opportunity at the hands 
of the district attorney to make his innocence manifest, 
and Mr. Downing has been the first to move to nolle 
prosequi an indictment when satisfied as a man and an 
officer that the accused is not guilty of the offense 
charged against him. Mr. Downing has the rare ac- 
complishment of being a most excellent judge of char- 
acter and of human nature, and very much of the success 
he has met at the bar and as a public officer may be at- 
tributed to this fact. A large proportion of the cost of 
conducting the public affairs of Queens — as indeed of 
every county in the State — comes from the expense of 
holding courts of criminal jurisdiction. It will be 
readily seen how far and to what extent a prompt, alert 
and vigorous district attorney can subserve the interests 
of taxpayers in curtailing the sessions of these courts by 
a proper discharge of his official duties. Mr. Downing 
has thus served the citizens of his county, and during his 
extended term of service he has made for himself the 
reputation of being among the first and most efficient 
public prosecutors in the State of New York. That his 
reputation as a lawyer and law officer has passed far be- 
yond the limits of his own county is shown by the fact 
that his name has been within the last few years and is 
now very prominently mentioned in connection with the 
supreme court judgeship of his judicial district. 

It might be readily supposed that the conduct of a 
large private law practice and the full discharge of the 
duties of a position so exacting as the district attorney- 
ship of a large and populous county would more than fill 
the time of any ordinary man. Mr. Downing has, how- 
ever, seemingly unlimited capacities for work. He is 
what the French call "a man of affairs," and, in addition 
to the work we have hastily specified, he has acted as 
trustee of his home village, served as its president, and 
has for many years been one of the members of its board 
of education, of which body he is now the presiding 
officer. He has always taken a deep interest in the local 
affairs of his village, and has contributed very largely to 
build up and develop its resources. He is yet in the 
prime of life, with vigorous health and a robust constitu- 
tion. He is noted for his acts of quiet, unostentatious 
charity, is firm and loyal in his friendship and self- 
reliant and positive in character. While he has already 
left his impress upon the time and locality in which he 
has lived and labored, there is every reason to suppose 
that the future has in store for him a wider fame and a 
still more honorable record. 




The Nicoll family, of which De Lancey NicoU, Esq., 
of Bayside, is the eldest male representative in Queens 
county, is of very ancient origin. Its coat of arms, the 
original of which is in the possession of Samuel Benja- 
min Nicoll, Esq., of Shelter Island, was issued to John 
Nicoll, of Buckingham, near Islip, in the county of 
Northampton, England, in the year 1601, and refers to 
a former John Nicoll, who died in the year 1467. The 
evidence concerning the fortunes of the English branch 
of the family is very scanty, nor is it possible to 
write with certainty of their position. The coat of arms 
however, recites "that, whereas, anciently from the 
beginning it hath been a custome, in all countryes 
and commonwealthes well governed, that the bearing of 
certeyn markes in shields, comonly called armes, have 
byn and are used by persons ever of the best degree and 
calling, as the onlye demonstracons of their prowesse 
and valor in tymes of warre, as for their good life and 
conversacon in tymes of peace, amongst the which 
nomber for that I finde John Nicoll of Buckingham." 

This and certain other family records have led to the 
conclusion that the Nicolls of England belonged to the 
landed gentry, if not to the nobility. The family estate 
in Islip is supposed to have been confiscated at the time 
of the English Revolution. 

The ancestor of the American Nicolls was Matthias 
Nicoll, a lawyer of Lincoln's Inn, who accompanied his 
near relative General Sir Richard Nicoll to America in 
1664. The Duke of York, afterward James the Second, 
having determined to send an expedition to America to 
wrest the important colony of New Amsterdam from the 
Dutch, selected Sir Richard Nicoll, who enjoyed his in- 
timate friendship, to command it. Sir Richard took 
with him his young kinsman Matthias, and having suc- 
cessfully overcoroe the Dutch became the first English 
governor of the colony thereafter known as New York. 
Matthias became the first English colonial secretary. 

Sir Richard Nicoll soon tired of provincial life, and at 
his own request was recalled to England, where he died. 
Matthias, however, determined to remain. So satis- 
factorily to the Dutch citizens, who were inclined to fret 
at the English yoke, did he discharge the duties of secre- 
tary to the colony that he was elected by them to be the 
third mayor of the city of New York. 

His son William Nicoll married Miss Van Rensselaer 
of Albany, the daughter of the patroon, and received from 
the king a patent for a tract of land in Suffolk county, 
some twenty thousand acres in extent, which he settled 
and called Islip Grange, after the estate in Islip in North- 
hamptonshire, England. William Nicoll was a man of 
much distinction in the colony, and was the speaker of 
the first colonial Legislature. On his death the Islip 
estate, which was entailed, descended to his eldest son, 
Benjamin Nicoll. His youngest son, William — known as 
"the speaker" — devoted himself to public affairs and 
was elected speaker of the colonial Legislature eighteen 
consecutive years. He received by gift from his friends 

Nathaniel and Gyles Silvester a handsome estate of 
about four thousand acres on Shelter Island. It is a 
curious fact that the greater part of both the Islip and 
Shelter Island estates still remains in the Nicoll family. 
William " the speaker " was a bachelor, and left the 
Shelter Island property to his nephew William, the son 
of Benjamin, who had in the meantime inherited Islip 
from his father, and who thus became possessed of both 

This William was a man of remarkable abilities and 
enjoyed a great reputation at the bar. 

To his eldest son William descended the estate at 
Islip, but during his lifetime he gave Shelter Island to 
his other son, Samuel Benjamin. The William last men- 
tioned was succeeded by his son William, who was in 
turn succeeded by his son William, the father of the 
present William Nicoll of Islip. 

From Samuel Benjamin Shelter Island descended to 
his children, of whom there were eight. The second son, 
Samuel Benjamin, purchased the portions of his brothers 
and sisters and became the sole proprietor of the estate. 
On his death, in 1866, he left the property to his children 
— Samuel Benjamin, Charlotte Ann, William Courtland, 
Sarah Paine, Matthias and Anne. 

The Nicolls of Bayside represent both the Shelter 
Island and Islip branches of the family. 

Benjamin, the brother of "the speaker," had two sons. 
William, the eldest, as we have seen, inherited Islip 
from his father and acquired Shelter Island from his 
uncle the "speaker. Benjamin, the younger son, came 
to New York city, where he was educated at Kings (now 
Columbi-i) College, and married Mary Madalen, daughter 
of Edward Holland. His eldest son was Henry Nicoll, a 
merchant of much wealth, who purchased a large estate 
at Mastic, in Suffolk county. His eldest son, Edward 
Holland Nicoll, married Mary Townsend, of Albany. 
Like his father he engaged in mercantile life with suc- 
cess. His eldest son, Henry, was a lawyer of promi- 
nence in the city of New York and at one time a 
member of Congress; while his younger son, Solomon 
Townsend Nicoll, followed the footsteps of his father, 
and became a successful merchant. Solomon Town- 
send at the age of 38 married his third cousin 
Charlotte Ann Nicoll, of Shelter Island. In the 
year 1855 he purchased the present Nicoll estate at 
Bayside, designing it for a country seat. The man- 
sion is beautifully situated in a grove of cedars on a 
high bluff, at the foot of which is Little Neck Bay. A 
long avenue of elms and maples, planted by the first pro- 
prietor but already grown to majestic size, makes the ap- 
proach to the house resemble an English country seat. 
The children of Solomon T. Nicoll are: Annie Nicoll, 
who married William M. Hoes, an eminent member of 
the New York bar; De Lancey Nicoll, whose portrait is 
on page — ; Benjamin Nicoll, who married Grace Davison 
Lord, daughter of James Couper and granddaughter of 
the famous Daniel Lord; Edward Holland; and Mary 
Townsend, who married James Brown Lord, a brother of 
of the wife of Benjamin; and Charlotte Nicoll. Both 






Benjamin and Edward Holland are merchants in New 
York city, the former an importer and member of the 
firm of Hall, Nicoll & Granbery, and the latter in the dry 
goods commission business. De Lancey, Benjamin and 
Edward Holland are graduates of St. Paul's School, Con- 
cord, N. H., and of Princeton College. De Lancey grad- 
uated with high honors in 1874, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1876, from Columbia College law school. Since 
that date he has been actively engaged in the practice of 
his profession in New York city, residing, however, with 
his mother at the homestead at Bayside. 

The Nicoll family has intermarried with many of the 
old colonial families, including the Van Rensselaer, Dc 
Lancey, Woodhull, Floyd, Townsend, Lawrence, Havens, 
Holland, Saulsbury and Keteltas families. 

While no one member has attained any special distinc- 
tion, the family in general has retained for two hundred 
years that prominent position which means and education 
always command. Almost all the male representatives 
have been educated at one of the great American uni- 
versities and have been members of the federal or the 
State Legislature, while many of the females have been 
distinguished for personal beauty and varied accomplish- 

It is indeed an unusual circumstance in America to 
find a family, which, since the advent of its ancestor 
over two hundred years ago, has retained through all the 
changes and progressions of American life not only its 
integrity and traditions, but its property and landed 
estates, and its high social position. 


^ HE town of Hempstead is the largest in the 
county of Queens, containing one hundred 
square miles, or sixty-four thousand acres. 
. It originally extended north to Long Island 
Sound, L)ut the present town of North Hempstead 
was taken from it by an act of the Legislature 
passed April 6th 1784. The line established was 
the County road that leads from Jamaica nearly through 
the middle of Hempstead Plains to the east part there- 
of," and the part south of this line was to be thereafter 
called South Hempstead. The same act also provided 
that the inhabitants of either town should enjoy the right 
of oystering, fishing and clamming in the waters of both. 
On the 7th of April 1801 the name of South Hempstead 
was changed to Hempstead. 

Hempstead is bounded north by North Hempstead, 
east by Oyster Bay, south by the Atlantic Ocean, and 
west by Jamaica. 

Successive censuses have shown constant growth in the 
population of the town, except during the civil war. The 
figures for recent years are as follows : 1845, 8,269; ^^5°, 
8,811; 1855, 10,477; i860, 12,375; 1865, 11,764; 1870, 
13,999; 1875, 14,792; 1880, 18,160. 

Relics of the Indians. 

Many interesting relics of the aborigines have been 
found at Hempstead and vicinity. These relics are of 
local interest and of increasing value, illustrating as they 
do much of the life history of a people almost extinct on 
the island, 

In 1862 two copper axes, with four of jasper, were 
found at Rockville Center, in a field near the village, 
three feet below the surface. They were surrounded by 
spear heads of flint, set upright in a circle. The copper 
axes were evidently of native copper, and wrought into 
their present form by hammering. One of these, in pos- 
session of the Long Island Historical Society, is seven 
inches long by four and one-half broad. These relics 
are rude in pattern and the deep corrosion of their sur- 
face indicates that they are of considerable antiquity. 
These axes are doubtless from the copper-bearing regions 
of the upper lakes, and indicate that the Long Island In- 
dians were in intercourse with those of the copper region. 
There is no probability that the Indians of Long Island 

knew anything of the working of copper. They were 
workers of stone, but not of metals. Stone axes, clubs 
and spear and arrow heads were found at an early date 
throughout the island. All these are of the same material 
as composes the rocks of Long Island. Flint, quartz, 
jasper, compact sandstone and slaty rock pestles, mortars, 
whetstones and pottery have been frequently found, but 
not as frequently as one would expect from the density 
of the Indian population. A large whetstone or milling 
stone of silicious slaty rock was found at Rorkaway a 
few years ago; and a well-formed skull was taken from 
an Indian grave in Rockaway. It was found enclosed 
in a round urn-shaped vessel, the skeleton being upright 
and the vessel turned over the head; on the outside it 
is rudely worked or carved. The entire skull and about 
half of the urn were preserved. 

Among other curious relics of olden times is a receipt 
book found in 1876 in a package of rags by James R. 
Brightman, of Rockville Center. It had been the prop- 
erty of Hendrick Onderdonk. It was leather bound, and 
the writing, although over a hundred years old, would 
compare favorably with manuscript of to-day. Many re- 
ceipts dated back to 1752. 

The Early Inhabitants. 

The first white settlement in the town was made in 
1643, by settlers from Stamford, Connecticut, who had 
emigrated from Hemal, Hempstead, England, a few years 
previous. The natives had sold the territory of Hemp- 
stead to Rev. Robert Fordham and John Carman in 1643, 
and, as it was under Dutch jurisdiction, these gentlemen 
obtained a patent for the land from Governor Kieft on 
the i6th of November 1644. One of the conditions of the 
patent was that they should pay the government a tax of 
one-tenth part of their farm produce in ten years after 
the first general peace with the Indians. It seems that 
Fordham and Carman were acting as a committee for the 
settlers at Stamford, and as soon as the arrangements 
were made with the natives they removed to Long Isl- 
and and settled within the present limits of the village 
of Hempstead. The first arrival of settlers consisted of 
between thirty and forty families. Among the most prom- 
inent were Richard Guildersleeve, Edward, Thurston 
and William Raynor, Rev. Richard Denton, Matthew 



Mitchell, Captain John Underhill, Robert Coe, Rev. 
Robert Fordham, John Carman, Andrew Ward, Jonas 
Wood, John Ogden and Robert Jackson, nearly all hav- 
ing; descendants on the island at the present day. 

Several of the first settlers had been persons of dis- 
tinction in New England. Thurston Raynor and Mr. 
Guildersleeve had been magistrates for Stamford. Ward, 
Coe and Mitchell were commissioners for Stamford, 
Ward having been a judge for the first court ever held in 
New Haven, in the year 1636. Many of them Iiad served 
as legislators, and all were of excellent character. The 
first division of land, as appears by the records, took 
place in 1647, and it shows that there were at that time 
sixty two freeholders in the town. As a general thing 
the most pacific relations existed between the whites or 
planters and their Indian neighbors; yet collisions some- 
times took place. It was found necessary to concert 
measures to prevent their recurrence, and the governor 
on one occasion convened the sachems and head men of 
the Marsapeagues and other tribes at the village of 
Hempstead, on the 12th of March 1656, when a general 
treaty was agreed upon by the governor and Tackapousha, 
the chief sachem. Among the articles of agreement were 
the following interesting provisions: 

Section I. — " That all injuries formerly passed in the 
time of the governor's predecessors shall be forgiven and 
forgotten, since ye ye:r 1645." 

Section V. — " The governor doth promise, betwixt this 
date and six months, to build a house or fort upon such 
place as they shall show upon the north side, and the 
house or fort to be furnished with Indian trade and com- 

Section VI. — "That the inhabitants of Hempsteede, 
according to their patent, shall enjoy their purchase 
without molestation from ye sachem or his people, either 
of person or estate; and the sachem will live in peace 
with all ye English and Dutch within this jurisdiction. 
And the governor doth promise for himself and all his 
people to live in peace with ye sachem and all his people." 

Section VII. — " That in case an Indian do wrong to a 
Christian in person or estate, and complaint be made to 
the sachem, he shall make full satisfaction; likewise if a 
Dutchman or Englishman shall wrong an Indian the 
governor shall make satisfaction according to equity. 

On the 4th of July 1647 the Indians of Hempstead, 
represented by the sachems Tackapousha and Wautogh, 
with seven other Indians, probably sachems or head men 
representing the Indian tribes of Hempstead, ratified 
and confirmed the purchase which had been made from 
the Indians in 1643. This agreement or release was sub- 
scribed before John James, clerk, and in presence of John 
Hicks, John Seaman and Richard Gildersleeve. Upon 
payment of the balance due to the Indians on the pur- 
chase price of the lands, the last installment being paid 
February 14th, 1660, the following curious relase wag 
executed by the Indians: 

" We the Indians underwritten do hereby acknowledge 
to have received of the magistrates and inhabitants of 
Hemsteede our pay in full satisfaction for the tract of 

land sould unto tliem according to agreement and accord- 
ing to patent and purchase. The general boundes is as 
followeth: beginning at a place called Mattagarrett's 
Bay, and soe running upon a direct line north and south, 
from sea to sea; the boundes running from Hempsteede 
Harbour due east to a pointe of treese adjoining to the 
iande of Robert Williams, where we left markt treese; 
the same line running from sea to sea; the other line be- 
ginning at a markt tree standing at the east end of the 
greate plaine and running a due south line, at the south 
sea by a markt tree in a neck called Maskachoung. And 
wee doe further engage ourselves to u])hold this our 
present act and all our former agreements to bee just and 
lawful; and wee doe binde ourselves to save and defend 
them harmless from any manner of claime or pretense 
that sliall be made to disturb theire right. Whereunto 
we have subscribed this eleventh day of May Anno 1658, 
stilo novo. 

" Waautauch, Tackapousha, 

Cheknow, Martom, 

Sayasstock, Pers-Roma. 

" Subscribed by Wacombound, Montauk sachem after 
the death of his father, this 14th day of February 1660, 
being a general town meeting at Hemsteede. 

" John James, clerk." 

This instrument probably describes the same general 
boundaries as are set forth in the patent of Governor 
Kieft, and described in the original contract and purchase 
in 1643. 

February 27th 1658 the citizens of Hempstead, by the 
hand of their clerk John James, petitioned Governor 
Stuyvesant as follows: 

"After the remembrance of our submissive and humble 
respects, it hath pleased God, after a sickly and sad som- 
mer, to give us a seasonable and comfortable autumne, 
wherewith wee have beene (throw mercy) refreshed our- 
selves and have gained strength of God soe that wee ne- 
cessarily have been employed in getting winter foode for 
our cattell, and thereby have something prolonged our 
wonted tyme of chosing magestrates, for ye wch wee hope 
yor honour will hold us excused; and now, accordinge to 
our accustomed manner, wee have voted and put upon 
denomination our former magestrate, Mr. Gildersleeve, 
and with him William Shodden, Robert I'orman and 
Henry Pearsall; all of them are knowing men of honest 
life and good integrity; therefore wee desire your honour 
to appoint two of them, and always according to our 
duty shall pray the most high God to bless and preserve 
yor honour with much health and prosperity, in all your 
noble designs, wee humbly take our leave. 

" Ever honoured sr., your Loyall, true and obedient 
servants, the inhabitants of Hemsteede. 

"John James, clerk." 

To the records of the town, Thompson's "History of 
Long Island " and the "Annals of Hempstead " we are 
indebted for the following extracts: 

March 28th 1658, stilo novo. — " This day ordered that 
Mr. Gildersleeve, John Hicks, John Seaman, Robert Jack- 
son and William Foster are to go with Cheknow, sent 
and authorized by ye Montake Sachem to marck and lay 
out ye generall bounds of ye lands belonging to ye towne 
of Hemsteede, according to ye extent of ye limits and 
jurisdiction of ye said town; to be known by her markt 
trees and other places of note, to continue for ever; and 
in case Tackapousha, Sagamore of Marsapeague, with 
his Indians, doth come according to their agreement, 
then to lay out the said bounds." 




April T2th 1658. — Ordered by the townsmen of Hem- 
steede, that all ye fences of ye frontiere lotts that shall 
runn into ye field shall be substantially made by ye 25th 
of this monthe of April, and any person found negligent 
shall forfeit 5 shillings to the towne; and whoever shall 
open the towne gates, and neglect to shut them or to put 
up the barrs, shall pay the like sum. one half to the towne 
and the other half to the informer; also, William Jacoks 
and Edward Raynor to be cow-keeps for the year; the 
people to be ready at the sounding of the horn to send 
out their cows, and the keeper to be ready to take charge 
of them sun half an hour high, and to bring them home 
half an hour before sunset, to water them at reasonable 
hours, and to be driven beyond East Meadows, to pre- 
vent damage in the cornfields; to be allowed 12 shilling': 
sterling a week from nth of May to loth of August, and 
then 15 shillings a week till the 23d of Oct. The first 
payment to be made in butter; that is, for each cow one 
pound butter, at 6d. a pound, and the remainder in 

The town deputed Richard Gildersleeve, July roth 
1658, to go to Manhattan and agree with the governor con- 
cerning the tithes, "which are not to exceed 100 sheeples 
of wheat " and to be delivered, if required, at the town 
harbor; the charge of his journey to be defrayed by the 
town. The town agreed to pay the herdsmen 12 shil- 
lings sterling a week in butter, corn and oats, at fixed 
prices. Six bushels of corn were allowed by the town 
for killing a wolf. The price of corn was 2s. 6d. a bushel, 
wheat 4s., pork 3d. a pound, butter 6d. a pound, lodging 
2d. a night, beer 2d. a mug, board 5s. a week, victuals 6d. 
a meal, and labor 2s. 66. a day. 

Drunkenness being prevalent in the place, January 
14th 1659 a former order was renewed as follows: " That 
any that have formerly or shall hereafter transgress shall 
pay for ye first fault 10 guilders, for the second 20 
guilders and for the third to stand to the determinacion 
of ye Court, according to ye first order." 

During the same year, at a town meeting, it was de 
cided that any person absenting himself or herself from 
public worship on the Lord's day, or other public days, 
should for the first offense pay five shillings, for the sec- 
ond ten, for the third twenty, and after that be subjected 
to "corporal punishment, or banishment." 

" About this period Cow Neck was enclosed by a post 
and rail fence, which extended from Hempstead harbor 
to the head of the creek dividing Cow Neck from Great 
Neck; and every person was entitled to piit in a number 
of cows or cattle to pasture, in proportion to the number 
of standing gates or pannels of fence made by him. Af- 
terward, in the distribution of lands, the shares of in- 
dividuals were adjusted by the same rule, inconsequence 
of which this neck was divided among a small number of 
people. The lands about Rockaway were enclosed in 
like manner." 

In the years 1683-S5 considerable anxiety was felt on 
account of a requirement by Governor Dongan that the 
town take out a new patent. After holding town meet- 
ings for three years, during which time several parties 
were sent to New York to confer with the governor, an 
instrument was drawn which was satisfactory to both 
parties. It required the inhabitants to make a yearly 

payment in New York of " twenty bushels of good win- 
ter wheat, or four pounds in good current money of New 
York, on or before the twenty-fifth day of l\Iarch," In 
addition to this the ])eople had presented to the gov- 
ernor and his secretary 650 acres of land. In the same 
year Paman, sagamore of Rockaway, and others sold 
Rockaway Neck to a merchant of New York, claiming 
that said territory was not within the limits of the pur- 
chase of 1643. Accordingly a tax of 2^4 pence per acre 
was levied on the taxable inhabitants, i6o in number, to 
liquidate the price; ^442.50 was raised by this means. 

In speaking of the first church Rev. Mr. Jenney says : 
"It is an ordinary wooden building, 40 feet long and 26 
wide, the roof covered with cedar shingles and the sides 
clapboarded with oak; witliin it is not ceiled overhead, 
but the sides are boarded with pine. There is no pulpit, 
but a raised desk only, having a cloth and cushion of 
silk; a large table stands before the desk, where the 
justices and leading men sit when they come to church. 
There are no pews except one for the secretary; the rest 
of the church is filled with open benches." 

August ist 1683 the town voted that Jeremy Wood 
should have ten shillings a year " for looking after the 
opening and shutting of the window shutters belonging 
to the meeting-house, and to look carefully after the hour 

October 30th 1702 the Assembly of the colony ordered 
Major Jackson to acquaint the town of Hempstead that a 
public school was designed to be erected among them, and 
to inquire what encouragement they would give the same. 

From the " Early History of Hempstead," by Charles 
B. Moore, we take the following list of proprietors of 
Hempstead in 1647: Robert Ashman, Thomas Armitage, 
Samuel Baccus, John Carman, Samuel Clark, Benjamin 
and John Coe and their father Robert, Rev. Richard 
Denton and his sons Samuel, Richard, Nathaniel and 
Daniel (the historian), John Ellison, John Foucks, Rev. 
Robert Fordham and son John, Christopher Foster, 
Thomas Foster, Richard Guildersleeve, John Hicks, John 
Hudd, Henry Hudson, Thomas Ireland, Robert Jackson, 
John Lawrence, William Lawrence, John Lewis, Richard 
Lewis, Roger Lines, John Ogden, Richard Ogden, Henry 
Pierson, Thomas Pope, Edward Raynor, William Ray- 
nor, William Rogers, Joseph Scott, William Scott, Simon 
Sering, John Sewell, William Shadden, Thomas Sher- 
man, Abraham Smith, James Smith, John Smith sen. and 
John Smith jr., William Smith, Thomas Stephenson, John 
Storye, John Strickland, Samuel Strickland, Nicholas 
Tanner, John Topping, William Thickstone, Richard 
Valentine, William Washburne, Daniel Whitehead, Henry 
Whitson, Thomas Willett, Robert Williams, William 
Williams, Edmund Wood, Jeremiah Wood, Jonas Wood, 
Francis Yates. At least ten of these men were from 
Yorkshire, Eng. ; probably more. 

Early Court Proceedings. 

At a court held at Hempstead commencing May 7th 
1658 Robert Jackson and William Smith were plaintiffs 
in an action for abuse and misdemeanor committed by 



Henry Linington, defendant. At the same court Peter 
Cornelissen sued Linington in an action of accounts, 
and the following year Linington was also defendant in 
an action for defamation, in which James Pine was plain- 
tiff. The early court records are full of interest, and the 
law was possibly dealt out with more care and justice 
than is found in the courts of the present day. From 
Onderdonk's " Annals of Hempstead " we quote the 
following records: 

1658, July 25. — Richard Valentine having reported 
that Thomas Southard went up and down with a club, 
the latter, meeting him one morning as he was going 
about his avocations, struck him on the face. As South- 
ard still menaced and threatened to further beat him, he 
took oath that he stood in danger and fear of his life, 
and required the peace and that Southard might put in 
security for his good behavior. It is therefore ordered 
by Mr. Richard Gildersleeve, for that Thomas Southard 
did contemj^tuously resist authority in refusing to obey 
the marshal with his warrant, and did fly the same and 
betook himself to his own house for his refuge, in con- 
sideration of these outrages and misdemeanors he is re- 
quired to put in security for his appearance at court. 
And said Southard doth bind himself and all his lands, 
goods and chattels, to appear at court, and meantime to 
keep the peace and good behavior. 

At a court held December 28, on the submission of 
Southard, and paying all costs, the penalty and fault are 
remitted in hopes of his reformation. Valentine is also 
reconciled, and doth remit the abuse done unto him. 

1659, January 2. — Thomas Ireland complains of Rich- 
ard lirudenell, keeper of an ordinary, for using deceitful 
dealings, and produces in court the following witnesses: 

Mary, wife of Richard Willis, srnt her child for a pint 
of sack and he afterwards demanded pay for a quart. 

William Jacocks bought four cans of beer, one day last 
spring, and was booked seven. He paid it. 

Thomas Langdon was charged for four bushels of oats 
and had but two, and a few oats in a piggin, and a tray — 
being half a bushel. 

Richard Lattin, four or five years ago, agreed with 
Brudenell for diet of himself and son for twelve shillings 
the week, and had it a week and four days, which did 
come to twenty shillings. Lattin said it was ten days, 
but Brudenell made it eleven, and said if he would not 
pay for eleven he would show him such a trick as he 
never had seen; that is, he would set upon his book a 
guilder a meal and eight pence a night for his bed, and 
then he should pay whether he would or not. 

The court find, January 14, that Brudenell's books are 
false and not fit to pass in law, and he is to pay twelve 
guilders for calling a court, else execution to follow. 

1659, January 14. — Robert Lloyd, having spoken un- 
seemly words to the dishonor of God and the evil exam- 
ple of others, is fined ten guilders. But having, Febru- 
ary II, made an acknowledgment of his fault, the court 
hath remitted the fine, on his reformation. 

J 659, January 16. — Daniel Whitehead, when he lived 
at Hempstead, lost linen and other goods, and upon 
search he found at Richard Brudenell's a brass candle- 
stick and one small striped linen carpet and one table 
napkin which he doth judge to be his own. AVhereas 
Brudenell would not enter into recognizance and utterly 
refused the favor of the court, he is condemned to re- 
store fourfold — that is, twenty-eight shillings sterling — 
else execution to follow in fourteen days. He appeals 
to the governor, and the answer in Dutch may be seen 
in the Hempstead court minutes. 

1659, May I. — Robert Jackson contra Richard Lattin — 

action of tlie case, defamation to the value of ;^ioo ster- 
ling damages. Jackson in his declaration says that, hav- 
ing occasions of account with Lattin, upon some debate 
he gave him very bad language tending to his defamation 
and scandal, and amongst other evil words called him a 
rascal. The court, June 5, sentences him to forty guild- 
ers fine, or corporal punishment, unless he submissively 
acknowledges, in presence of the court, that he hath 
wronged Mr. Jackson, and is sorry for it. 

1659, May I. — Robert Williams sent to the mill of 
Hempstead six bushels of good Indian corn and de- 
livered it into the keeping of William, son of Peter Cor- 
nelissen, to be ground. He received two bushels, but 
the rest of the meal lay on the mill-bed and had been 
spoiled by the rain beating upon it, and was grown sour 
and not fit for man's food. When Williams demanded 
satisfaction Cornelissen refused, and said he had carried 
corn himself to Manhattans mill and it took damage and 
he could get no recompense. He then desired Cornelis- 
sen to put out the meal and give him the sack, but he 
told him he would not meddle with it. The court ad- 
judge Cornelissen to make good the damage done unto 
the sack and meal by giving him good meal, and in case 
they cannot agree, then to stand at the judgment of two 
indifferent men; and Cornelissen is to pay court charges 
and give satisfaction within fourteen days, or before he 
depart the town, else execution to follow. 

1659, June II. — It is ordered that all wills proved in 
this court at Hempstead shall pay six guilders unto the 
use of the court, and the clerk and marshal's fee. 

1658, September 2. — Among other items in the last 
will of Nicholas Tanner is that "a beast shall be sold to 
buy some linen to bury me in, and also a sheet and other 
things that shall be needful, and the white-faced cow 
killed at my burial and given to the neighbors." 

1649, Nov., Richard Lamson put out a cow to Joseph 
Schott to winter. He removed that winter from Hemp- 
stead, and the cow was to be returned next spring to 
Samuel Clark, his agent, but Schott refused, though 
Clark tendered security. Schott says the cow proved 
unsound in her bag, and the spring following, being far- 
row, he put her down to the common pasture to feed, 
and in the fall sold her to D. Whitehead. Her calf he 
maintained till it came to be a cow, and she had one 
calf, and another which was destroyed by wolves. The 
cow, being well so far forth as he knew, was found dead 
one morning, leaving a calf. The court order Schott to 
pay for the cow ;^, and 20s. for one summer's milk, 
with one guilder on the pound interest upon interest for 
eight years, and costs, and ids. for the plaintiff's charges 
for this journey. Schott [iiUinw January 1659) makes a 
tender of goods to the valuation of the aforesaid sura, to 
be publicly sold at outcry by the marshal, and engages 
to save him harmless. Primo February Schott's barn 
and appurtenance, with his home-lot (three acres), is sold 
to George Hcwlet for ;^5.4 in present passable pay. I, 
Thomas Skidmore (May 6 1659), have received ;^i5.9.6 
in full satisfaction of the above sentence, in behalf of 
Edward Higbie of Huntington. 

1660, January 21. — John Smith jr. sues Thomas El- 
lison in an action for trespass, for that he did ride his 
mare double, contrary to his knowledge, and his mare 
was lamed to his damage 40s. Ellison answers that he 
was at John Carman's door, and at his wife Hannah's re- 
quest did ride before her to Oyster Bay, on Saturday, 
and on the Lord's day kept the mare there and on Mon- 
day rode her back and delivered her to John Carman. 
The court doth condemn the plaintiff in all the court 
charges, to be paid within fourteen days, else execution 
to follow. 

1660, February 19. — Thomas Hicks, in behalf of his 



wiie, Mary, Inte wife of John Washburn, deceased, de- 
mands certain legacies bequeathed by William Washburn 
to his son John: Imprimis, one-third of Mr. Washburn's 
meadow; itetn, two sows, one yearling, one pestle and 
mortar, two ox-pastures and five gates in the Neck. The 
court order the above to be delivered to plaintiff, for the 
use of John Washburn jr. 

Hempstead in the Revolutionary War. 

In various i)laces in the History of Hempstead allu- 
sions are made to incidents connected with the Revo- 
lutionary war. In this sketch we purpose to give quota- 
tions, together with facts gathered, many of which have 
never before been published. Many quotations are taken 
from Onderdonk's " Documents and Letters," published 
in 1849. 

At Hempstead April 4th 1775 the inhabitants, assem- 
bled, passed the following resolutions: 

" First, That, as we have already borne true and faith- 
ful allegiance to his Majesty King George the Third, 
our gracious and lawful sovereign, so we are firmly re- 
solved to continue in the same line of duty to him and 
his lawful successors. 

" Second, That we esteem our civil and religious liber- 
ties above any other blessings, and those only can be se- 
cured to us by our present constitution; we shall invio- 
lably adhere to it, since deviating from it and introducing 
innovations would have a direct tendency to subvert it, 
from which the most ruinous consequences might justly 
be apprehended. 

" Third, That it is our ardent desire to have the pres- 
ent unnatural contest between the parent State and her 
colonies amicably and speedily accommodated on prin- 
ciples of constitutional liberty; and that the union of the 
colonies with the parent State may subsist till time shall 
be no more. 

^^ Fourth, That as the worthy members of our General 
Assembly, who are our only legal and constitutional rep- 
resentatives, * * * have petitioned his most gracious 
Majesty, sent a memorial to the House of Lords and a 
remonstrance to the House of Commons, we are deter- 
mined to wait patiently the issue of those measures, and 
avoid everything that might frustrate those laudable en- 

" Fifth, That, as choosing deputies to form a Provincial 
Congress or convention must have this tendency, be 
highly disrespectful to our legal representatives, and also 
be attended, in all probability, with the most ]iernicious 
effects in other instances, as is now actually the case in 
some provinces — such as shutting up courts of justice, 
levying money on the subjects to enlist men for the pur- 
pose of fighting against our sovereign, diffusing a spirit 
of sedition among the people, destroying the authority of 
constitutional assemblies, and otherwise introducing 
many heavy and oppressive grievances — we therefore are 
determined not to choose any deputies, nor consent to 
it, but do solemnly bear our testimony against it. 

" Sixth, That we are utterly averse to all mobs, riots 
and illegal proceedings, by which the lives, peace and 
property of our fellow subjects are endangered; and that 
we will to the utmost of our power support our legal 
magistrates in suppressing all riots, and preserving the 
peace of our liege sovereign." 

Notwithstanding these resolutions, at a meeting of 
freeholders of the county, held at Jamaica May 22nd 
i775> Thomas Hicks and Captain Richard Thome were 
elected to represent Hempstead, and on June 26th 

Thomas Hicks, of Little Neck, elected for Hempstead, 
declined taking his seat " because he was informed by 
several leading men that the people of Hempstead seemed 
much inclined to remain peaceable and quiet." 

Hempstead was a small village in the war, with only 
nine houses between the brooks, three of which were 

The village was selected by the British as one of their 
outposts, " as convenient quarters for their light horse, 
who would be near the city in case of attack, and could 
also make excursions to gather forage, etc., for the city, 
and scour the country when the rebels landed from the 
main." Houses were patrolled and soldiers were to be 
found for miles around Hempstead, and sentry boxes 
were scattered all about what is now Hempstead village. 
The Presbyterian church was used as a barrack for sol- 
diers, and later the floors were taken out, and the build- 
ing was used as a riding school for drilling horses. The 
grave-stones were used for fire-backs, hearths and oven 
bottoms. On the outside of the church were rings, to 
which soldiers were suspended by one hand with a foot 
resting on a sharp stake set in the ground, the remaining 
hand and foot being tied together. These points under 
foot were occasionally of iron, and by the writhing of the 
sufferer would sometimes pierce through the foot. The 
culprit was then sent to the hospital, and would often be 
lame for weeks. This was the punishment of the light 
horse. The Hessians ran the gauntlet. An apple tree 
east of the burying ground was used as a whipping-post. 

Along the brook east of the village there were huts for 
the soldiers, built of sods. Boards were very scarce, and 
the Presbyterian church at Foster's Meadow and the 
Presbyterian church at Islip were taken down and con- 
veyed to Hempstead, where the lumber was used in 
making barracks and stables. From 1778 until peace 
was declared the light horse made Hempstead their 
headquarters during the winter, and occasionally they re- 
cruited in the summer, allowing their horses to wander 
into the fields of grain and clover fields, which in many 
cases were entirely destroyed. A fixed price was gen- 
erally allowed for such damage, which was paid in New 
York. These horsemen, called the " Queen's Own," it is 
said were well disciplined and finely equipped. 

The wood yard and hay magazine were north of Sam- 
mis's inn, enclosed and guarded. There were to be seen 
numerous large stacks of hay, containing one or two hun- 
dred loads each. 

From 1778 the militia was called out several times to 
capture "Americans " or " rebels," so-called, who made 
excursions to the island in search of .cattle and plunder. 
We copy an account of one of these raids: 

"Last Sunday [about July ist 1779] two rebel whale- 
boats, on which were seventeen men, made their appear- 
ance at Hog Island, near Rockaway. The militia were soon 
alarmed, and a party was dispatched in two boats, while 
the others marched along shore and secreted themselves 
arnong the brush at the entrance of and along the creek, 
at which they entered. The rebels had scarcely landed 
when they observed the two boats corainji into the inlet, 
on which they endeavored to escape; but finding they 



were surrrounded and fired on from all quarters they 
surrendered. Some time after three others of the same 
gentry came rowing along shore, and, observing their two 
boats, made into the inlet and fell also into the hands of 
the militia. These boats were fitted out at Saybrook, 
Conn., with a brass two-pounder in the bow of each, and 
have a commission from Governor Trumbull to plunder 
the inhabitants of Long Island. The prisoners, forty- 
one in number, were brought to town yesterday." 

"In July 1780 the British ship 'Galatea' ran ashore, 
near Hog Island, the sloop 'Revenue,' privateer, of 
New London, VV. Jagger commander, fitted out by Joseph 
Woolridge, carrying 12 guns and 52 men. The vessel 
bilged, the men jumped overboard and swam ashore with 
their arms, where the militia of Hempstead captured 
them. Several other captures were made of rebels, 
who evidently believed Long Island and all its people to 
be loyal to the crown. 

" People would sometimes take a spy-glass and climb 
on the roof of their houses, and if they saw any whale- 
boats in the bay they would remove their valuables to a 
hiding place, leaving only a few articles in the house. 
The robbers would then ransack the house, curse them 
for their poverty, and depart. Stores were often nearly 
emptied in this way of an afternoon, and the goods re- 
placed next morning; but if the owners were once caught 
they were likely to be tortured till the goods were forth- 
coming. The alarm was spread by guns or horn blowing." 

In November 1781, in a letter dated at Poughkeepsie, 
Governor George Clinton, being informed that friends 
on Long Island expressed a desire of advancing money 
for the use of the State, sent a person with the following: 

" State of New York, ss. — I hereby pledge the faith of 
said State for the repayment of the sum of one thousand 
pounds, current money of said State, in specie, with in- 
terest at the rate of six per cent, per annum, to John 
Sands, Esq., or order, within one year after the conclu- 
sion of the present war with Great Ikitain. 

" Given at Poughkeepsie, this ist day of June, 1782. 
"Witness, Geo. Trimble. Geo. Clinton." 

The amount was raised as follows: Major R. Thorne, 
;^2oo; John Thorne, _;^2oo; John Sands, ^400; Daniel 
Whitehead Kissam, ^200. The notes were paid. 

In September 1775, Congress being destitute of arms, 
it was resolved that all "found in the hands of any per- 
son who has not signed the general association shall be 
impressed for the use of said troops." Said arms were 
to be appraised, and in case they were not returned the 
owner was to receive the appraised value. Companies 
were detailed to visit Hempstead. Considerable diffi- 
culty was encountered, but later, in January 1776, we 
find the following: " The battalion left Col. Heard at 
Hempstead last Wednesday with 600 or 700 militia, 
where great numbers of tories were every hour coming 
in and delivering up their arms." Again: "Col. Heard 
crossed Hurl Gate ferry and proceeded through Newtown 
to Jamaica, at Betts's tavern, and left on a Sunday for 
Hempstead. There was great talk of opposition in 
Hempstead, but it was at last concluded to submit. 
His quarters were at Nathaniel Sammis's. 

It being ordered. May loth 1776, that the county 
committee form and regulate the militia without delay, 
we find the following regarding Hempstead: 

South Hempstead. — Foster Meadow company, 98 men; 

oflicers, none. Far Rockaway comi)any, 90 men; Peter 
Smith captain, Benjamin Cornell lieutenant. South 
Hempstead company, no men; officers, none. Jeru- 
salem company, 85 men; Richard Jackson captain, Zeb. 
Seaman lieutenant. 

North Hempstead. — North Side company, 120 men ; 
Philip Valentine captain, Coe Searing second lieutenant. 
Cow Neck and Great Neck company, 130 men; Andrew 
Onderdonk ensign. 

Total number in North and South Hempstead and 
Oyster Bay, r,028 men. The following were the higher 
officers: Colonel, John Sands; lieutenant colonel, Benja- 
niin Birdsall; majors, Richard Thorne and John Hender- 

At one time Stephen Rider, with some Jamaica minute- 
men, went to Hempstead to hunt defaulters. A party 
of nine, in two sedgeboats, were concealed in the swamp 
at the head of Demott's (now Dordon's) mill pond. 
On this occasion one Rider climbed an oak tree to re- 
connoitre, when a ball whistled by his head. He saw by 
the smoke whence it came, and a loaded gun being 
handed him he fired, and the ball passed through the 
body of George Smith. The wound was dressed by Drs. 
Searing and Seabury, and Smith, being a young and 
vigorous man, recovered. 

During the month of July 1776 precautions were taken 
for saving the cattle and crops from the British should 
they attempt to land on the island. Colonel Birdsall 
with a command of recruits was sent to Far Rockaway, 
where sentinels were placed in the most advantageous 
positions for observing the approach of the enemy. In 
August Captain P. Nostrand was stationed at the same 
place with forty-six men, to guard the coast. There was 
a guard at David Mott's, and at Hog Island inlet was a 
guard boat. 

According to one account, " Nelly Cornell, looking out 
of an upper window of a house, called .to the American 
officer and told him she saw trees rising from the ocean." 
He looked, called another officer, and said, " That's the 
British fleet. Down with the tents, and let's be off to the 
ferry." Wagons were then impressed to convey the bag- 
gage, and all the cattle were driven off. 

August 25th Congress resolved that all horses, horned 
cattle and sheep south of the ridge of hills in Queens 
county be removed to Hempstead Plains ; that the in- 
habitants remove all grain then in barns or barracks to a 
distance from buildings, that it might be burnt, if neces- 
sary to prevent its falling into the hands of the enemy. A 
little later the regiments were ordered by General Wash- 
ington to withdraw from Long Island. Afterward a 
large portion of the militia returned to Long Island and 
took British protection, to save their property and pro- 
tect their families. 

According to Onderdonk, it is not known when the 
British first came to North Hempstead ; but probably 
immediately after Washington left the island their light 
horse hunted out the leading Whigs and impressed wagons. 

Since the Revolutionary war and during the last cen- 
tury the growth of the town of Hempstead has been gene- 
ral, many hamlets springing up. The village histories 
below will be of interest to the reader, showing how 



rapid has been the growth of Hempstead, not only in 
po])uhuion but in wealth, during the last one hundred 

The Civil List, etc. 

Postmasters since 1850. — John W. Smith, four years; 
Ebenezer Kellum, eight; C. C. Rhodes, about six; 
Robert T. Powell, two; Sands Powell jr., three; Dr. 
Morris Snedeker, eight; J. S. Snedeker, the present 
incumbent, since June 14th 1880. 

Justices of t/ie Peace since i860. — Henry Pearsall, i860, 
1864; John Pettit, 1861; James M. Seaman, 1862, 1866, 
1870, 1874; Oliver Lossee jr., 1863, 1875, 1876, 1879; 
Thomas H. Clowes, 1865; John A. Smith, 1867; Samuel 
I)e Mott, 1868; Ebenezer Kellum, 1869; Valentine 
Kitchen, 1871; Sylvenus Johnson, 1872; J. Seymour 
Snedeker, 1873; C. Matthews, 1876; B. Valentine 
Clowes, 1877, 1881; T. D. Smith, 1878; Edwin J. 
Healey, 1880. 

Supervisors since 1785. — Major John Hendrickson, 
1785; Nathaniel Seaman, 1786-92; Joseph Pettit, 179396, 
1798-1802; Hezekiah Bedell, 1797; Richard Bedell, 
1803-10, 1812-18; Oliver Denton, 1811; John D. Hicks, 
i8r9, 1820; Ehas Hicks, 1S21, 1822; John Simonson, 
1823, 1824; Robert Davison, 1825-35; John W. De 
Molt, 1836, 1844-46; Charles De Mott, 1837-41; Stephen 
Bedell, 1842; Robert Cornwell, 1843; Benjamin H. 
AVillis, 1847, 1848; Benjamin T. Smith, 184954; Tred- 
well Davidson, 1855; Jolin S. Hendrickson, 1856, 1857; 
Robert Cornwell, 1858-62, 1865-67; S. N. Snedeker, 
1863, 1864, 1874; Carman Cornelius, 1868-71; James J. 
Matthews, 1872; John B. Post, 1873; Ebenezer Kellum, 
1875-77; Charles N. Clement, 1878-81. 

I'own Clerks since 1785. — Nathaniel Seaman, 1785, 
1786; Samuel Clowes, 1787-94; Richard Bedell, 1795; 
Abraham Bedell, 1796-1817; Edward A. Clowes, 1818-23: 
Albert Hentz, 1824-33; Benjamin Rushmore, 1834-40; 
I'homas AVelch, 1841; Harry H. Marvin, 1842-54; 
Abram S. Snedeker, 1855; Harry H. Marvin, 1856, 1857, 
1859-61; John E. Davidson, 1858, 1S63, 1864; Benjamin 
F. Rushniore, 1862; Sands Powell jr., 1865-68; J. M. 
Oidrin, 1869; J. Seymour Snedeker, 1S70-72; Samuel 
Hendrickson, 1873, 1874; Robert Seabury, 1875-77; 
John R. Pettit, 1878; James B. Curly, 1879-81. 

The town poor farm is two miles northeast of Hemp- 
stead village, and consists of about 70 acres of tillable 
land, being the farm formerly owned by James P. 
Nichols. A large two-story frame house, with basement, 
was built in 1872, at a cost of $9,750. There are about 
thirty paupers kept there each year. The business is 
transacted by three overseers, who meet at the house 
regularly every two weeks. 

In the town of Hempstead are situated many summer 
seaside resorts, several of which are visited by large num- 
bers of peoi)le during the summer months. At the larger 
hotels, at Long Beach and Rockaway, a regular police 
force is on duty during the season. There are four 
justices of the peace, and places for holding court are 
prepared at Hemi)stead, Rockaway, Pearsalls, Freeport, 
and other places. A police force was organized in Hemp- 
stead village in 1877, consisting of a police justice and 
two regular ofificers until 1878, when only one regular 
officer was engaged. In the spring of 1880 the effice of 
police justice and police constable was abolished by the 
Legislature. At present the trustees appoint one police- 

man. John Crampton has held tha position about seven 
years, being chief during the time of the regular organiza- 
tion. There are two night watchmen employed, con- 
stable George S. Eldred and T. B. Eldred. There is a 
substantial lock-up in the town hall at Hempstead vil- 
lage, and one under the court-room at Far Rockaway. 

There are six election districts in Hempstead, as fol- 
lows : First district, west of Hempstead village; second, 
Hempstead village; third, Baldwinsville, Christian Hook, 
and Rockville Centre; fourth. East Rockaway, Pearsalls, 
Woodsburgh, Far Rockaway; fifth. Valley Stream and a 
part of Foster's Meadow; sixth, Rockaway Beach. 

Stages and Railroads. 

Comparatively speaking, it is only a few years since 
railroad communications were opened between New York 
and Hempstead. Daily stages were run from Brooklyn 
to all parts of the island, and stages twice and thrice a 
week carried the mail to out of-the-way places. From 
the Long Isiand Telegraph, published at Hempstead in 
1830, we copy the following advertisement : 

" The Hempstead stage leaves the village of Hemp- 
stead, starting from the house of David Bedell, every 
Monday, Wednesday and Friday morning, at eight 
o'clock, and returns on Tuesday, Thursday and Satur- 
day; leaving the house of Coe S. Downing, Fulton street, 
Brooklyn, at precisely 2 o'clock p. i\i. Arrangement is 
made to carry passengers to and from Rockaway by the 
above line. 

" Curtis & Mervin, Proprietors." 

Similar notices appear in tlie same paper for a stage 
line from Flushing to Newtown, the South Oyster Bay 
stage, Jerusalem stage, Riverhead and Smithtown, Hun- 
tington, Norwich, Jericho and Oyster Bay and others. 
But the day of stage coaches on Long Island has passed 
away, and at present the business man of New York or 
Brooklyn after business hours takes a train which lands 
him at his home in Hempstead in an hour's ride. Rail- 
roads accommodate nearly every village or settlement in 
the town. The Central Railroad of Long Island, which 
now serves Hempstead village and vicinity, was opened 
in February 1871, the depot being being erected on Ful- 
ton street. John F. Townsend was the engineer who 
brought in the first passenger train, and George Sharp 
was conductor. The old South Side Railroad, the Mon- 
tauk division of the Long Island Railroad, extends to 
Sag Harbor, a distance of about 100 miles, and accom- 
modates all of the villages on the south side of Hemp- 

Local Industries. 

Mills. — In 1844 William Oliver came to this country 
from England, and xw 1854 he came to Hempstead, pur- 
chasing the ponds situated between Hempstead village 
and Rockville Centre. At that place, until the purchase 
of the ponds for the Brooklyn Water Works, was ertal;- 
lished the Oliver Eagle Flour Mill, with office, salesroom 
and storehouse on Main street, Hempstead. W. F. Oliver 



purchased in 1877 what had been a paper-mill, a short 
distance from these ponds, and he does a general milling 

There are several flouring mills in the town. The 
grist-mill in the village of Hempstead is on J'lckson 
street near the corner of Main. The building, which is 
three-story, was erected in 1857 by Samuel G.Smith and 
Thomas H. Clowes, and was ready for use in the fall of 
the same year. A windmill was first used for furnishing 
power, but, it not proving sufficient, a forty-horse-power 
steam engine was bought, which has since been in use. 
Mr. Smith has had charge of the mill since its erection. 

The Oyster Business. — -An important industry of Hemp- 
stead, and one which is constantly growing, is the raising 
of oysters, which gives employment to a large number of 
people. The waters south of Hempstead are well adapted 
to the work, and during the last twenty years the busi- 
ness has grown to large proportions. At Freeport, Bald- 
wins, Christian Hook, East Rockaway, Pearsalls and other 
places large quantities are shipped annually to all parts of 
the country and to Europe. John B. Raynor, of Freeport, 
was one of the first to start in the business, about the 
year 1858. D. Pearsall, of Freeport, has been in the 
business since about i860. He ships to Europe annually 
about three hundred barrels of oysters, and about two 
thousand bushels to New York; and several other pro- 
ducers are disposing of a like amount. Among the large 
dealers at Baldwins are Lorenzo D. Smith and Green M. 
Southard, the last named gentleman supplying several of 
the large hotels and restaurants of New York. The 
work of raising the oyster and preparing it for market is 
very laborious. The young oyster or plant is purchased 
by the bushel and planted in beds in the bays, the per- 
mission to use the land under the public waters being 
purchased or hired by the acre from the town. The 
lands are staked out and as well known as are the farms 
scattered through the town. When large enough the 
oysters are caught and prepared for market at the various 
oyster houses scattered along the south side. 

Hempstead Florists. — Among other attractive places in 
Hempstead are the conservatories and nursery of George 
Rogers, 85 Franklin street. Established only about three 
years, this has already become one of the institutions of 
the village. Mr. Rogers, who has been in the business 
nearly thirty years, has built several hot-houses, which 
are properly provided with light and heat, and the tasty 
and careful manner in which they are managed and the 
increasing business attended to speak well for his ability. 
Besides the general variety of pot plants, trees, vines and 
shrubs, he appropriately designs cut flowers for parties, 
weddings and funerals. Besides supplying his custom- 
ers in Hempstead and vicinity, he ships a large quantity 
of early plants to the New York market. 

The West End greenhouses, on Franklin avenue. Far 
Rockaway, are owned by Joseph Marsden, who started 
the business in 1876, since which time his business has 
been steadily increasing, being mostly a home trade. He 
has the agency for evergreen and deciduous trees, flow- 
ering shrubs, fruit trees, etc., also a fine assortment of 

pot and bedding ]jlants. His greenhouses are 30 by 65 
feet, and are one of the attractions of Far Rockaway. 

Situated about five miles from Hempstead village, at 
Smithville South, are the greenhouses of R. P. Jeffrey & 
Son, nurserymen and florists. R. P. Jeffrey is a native 
of England. About 1870 his son, William F. Jeffrey, 
established the business on a small scale, since which 
time it has been steadily increasing. At the present time 
they have four houses, about 45 by 20. They make 
specialties of young evergreens, ornamental and fruit 
trees, and in the greenhouses of growing carnations for 
the New York cut flower trade; also hybridizing carna- 
tion flowers for seedlings. This firm supplies the Long 
Beach Improvement Company with many fine plants. 
It has taken premiums at the county fair for landscape 

An attractive and lucrative business has been estab- 
lished in the village of Pearsalls by R. E. & J. C. Sealy, 
who built hot-houses and commenced business as florists 
about 1875. By hard work their enterprise has been 
made successful, and si.K houses, 15 by 60 feet in dimen- 
sions, are now filled with every variety of flowers and 
plants. The houses are well kept, and the proprietors 
employ four men to assist them in preparing and ship- 
ping the plants and flowers to the New York market. 

Brooklyn Water Works. 

Situated in Hempstead, and covering a large tract of 
land, are the ponds supplying the Brooklyn city 
water works. Clear Stream pond, two acres, was pur- 
chased October 6th, 1858; price, $1,310. Valley Stream 
pond, twenty-three acres, was purchased May 14th 1858; 
price, $13,000. Pine's pond, fifteen and a half acres, was 
])urchased March 3d 1858; price $6,000. Hempstead 
pond, twenty-si.x and a half acres, was purchased Novem- 
ber 1 2th 1850; price, $12,000. Smith's pond was pur- 
chased May 14th 1853; price, $11,500. The water from 
the last pond is below the level of the conduit line, and 
near Rockville Centre a pumping station was erected, 
where the water is pumped into the conduit. The 
water from all other sources in the town flows into the 

The storage reservoir is situated south of the 
village of Hempstead, and was originally three mill 
ponds on the same stream, viz.: those of NicoH's grist- 
mill, Oliver's paper-mill and De Mott's gristmill. The 
grounds of the storage reservoir are 557 acres, purchased 
at a cost of $110,982. The water surface when full is 
253 acres. The total cost of the reservoir was $1,400,000. 
It is not completed according to the original plan. 
Owing to litigation between the city and the contractors, 
Keeny & Kingsley, the work was stopped. 

Watts's pond was purchased in Sejjtember 1880, at a 
cost of $8,000. It is now (1881) being e.vcavated and a 
pumping station erected. It is located at Valley Stream, 
below the line of the conduit. 


Formerly the town cemetery was situated on Hemp- 



stead Plains, where Garden City now stands. Wiien that 
tract of land was sold grounds were bought and the 
burial ground was removed to what is now known as 
Greenfield cemetery. 

Greenfield cemetery is about one and a quarter miles 
south from Hempstead village, and consists of about 30 
acres of land, only 20 acres of which, however, are owned 
by the town. It was laid out in 1869 by John Harold, 
now deceased, and has many beautiful walks and roads. 
A fence surrounds it, and a house and arched gateway, 
with bell for funeral purposes, constitute tlfe main en- 
trance. Scattered through the grounds are many tasty 
monuments. A vault has also been built. The cemetery 
is regulated by three trustees, elected for three years, one 
every year. The present board consists of Stephen Wil- 
liamson, J. S. Snedeker and Jacob W. Titus. Daniel 
Vandewater is sexton. 

Between Rockville Centre and Pearsalls is an old 
cemetery, covering six acres, surrounding the First 
Methodist church, which attracts attention not only as 
being the last earthly resting place of many early settlers 
of Hempstead, but from the fact that in the mariners' 
lot, a plot 35 by 16 r feet, purchased by the inhabitants 
and set apart for that purpose, are the remains of many 
people wrecked on Rockaway Beach. A large monu- 
ment has been erected on the plot, and the inscriptions 
on the four sides tell the story briefly. 

On the front side is the following: " To the memory 
of 77 persons, chiefly emigrants from England and Ire- 
land, being the only remains of loc souls, composing the 
passengers and crew of the American ship ' Bristol,' 
Captain McKown, wrecked on Far Rockaway Beach 
November 21st 1836." 

On the second side: " To commemorate the melancholy 
fate of the unfortunate sufferers belonging to the 
* Bristol ' and ' Mexico ' this monument was erected; 
partly by the money found upon their persons and partly 
by the contributions of the benevolent and humane in 
the county of Queens." 

On the third side: " To the memory of sixty-two per- 
sons, chiefly emigrants from England and Ireland; being 
the only remains of 115 souls forming the passengers and 
crewof the American barque 'Mexico,' Captain Winston, 
wrecked on Hempstead beach January 2nd 1837. 

" In this grave, from the wide ocean, doth sleep 
The bodies of those that had crossed the deep ; 
And instead of being landed, safe on the shore, 
In a cold frosty night they all were no more." 

On the fourth side: " All the bodies of the 'Bristol' 
and ' Mexico ' recovered from the ocean and decently 
interred near this spot; were followed to the grave by a 
large concourse of citizens and strangers, and an address 
delivered suited to the occasion from these words: ' Lord 
save us, we perish.' " — Matth. viii. 25, etc. 

In this cemetery in one row of graves are buried 15 
children of Mr. Abrahams. 

Barnum's Island. 

In Hempstead Bay is what was known as Hog Island. 
In 1874 it was bought by Mrs. P. C. Barnum, of private 

parties, and then sold to the town for ^13,000. On this 
island, which has been named after Mrs. Barnum, are 
the county poor buildings. It contains about 450 acres 
of uy)land and marsh, seventy-five acres being improved. 
Timothy and clover hay, rye, corn and all kinds of 
vegetables are raised, the work being nearly all per- 
formed by the paupers. The island is reached by the 
road through Christian Hook, or Oceanville, and a draw- 
bridge a mile from the buildings. There are three main 
buildings. The largest is a dwelling-house for the 
keeper, and the dining-room for all is situated in this 
building. It is a three-story brick structure, the third 
floor being used for sleeping-rooms. In the second 
story are private apartments for the keeper's family. A 
two story brick building south of the main building is 
used for a workshop and general sitting-room, the 
second story and attic being used as sleeping apart- 
ments. The storehouse and general ofifices are in a 
house west of the main building, and a dock which 
accommodates vessels drawing four or five feet of water 
is used for landing supplies. The hospital is a two-story 
building with attic. The first floor is occupied by the 
office of the physician. Dr. Hutchinson, and his assist- 
ant. On the other floors are light and comfortable 
rooms for the sick. Besides the buildings described 
there are the barns and outbuildings, wash-house, dead 
house and small-pox hospital. A dyke about two and a 
half miles long, five feet high, ten feet thick at the base 
and one foot at the top, has been constructed; by this 
means the water is kept off from about seventy-five 
acres of land which is now in a state of cultivation. 
The water is supplied by a force-pump located about 
300 yards from the main building. A large iron tank is 
used for a reservoir. Charles Driscoll was the first 
farmer and keeper, at a salary of $800. Charles Wright 
succeeded him the same year, at a salary of ^1,000, his 
wife being matron, at $200. James Wright was keeper 
in 1876, at the same compensation. The present keeper 
and matron, appointed in 1880, are Joseph E. Firth and 
wife, the salary being $1,000 a year. 

Old Families and Prominent Individuals. 

The Griffin Family. — " Griffin's Journal," a work pub- 
lished by its author, Augustus Griffin, in 1857, giving a 
biographical and chronological history of the first set- 
tlers of Southold, Long Island, contains a record of this 
family, and from it we make brief extracts. 

Jasper Griffin came to Southold about 1675, from 
Wales. He was born in 1648, and died at the age of 88 
years. He purchased a small farm at the landing at 
Southold, within thirty rods of those beautiful banks 
which border that pleasant harbor. He was commissioned 
as major of the militia, and charged with the care of two 
pieces of cannon. They were mounted on those banks, 
near his residence. These he fired on public days. The 
descendants of Jasper Griffin are inhabitants of every 
section of the country. At the commencement of the 
war of the Revolution this family, then quite numerous 
on Long Island, espoused the cause of their injured 







country and liberty. The author of this journal men- 
tions his father, James Griffin, as having served in that 
war up to the time his enlistment expired, which was 
while at Ticonderoga. On the return of James to his 
home at Orient, Long Island, he found a number of 
British and tory soldiers quartered in that neighborhood. 
These attempted to arrest and detain him as a man unfit 
to remain at liberty near their camp. Says the journal: 
" Through the day he kept a good lookout, and his 
nights were spent much from home lodging with his 
friends. One night during a severe rain storm my 
father ventured in consequence of the storm to lodge at 
home with his family, satisfying himself that the storm of 
wind and rain would secure him rest unmolested over 
night. About midnight the house was surrounded. An 
enraged armed file of soldiers demanded instant admit- 
tance or they would break in. They appeared to be ex- 
cited by drink, as their manners would much more be- 
come savages than civilized men. They demanded, with 
shameful oaths, the body of my father, dead or alive. 
While in great commotion in searching below stairs, and 
threatening what they would do with the rebel after he 
was secured, my father, under great excitement, was try- 
ing to effect his escape by getting a chance to jump from 
a chamber window. This was a perilous undertaking, as 
there was a guard of mounted men stationed around the 
house; but there was no time to be lost. He flew to the 
north window, which was open; there he saw a man with 
his sword drawn sitting on his horse under the window. 
Who can depict his feelings at this moment, when these 
infuriated desperadoes were now at the foot of the stairs 
about to mount to the chamber where he stood, at the 
head of the stairs at the window? At this awful moment 
the guard rode round the corner of the house, we suppose 
to keep a little more out of the wind and rain; my father 
jumped to the ground, a distance of near twenty feet; 
as they arrived at the chamber he was at liberty, on terra 
firma, and no bones broken. Amidst this storm he es- 
caped with nothing on him but his shirt." 

Augustus Griffin, the author of the above journal, was 
born July 2nd 1767, at Orient, and died March loth 
1866, aged over 99 years. He was well known for his 
literary tastes, and was indefatigable in tracing the 
lineage of his own and neighbors' families. His journal 
contains over 300 pages and about 1,000 copies were 
issued. During the latter part of his life he was a fre- 
quent visitor at his son's residence at Hempstead, and he 
is remembered by the inhabitants of that village as having 
abounded in anecdote. 

Sidney L. Griffin, son of Augustus Griffin, was born at 
Orient, August 5th 1806. He was admitted to the bar as 
an attorney and solicitor in 1829; afterward by appoint- 
ment was an examiner in the court of chancery. He en- 
tered into the practice of his profession at Riverhead, 
Long Island. From Suffolk county he served one term 
in the Assembly. About the year 1844 he removed to 
Hempstead, and for a short time was the law partner of 
Benjamin F. Thompson, the historian of Long Island. 
He removed from Hempstead about the year 1862, and 
is still living. 

Augustus R. Griffin, son of Sidney L. Griffin, was born 
at Riverhead, April 6th 1831; graduated from the New 
York State and National Law School August nth 1852, 
and afterward was admitted by the supreme court at New 
York city to practice as attorney and counsellor at law. 
He first entered into practice with his father, and still re- 
tains his office and residence at Hempstead. 

George W. Bergen, of the historical Bergen family of 
Long Island, an account of which has been so ably given 
by Teunis G. Bergen, one of its representatives, was born 
July 20th 1814, and has become one of the most promi- 
nent business men and citizens of Long Island, having 
made his way unaided from early youth, when he was a 
farmer's boy of all work, with the assistance of such an 
education only as he was able to obtain in the public 
schools of that day, and as the result of reading and ob- 
servation later. 

In 1831, at the age of 16, Mr. Bergen began a long and 
successful mercantile career by entering the store of 
Thomas Carman, of Brooklyn, as a clerk. Mr. Carman 
was in the wholesale and retail grocery trade and was a 
thoroughgoing business man. Under his tuition Mr. 
Bergen received such early training as has been useful to 
him in his subsequent career. In 1833 he became a 
clerk in the retail grocery store of Daniel T. Schenck, of 
Brooklyn, and a few months later entered the employ of 
Henry E. Cornwell, another retail grocer of Brooklyn. 
In 1834 and 1835 he was employed in the store of Joshua 
Rogers, and in 1836 formed a copartnership with his 
brother John Bergen in the retail grocery trade, at the 
corner of Tillary and Pearl streets, Brooklyn. 

Not long afterward the two brothers dissolved their 
partnership, and George W. went to Vicksburg, Miss., 
and was engaged in trade there for about a year and a 
half, returning to the scenes of his former life in the 
spring of 1838. In the following autumn he entered the 
firm of Carman, Valentine & Co., wholesale grocers of 
Brooklyn, which for twenty years past has been known as 
the firm of Valentine, Bergen & Co., the present proprie- 
tors being George W. Bergen, E. H. Willetts, George P. 
Willetts and George P. Bergen. This firm is recognized 
as one of the oldest and staunchest mercantile firms in 
the city and enjoys a large patronage, its stores being 
located on Fulton street only a short distance from the 
ferry, and convenient to New York and to the Long 
Island trade. 

Politically Mr. Bergen is a Republican, but does not 
take an active part in politics and is not in the general 
acceptation of the term a politician. Though solicited at 
various times to accept important trusts at the hands of 
his fellow citizens he has usually declined; but he was 
elected treasurer of Queens county in 1872 by a majority 
of about 700, and served to the satisfaction of the citizens 
of the county generally, regardless of party affiliations. In 
his religious belief Mr. Bergen is orthodox, and favors 
the usages of the Congregational church. During his 




residence in Brooklyn he was for twenty years officially 
connected with Plymouth Church. In 1869, when he re- 
moved to Freeport, Queens county, he identified himself 
with the Presbyterian church of that place. In 1874 Mr. 
and Mrs. Bergen erected, at an expense of $5,000, a 
memorial chapel at Free]) irt, in memory of the latter's 
mother, in whose honor it is known as the Elizabeth 
Carman Memorial Chapel, which they presented to the 
church for the purposes of the Sunday-school and the 
weekly church meetings. It is a beautiful structure, 
gothic in style, about 40 by 50 feet in size, with stained 
glass windows, and it is to be hoped it may long stand as 
a memorial not only to its subject, but also to its builders. 
July 19th 1838 Mr. Bergen married Susan, daughter of 
Thomas Carman, of Hempstead, who was born June 29th 
1818. They have had four children — Elizabeth C, born 
November 23d 1839, now Mrs. Horace D. Badger; 
Charles M., born December 9th 1842, who married Susie 
Fletcher and died January nth 1870; George P., born 
September i8th 1849, married to Clarissa E. Sammons; 
and Anna Valentine, born August 9th 1856. 

Charles H. Clement. — Among tiie noted supervisors of 
the town of Hempstead stands the name of Charles H. 
Clement. He was born in the village of Hempstead, on 
the 20th of June 1831; was educated in the city ot New 
York, at the Chichester grammar school, and studied 
medicine and surgery at the Bellevue Medical College. 
He is at present a farmer. He is a descendant from the 
Clement family of England, one of whom emigrated to 
this country in 1625, and settled in Flushing, where C 
H. Clement's great-great-grandfather lived and served as 
chief justice of the colony, receiving his commission 
from King George III. In 1721 the latter was ordered 
to Jamaica to put down a riot at that place, and he is 
said to have achieved a great triumph. The Clement 
family is nearly extinct in this counfry. Mr. Clement 
was elected supervisor of the town in 1878 over a popular 
Democratic veteran. This was his first official position, 
and so well did he conduct the affairs of the town that 
he was again elected to his responsible and important 
office. Since that time Mr. Clement has been the suc- 
cessful leader of the Republican party in the town, hav- 
ing been successively elected supervisor for the past four 
years. Through his industry and attention to the finan- 
cial affairs of the town its revenues have been largely in- 
creased and its expenditure decreased. The leasing of 
Long Beach will be remembered as one of the projects 
in which he was earnestly engaged, and by the efforts 
put forth in that connection the town now receives for a 
hitherto wortliless tract of land the annual rental of 
$1,000. Mr. Clement has undoubtedly received the sup- 
port of his fellow townsmen irrespective of party. 

Mrs. E. H. Ondcrdonk. — Among the notable residents 
of the village of Hempstead is Mrs. Eliza Handy Onder- 

donk, widow of the late Rt. Rev. Benjamin Tred- 
well Onderdonk, D. D., formerly bishop of the 
diocese of New York. She is residing with her 
son, the Hon. Henry M. Onderdonk, editor of 
the Inquirer, and is in the 87th year of her age, 
and still in the enjoyment of good health. She 
has in her possession thefolio prayer book rescued from 
the desk of Trinity Church, New York, at the time of the 
burning of that edifice on the 21st of September 1776, 
during the occupancy of the city by the British troops, 
when about one thousand houses were destroyed. It is 
an interesting relic of the Revolutionary times, and bears 
upon the cover the marks of the fire from which it was 
snatched while the building was in flames. 

The Oldest Inhabitants. 

Robert A. Davidson, M. D., was born November 28th 
1793, and settled in Hempstead in 1813. He has been 
engaged in the practice of medicine over sixty years. 
He is an active member and elder in the Presbyterian 
church, and respected throughout the community. 

Bernardus Hendrickson, attorney and counsellor at 
law, is one of the old residents of Hempstead and of the 
county. He was born in Jamaica, February 14th 1807, 
and has resided in Hempstead village since 1828. His 
memory goes back to the time when there were only two 
houses on Fulton street. His father, Samuel Hendrick- 
son, was a native of Jainaica. 

Zachariah Story, of Christian Hook, 94 years old, is a 
native of Hempstead, and for many years has lived on 
the old homestead. He remembers the era of log build- 
ings and a sparsely populated town. In the spring of 
1881 Mr. Story was in the enjoyment of good health. 

Harry Sammis was born December 23d 1797 and is 83 
years of age. He has from youth been a farmer and 

Mrs. Snedeker, 95 years old, is the mother of the late 
Isaac Snedeker. 

Henry Mott, Valley Stream, was born February 8th 
1807. His father died in 1849, aged 92 years. Mr. 
Mott remembers when there was only one house at Pear- 

Nathaniel Smith, Hempstead village, was born January 
7th 1790, and is therefore 91 years old. A large number 
of friends called on Mr. Smith and were welcomed on 
the occasion of his ninety-first birthday. 

Elizabeth Johnson was 91 years of age December 4th 

Mrs. D. Rhodes, of Freeport, 77 years old, should be 
mentioned among the oldest residents. 

Latton Smith is a native of the county, and has been a 
business man in Hempstead for many years; he is 73 
years old. 

Peter T. Hewlett, of East Rockaway, was born in 
1792. His father, Oliver Hewlett, moved into the house 
where P. T. now lives in April 1 800. He has been a farmer 
and carriage-maker. He is a member of St. George's 
Church at Hempstead, and assisted at the raising of the 



William Caffray was born in county Kildare, Ireland, 
February 28th 1805, and came to America in 1834, 
settling at Far Rockaway, where he has since resided. 
At that time what is now Far Rockaway village was the 
commons, there being only two or three houses on the 
beach besides the Pavilion (destroyed by fire), the erec- 
tion of which was commenced in 1832 and finished in 
1834. It was built by a company of sixty gentlemen 
from New York. Mr. Caffray was for several years a 
laboring man, but in 1845 purchased what is now the 
Transatlantic Hotel, of which he has since been proprie- 

Thomas Jeffrey was born in England, in 1805, and 
settled in Jerusalem about 1835, clearing his farm from 
a wilderness of bushes and briars. He has made the 
raising of trout a business during a number of years, and 
is the owner of several fine ponds. Near his residence 
he points out what he claims to be the largest apple tree 
in the State, which he planted and has watched in its 

Daniel Langdon was born at Grassy Pond, in 1796. 
He was a soldier in the war of 1812, and in 1881 was yet 
an active man, walking two miles to do his trading at the 
" old Smith store," near Rockville Center. 

Alden J. Spooner, of Hempstead, was stricken down by 
apoplexy Tuesday evening August 2nd 1881. He was 
the founder of the Long Island Historical Society, a 
member of the Hamilton Society, and a member of the 
Society of Old Brooklyn. His contributions on histori- 
cal subjects to various publications were highly praised. 
He practiced law for many years. He was 71 years of 

Samuel N. Searing has been a resident of Hempstead 
since 1814. He has been a merchant, and has held the 
office of village trustee. Dr. James Searing is remem- 
bered as an old resident, at one time residing in the Har- 
per residence. He died at the age of 74 years. 


One of the earliest permanent English settlements in 
the eastern part of Queens county was made at Jerusalem, 
on a tract of land which comprised about all the territory 
of the present town of Hempstead east of the brushy 
plains and north of the islands in the South Bay. 

Its limits may be defined as follows: Starting at a point 
on the South Bay a little west of Jackson's Creek and run- 
ning about north, near the present residence of A. D. 
Frye, following the west edge of the swamp up to the 
head of the west branch of the stream, and thence north- 
wardly along the edge of the brush and pines to the 
Bethpage turnpike; thence eastvvardly to the present 
Oyster Bay line; thence southwardly by the same to the 
bay at a creek known as the Island (or Seaman's Island) 
Creek; and westwardly by said creek to the place of be- 

This tract was about two miles from east to west, and 
about five miles from north to south. It contained at 
least six thousand acres, and at the first settlement about 
one thousand acres on the north end were open rolling 

prairie, without trees; four thousand acres were covered 
by a heavy growth of red, white, black and other oaks, 
chestnut, hickory, black- and white beech, maple, tulip, 
pepperidge and other varieties of trees. On the south 
end, bordering the bay, were from 1,200 to 1,500 acres of 
the never failing black grass, salt and sedge meadows. 
A large stream known as the Jerusalem River, having 
five tributaries, ran nearly the whole length of the tract 
on the western edge. Two other creeks (salt water) 
intersected the meadows, and ran well up into the upland, 
dividing the meadows into three necks; the westernmost 
one was called Great Neck; the middle one, by the In- 
dians, Muskachong, or Half Neck; the east one Ruska- 
tux or Seaman's Neck. The stream dividing Hempstead 
from Oyster Bay flanked the eastern limits of the pur- 
chase. The present flourishing village of Seaford is near 
the head of Ruskatux Neck, and Ridgewood near the 
head of Great Neck. The farming tract along the sides 
of the brooks and their sources is still called Jerusalem, 
although the post-office and station is Ridgev.-ood. A 
settlement on the northeastern limits is known as East 
Broadway, while the northern portion is still called Plain 
Edge. On the banks of the creeks, both on Ruskatux 
and Great Necks, are still left many thousand loads of 
clam shells, showing that multitudes of the red men must 
have made them feasting places, perhaps for ages. The 
resident Indians of the tract were of the Marsapeague 
tribe, of whom Tackapousha was the sachem. 

This tract appears to have claimed the attention of 
Captain John Seaman and Robert Jackson while acting 
as a pioneer committee, prior to the permanent settlement 
at Hempstead made by the colony from Stamford, Conn., 
in 1644, and a large part of it to have been secured by 
Captain John Seaman from the Indians at that time; as 
more than 1,500 acres of the same, lying east of the 
township purchase of the Indians and the Governor 
Kieft patent, including all the meadows and uplands of 
Ruskatux Neck, were held by him individually. The 
selection of such a body of land shows the remarkable 
sagacity of these two men; for it is almost certain that the 
same compact quantity of land of equal fertility cannot 
elsewhere be found within the limits of the county. At that 
time on the prairie portion the tall waving grass rose in 
height to their saddle bows. The timbered portion was 
mostly a rich sandy loam, on which wheat was grown for 
many years without any manure, and now with the aid of 
suitable fertilizers the yield in quantity and quality is 
fully equal to that of any portion of the State. The 
beautiful rippling brooks with their white pebbly bottoms 
and waters of unexcelled sweetness, and swarming with 
the gamy speckled trout, were continually flowing 
seaward, with a descent of twenty feet to the mile, giving 
ample water powers. The wild grapes everywhere hung 
in luxuriant clusters, while the never failing grass of the 
salt meadows rendered a dearth of food for vast herds of 
cattle an impossibility. In the first settlement there is 
no evidence of any other proprietors than these two men 
and their families. Captain John Seaman had eight sons 
and eight daughters. Six of his sons made their first 



homes on the purchase, and as patentees or proprietors 
of the town. Robert Jackson had two sons and two 
daughters. The oldest son, John, also made his home on 
the purchase, and these two and John's children took up 
nearly one-fourth of the tract, about a mile in width and 
three in length north and south, it being the southwest 
corner of the tract. It is pretty certain that Captain 
John Seaman, his sons and one or two families with whom 
the children intermarried, Linningtons and Aliens, took up 
and held up to the date of Captain John's death nearly 
all of the other three-fourths of the purchase. The will 
of John Seaman the elder, dated August 25th 1694, gives 
to his sons some 2,700 acres, 2,200 of which were in the 
Jerusalem purchase; to his son-in-law, Nathaniel Pearsall, 
i;;o, which, added to former gifts and the holdings of the 
other children, would about take up the timber and 
meadow lands. The plains not fenced at a certain date 
were wrested from the proprietors in a suit with the town 
in after years. 

About the year 1680 Nathan Birdsall appears to have 
acquired the land along the sides of the north half of the 
west stream and the upland, some five hundred feet in 
width, between the stream and brushy plains. A ditch 
some two miles long is still left at the brush edge, known 
as " Birdsall's ditch." 


Captain John Seaman (who with six of his sons may be 
classed as the first settlers of Jerusalem) came to this 
country from England not far from the year 1635, ^^^ 
nothing certain of his early life has as yet been discovered. 
The traditions of the family are that it is of the Danish 
stock which settled in England after the repulse of the 
Danes by King Alfred. The heraldic arms of Captain 
John and copies since taken by some other members of 
the family from the herald's offices in England seem to 
bear out this idea, as the crest, a sea-horse, and the mot- 
to, " We make our name known by our deeds," seem to 
indicate that they were men of the sea; and the records 
of Norfolk and, it is said, of Northumberland also, show 
that the bearers of the name (in Norfolk county spelled 
Symonde) and the device antedate the Norman conquest, 
while those of Cornwall claim for the Symondses, its most 
influential family, a continental origin from the Counts 
of Severgne. Be the origin as it may, this man nobly 
bore out the motto in its best sense. He emphatically 
made his name known by his deeds. In the sketch of 
Captain John Seaman by Charles B. Moore (see Gcneahnri- 
cal and Biographical Record, Nq\. XI. No. 4, and other 
papers contributed by the same, and Onderdonk's 
" Queens County in the Olden Times" and " Annals of 
Hempstead," to which gentleman the writer of this is 
indebted for very many valuable facts) it is evident that 
a very large part of Captain John's time from 1656 to 
1695 must have been taken up in transacting the difficult 
work of the Hempstead colony. In addition to the 
above work at one time he was employed by Suffolk 
county to act for it in a very important matter. That in 
addition to his great abilities he loved and practiced 

justice and fair dealing is proven by the fact that no 
complaints were ever made by the Indians against him 
for wrong done them, as was so common with most of 
the proprietors and settlers. Once, when the Indians 
had planned a general massacre of the whites, a friendly 
Indian gave him timely notice and the calamity was 
averted. While he was a serious man he was also a 
staunch friend to religious liberty and not much inclined 
to a belief in witchcraft. (See town records, 1665.) 

Being also one of the largest proprietors of the town in 
the township purchases of the Indians, and by the 
patents of Governors Kieft, Nicoll and Dongan, after 
settling six of his sons at Jerusalem — probably because 
his almost constant employment in some public trust or 
embassy had made it impossible to carry on his very ex- 
tensive stock and farming operations — he appears to have 
removed with his youngest two sons, Nathaniel and 
Richard, to Hempstead village. At the date of his will, 
in 1694, he appears to have been residing at what he 
calls " the home lot, adjoining the land of James Pine." 

Space does not permit the tracing of the sons further 
than that one of the grandsons of John and his descend- 
ants settled in Hempstead and one, Joseph, became the 
founder of a very large family at Little Egg Harbor? 
New Jersey. Of Jonathan's descendants very many 
went to Kakiat, on the Hudson, and some from there to 
Virginia. Others were ancestors of the Seamans of 
Jericho, Jamaica and New York. 

The oldest branch of the children of Benjamin went 
to Staten Island; the others remained at Jerusalem. 
Two sons of Solomon went to Maryland, the rest settled 
near Hempstead village. Most of the descendants of 
Samuel settled over in Suffolk county. 

Most of the descendants of Thomas lived around 
Jerusalem in 1800. 

One branch of Nathaniel's descendants is still at 
Hempstead, and one settled at Westbury. Richard's 
children settled near Success, Hempstead Harbor and 
Jericho, in Oyster Bay. 

There are now living of the Seamans from one to two 
thousand, located in the States and a few in Canada. 

Of the daughters of Captain John Seaman Elizabeth 
married Robert Jackson's son John. Most of the Jacksons 
of Long Island and NevvYork,aiid many in the other States, 
have descended from this pair; as also the numerous de- 
scendants of William and Phebe Jones, of West Neck, 
Oyster Bay. Of these their son Justice Samuel Jones, 
one of the most eminent jurists of his time, and his sons 
Chancellor Samuel, Judge David S., Major William and 
their descendants would form a long list of men holding 
the highest social and official positions in the State for 
more than one hundred years. Sarah Seaman married 
a Mott. Their descendants are numerous, of high char- 
acter and some of them noteworthy. Martha Seaman 
married Nathaniel Pearsall. A noted family has followed 
their union, of whom General James B. Pearsall, of Glen 
Cove, is a present representative. Deborah Seaman mar- 
ried a Kirk; there have been several noted men of this 
family. Benjamin C. Kirk, of Glen Cove, is directly de 



scended from them. Hannah Seaman and one other 
daughter married Caleb and Joshua Carman, and they have 
numerous and highly respectable descendants. Mary 
married Thomas, son of Henry and brother of Nathaniel 
Pearsali; theirs was another much respected and quite 
numerous family, from whom Gilbert Pearsali, late of 
Flushing, directly descended. 

Of the sons of Captain John Seaman, from Jonathan 
descended Isaac Seaman, an officer in the colonial force 
which assisted General Wolfe in the capture of Quebec. 
He was the grandfather of Alfred Seaman, now of Sea- 
ford. Also Zebulon Seaman, a very prominent member 
of the Colonial Legislature for many years, and his son 
Zebulon, lieutenant of the Jerusalem militia, loo strong, 
who joined the patriot army at the outbreak of the Rev- 
olution, and his second son, John W., of the Oyster Bay 
militia, 125 in number, who served through the war and 
was surrogate of Queens county for many years; and 
John W. Seaman's grandson, the late Hon. John A. Sear- 
ing, member of Congress from the first district of New 
York. From Benjamin, third son of Captain John, we 
trace the Benjamin Seaman who was chairman of the 
New York committee of correspondence in the early 
Revolutionary days, and whose report " tliat all attempts 
of single States must prove futile — that the efforts and 
organization should be made continental," is supposed to 
have given origin to the words "Continental Congress." 
In later years his descendant Henry I. Seaman, of Staten 
Island, was also a representative in Congress from the 
first district of New York. Alderman Benjamin B. Sea- 
man, of the twenty-third ward of Brooklyn, is also a de- 
scendant of Benjamin of Jerusalem. From Jonathan 
and Richard descended Jordan Seaman, a sturdy patriot 
of the Revolution, a judge of Queens county, and 
brother-in-law to John W. and Zebulon; and his son 
Henry Onderdonk Seaman, for many years years a justice 
of Hempstead, county judge, member of Assembly 
etc. From Thomas, the sixth son of Captain John, we 
trace James M. Seaman, of Ridgewood, who for many 
years held the ofifice of justice of the peace for the town 
of Hempstead, was associate justice of the supreme court, 


Of Robert Jackson but little is known prior to the pur- 
chase, except that he was also one of the original settlers 
of Stamford, Conn., in 1640-41. His family record states: 
"A portion of the settlers of Stamford, becoming dis- 
satisfied, sent a committee over to Long Island in 1643, 
who succeeded in making a purchase of the Indjans; and 
in April 1644 the company crossed the sound to Hemp- 
stead Harbor, and began the settlement on the present 
site of Hempstead village. Robert Jackson and wife 
were of this company." He was active in the affairs of 
the town for many years. His will, dated May 25th 1683 
mentions sons John and Samuel, daughters Sarah (wife 
of Nathaniel Moore) and Martha (wife of Nathaniel 
Coles). His son John, who was also a patentee of the 
town from Governor Kieft and from Governor Dongan 

in 1685, married Elizabeth, oldest daughter of Captain 
John Seaman. He was a very influential man; was high 
sheriff of Qeeens county from 1691 to 1695; in the Leg- 
islature from 1693 to 1709 and from 1710 to 1716; jus- 
tice of the peace in 1707; one of the county judges from 
1710 to 1723, and after the death of his father-in-law 
seems to have been selected for the most important town 
affairs until his death, in 1725. 

From Robert Jackson descended his distinguished son 
Colonel John and grandson Colonel John 2nd; also the 
Hon. Thomas B. Jackson, who died recently at Newtown, 
for many years a justice of the peace for Hempstead, 
county judge and member of Congress for the first dis- 
trict; and his brother James, a justice for Hempstead 
and county judge, 


No record is known of the first crops raised here, but 
corn and wheat were always staple products of the tract 
and the Seamans and the Jacksons were at a very early 
day large stock owners. No date can be fixed for the 
planting of the first orchards, but many acres of apple 
trees of great age were to be seen fifty years ago on 
the farms of the Seamans, and a great number of 
pear trees on those of the Jacksons. The farm 
called Cherrywood, on which the first house was 
built, came by descent from Captain John to his 
sixth son, Thomas; from Thomas to his first son, 
John; from John to his third son, Thomas; from Thomas 
to his son-in-law Zebulon Seaman (a descendant both of 
Richard and Jonathan) and daughter Mary; from Zebulon 
and Mary his wife to their son Ardon, and from Ardon 
to his son Edward H. Seaman, the present owner. On 
this farm an apple tree known to successive generations 
of the family as the old apple tree was standing and bore 
fruit until 1870, when from decay it became necessary to 
cut it down. This was done by Albert W. Seaman, 
counsellor at law, 116 and 117 South street. New York 
(a son of the present owner). The age of the tree had 
been passed down from father to son, and it was then two 
hundred and eight years. Some of the wood from 
this tree now makes a beautiful frame, which encloses a 
copy of John Durand's fine engraving of William CuUen 
Bryant, a v^rse of Bryant's poem on " Planting the Apple 
Tree," and his autograph, dated April 1872. 

The tract is now noted for its crops of wheat, rye, oats 
and hay and its large export of milk, known as Ridge- 
wood milk; while potatoes, root crops, pickles, onions, 
poultry, eggs, brook trout and cider are annually pro- 
duced in large quantities. 


When the place was settled is not positively known, 
but it is supposed to have been in 1644. From the first 
settlement, a few hundred feet east of the stream called 
the Jerusalem River and its most eastwardly branch, 
there seems to have been a road or highway leading from 
the salt meadows; its course was about north 14° east to 
the great plains; thence north about 20° west to Jericho. 



The south end of this road was called Jerusalem lane, 
and ran through nearly the middle of the Jackson pur- 
chase; and just where the east and west line between 
Jackson and Seaman crossed this road another road ran 
off nearly due east, until it passed the Jackson east 
bounds and divided. One branch or path ran on the 
line between Jackson and Seaman to the meadows, and 
was called the Half-Neck path. The other branch ex- 
tended east about half a mile, and then ran off south to 
the meadows, and was called the Seaman's Neck path, 
subdividing Seaman's south part of the purchase. About 
450 feet north of the intersection of the Seaman's and 
Half-Neck road with the Jerusalem lane and Jericho 
road (making what are now S. Bartholomew and E. H. 
Seaman's corners), and about 120 feet east of the present 
line of the north and south road, was built by Captain 
John Seaman the first chimney and house of the white 
man on the purchase. 

Robert Jackson is said to have built soon after, also on 
the east side of the lane, about 300 feet south of the 
corners. For some time these two pioneers, although 
within 800 feet (including the road) of each other, had 
the almost impassable wilderness of about sixty miles on 
the east of them to the nearest white settlement in that 
direction, and on the west the settlement at Hempstead, 
which could not then be reached short of eight miles. 
The road north of the corners subdivided the north part 
of Seaman's lands. On this north part five of Seaman's 
sons — John, Jonathan, Benjamin, Solomon and Samuel — 
as they grew to manhood made their homes; Thomas, 
the sixth son, remaining under the old roof tree. 

South of the corners, on what was called the lane, the 
Jacksons, sons and grandsons, in due time built southward 
until they reached the shore. John first built a brick 
house on the farm, a portion of which is now owned by a 
descendant, Robert B. Jackson, of Seaford, and another 
portion by Elbert Jackson, another descendant. Samuel 
built on the west side of the road a house long held by 
descendants of the family; now owned by E. and G. Smith. 

The first roads were undoubtedly those described 
above, and opened by the first owners. After the Bird- 
sails had become the owners of the upper end of the west 
stream, and the mill thereon at the lower end of their 
section of the tract, a road was opened from the mill 
which ran nearly north for a mile on the west side of the 
stream and then crossed it, and was continued on to the 
open plains. This road has been closed for many years. 
A very crooked path was also opened to Hempstead and 
Westbury, called the " Cross lane," near where the present 
north road to Hempstead now leaves Jerusalem. The pres- 
ent Seaman's Neck road was opened some years later, and 
both Half-Neck and Seaman's Neck paths were closed or 

With the construction of the Hempstead-Babylon 
turnpike, which crossed the south end of the whole pur- 
chase, it is probable that the first substantial bridges were 
made on the dam of the old Jackson pond and near Sea- 
ford; and all the other bridges, of which there are now 
many small ones, are of recent construction. 

The old post road east crossed the south edge of the 
purchase. A post-office called Jerusalem South was ob- 
tained about 1836. Samuel S. Jones was postmaster. 
Previous to that time mail matter had been brought by 
stage from Brooklyn after about 1776. John Jackson 
and John C. Birdsall drove from the place once a week. 
There are now two post-offices, Ridgewood and Seaford, 
with a daily mail twice each way. 


The best record of the marriages is to be found in the 
monthly meeting records of the Society of Friends at 
Westbury and Jericho, as very many of these early 
settlers belonged to those meetings; and a little later in 
the parish records of St. George's Church, -Hempstead. 
A marriage list containing the names of 164 of the Sea- 
mans, descendants of Captain John Seaman, with the 
dates from 1726 to 1825, is to be seen in Ardon Seaman's 
genealogical record of his family, and most of them were 
residents of Jerusalem at the date of marriage. 

The Seamans generally buried on the farms of the de- 
scendants of Benjamin and Thomas, but those portions 
of the farms which contained them have all passed into 
the hands of strangers, and nearly every vestige of these 
burial places has become obliterated. In consequence 
of the removal of most of the old stock and the estab- 
lishment of a large burial ground by the Friends in 1827, 
these plots ceased to be used, and now probably not one 
headstone is left standing above the resting places of the 
pioneers. The Jacksons have preserved a family ground 
since 1744, and the graves are generally well marked. 
The first burial therein was that of Phebe, daughter of 
the second Colonel John Jackson and wife of William 
Jones of West Neck, Oyster Bay. 


Of early school-houses there is nothing authentic. 
Thomas Seaman, a great-grandson of Captain John by 
Benjamin and his fourth son, Solomon, was known as the 
schoolmaster. There were probably a few other teach- 
ers before him. In the next generation and between 
1780 and 1800 Joseph Birdsall, a grandson of Nathan, 
taught a school at Jerusalem. Following this, John Gar- 
ner, who married a daughter of Joseph Birdsall, had the 
school for many years. Many of the descendants of 
both Joseph Birdsall and John Garner are now living at 
Jerusalem and are very influential citizens. The first 
school-house (District No. 5) is said to have been built 
soon after the Revolution; another was built on the 
same site about 1800. A new building was erected near 
the old site about 1842, and about 1876 a new site was 
chosen and a house built thereon not far from the old 

District No. 6, Seaford, organized a school about 1830, 
which is now large. 


By town records Henry Linnington, from whom Ste- 
phen Linnington, late merchant in Front street. New 



York, and Abraham Linnington, New Lots, are descended, 
appears to have had a mill at Jerusalem from 1660 to 
1683. He was the father-in-law of Captain Seaman's 
fourth son, Solomon; there seems nothing certain to fix 
the location of the mill. It was sold to Cyrus Whit- 
more and the buildings were removed many years since. 
January 23d 1705 John Jackson obtained from the town 
the whole privilege of Jerusalem River fur a grist and 
fulling-mill, and a grist-mill was built near the meadow 
edge. This has since been owned by his descendants. 

Thomas Jackson early in 1800 built a dam about 
three-quarters of a mile up the stream, on which were 
built a fulling-mill and a saw-mill, operated for many 
years and eventually owned by Cyrus Whitmore; these 
mills were burned about i860. The property soon after 
passed to James M. Seaman; the saw-mill was rebuilt 
and run a short time, then removed and a paper-mill 
erected, which has been operated by him since about 


The Birdsalls had a grist-mill in 1776; the date of 

building is not known. It was located about half a mile 

further up the stream than the Birdsalls'. It appears to 

have passed to Michael Combs, then to Cyrus Whitmore 

and his sons; and it is now owned by Edgar Seaman, a 

descendant of Thomas. 

Benjamin Seaman built a dam on the head of Seaman's 
Creek about 1820. A grist-mill and paper-mill were 
built and the grist-mill was operated many years. It is 
now leased by Edgar Haff and is run as a moulding, 
scroll and upright saw-mill. 

The wheelwright shops of Micajah Southard & Sons 
and of Samuel Verity & Sons (still run by descendants) 
had a reputation for the excellence of their work at an 
early day. A tannery established by a company of the 
settlers about 1835 or 1840 stood within 300 feet of 
where the first house was built. It soon passed to Henry 
H. Hewlett, and was discontinued after a few years. 
The building is now used by Lee & Brother as a fly-net 

The main trading point down to 1830 was at or near 
the Seaman and Jackson corners, where the present road 
from Hempstead to Seaford crosses the old Jerusalem 

A tavern appears to have been kept up nearly two 
hundred years on one or another of the corners, and 
sometimes on both. Of the keepers there is no record, 
but the buildings were large enough for ample accommo- 
dations and the amount of custom was considerable until 
the construction of the Hempstead and Babylon turn- 
pike and post road near the shore. The old John Jack- 
son tavern (now A. D. Frye's residence) and Uncle Jim 
Smith's Sportsmen's Hotel, Jerusalem South (now Sea- 
ford), then took the places of the old stands. 

The tract, always noted for its healthfulness, never had 
a resident physician until 1866. The early settlers were 
members of, or had a leaning to, the Society of Friends, 
but there was no settled meeting or preacher prior to 
1820, and there were no lawyers prior to 1870. It was a 
remark of an old inhabitant, in 1843, that "Jerusalem 

never had a lawyer, doctor or priest, and now has no 
liquor sold in its limits." This applied to the present 
farming district. 


Onderdonk's "Friends of Long Island and New 
York" says: "At Jerusalem meetings were early held at 
private houses. In 1697 it was agreed that meetings 
should be kept every five weeks, on First days; 1699, 
Roger Gill and Thomas Story had meetings, peaceable 
and pretty large, at Benjamin Seaman's; 1791, a First day 
meeting was appointed at Thomas Seaman's once a 
mohth, but discontinued in 1793." About 1820 a meet- 
ing appears to have been held weekly at private houses. 
In 1827 Jericho monthly meeting built a meeting-house 
34 by 28, 14-feet posts, at a cost of $965, on the east side 
of the main road, about 1,000 feet north of the old corn- 
ers. Meetings of the society have been held continu- 
ously since the building was erected. Ardon Seaman, 
who was a recommended minister of the society, be- 
longed to this meeting from its creation until his death, 
in 1875; and for a period of fifty years was earnest in his 
efforts to awaken and keep alive the religious and high 
moral feeling in the community which surrounded him 
in the home of his fathers. 

The meeting continued to be well attended so long as 
the descendants of the early settlers held the land, but as 
strangers, belonging to other denominations, have taken 
the place of most of them, the Friends' meeting and resi- 
dent membership are now very small. In the meantime 
there has been for many years an active organization of 
the Methodist Episcopal church at New Bridge, just out- 
side the bounds of the purchase, with a branch and 
meeting-house at Seaford. A German Methodist mis- 
sion church at the Plain Edge and a church edifice at 
Bellmore, owned by the Presbyterians, have in part met 
the religious wants of the community. 


The. early settlers, being also proprietors in the town 
purchase, were more than usually large land holders, and 
as they had the plains on the one hand for summer pas- 
turage, and the meadows at the south for winter food for 
live stock, the increase thereof became very rapid. 
Added to this was the fertility of the virgin soil, on which 
wheat grew well on every clearing, and corn only needed 
a fair amount of care to yield abundantly, and the sons 
and grandsons were soon in affluent circumstances. 
The orchards by this time began to yield bountifully, and 
cider became a year-round beverage. A number of negro 
slaves were held in each family, and the great grand- 
children soon began to suffer from the dissipation which 
must almost of necessity follow where a whole com- 
munity felt no necessity for work. 

At that time Jerusalem lane (some two and one-half 
miles long, four to five rods wide, and kept almost as 
smooth as a modern race-trackj was well known to the 
sporting world. Some of the finest racing stock of the 
time was kept in the stables of Jacob Seaman and others. 



Scarcely a week passed but a crowd gathered at the 
corners at least twice, if not oftener, for sport of some 

On one occasion, when tired of seeing the horses run, 
a number of the slaves were entered, and one fellow, a 
good runner but supposed to be lazy, was followed with 
a long whip by the one who entered him; the parties 
were well known to the writer. The result of this dissi- 
pation soon began to show itself. The masters did not 
work and very many of them became poor. The slaves 
did not work very hard, but they did eat up the hogs; 
the hogs had eaten up the corn, and the successive heavy 
yields of corn had so completely exhausted the soil as to 
have literally almost eaten it up. 

In 1800 the Jerusalem purchase was about as poor in 
many senses of the word as it was possible to make it. 
Vegetation would wither at the slightest drought; not 
more than 25 to 30 tons of timothy or clover hay was 
cut from the entire tract. 

But there was a latent manhood left, and soon after 
this date the spirit of the children of the men who sub- 
dued the original forest was aroused, and found equal to 
the task of redeeming and renovating the lands of their 
forefathers. One or two earnest men were instrumental 
in breaking up the racing in the highways. The farms 
were divided up, and necessity obliged the owners to go 
to work; and harder working owners of the soil from that 
day to this cannot be found elsewhere. The use of wood 
ashes as a fertilizer by one or two men, with remark- 
able results, was followed by a general use thereof; this 
by stable manure, fish, ground bone, guano, &c.; until 
to-day the cultivated portion of the purchase yields at 
least 1,200 tons of hay, timothy and clover, and in wheat 
and corn and nearly every variety of crop is equal in its 
product to any similar number of contiguous acres de- 
voted to plain farming to be found in the State. 

The murder of Samuel F. Jones, June 27th 1873, for 
which Lewis Jarvis and Elbert Jackson (negroes) were 
executed January 15th 1875, was committed at Jerusalem. 
The author of the reference to this affair on page 51, 
after that page had been printed, corrected the name of 
the victim as there erroneously given. 

Jerusalem's soldiers. 

From the Birdsalls, who intermarried with the Sea- 
mans and Jacksons, descended Colonel Benjamin Bird- 
sail, of Revolutionary fame, and Senator John Birdsall, 
representing the district in the State Legislature. 

Jerusalem furnished a large quota for the war of 1812, 
but without a full list no names will be given, 

Jerusalem purchase was well represented during the 
Rebellion. Company H 119th New York (Captain B. A. 
Willas, himself a descendant of one of the early settlers) 
was nearly filled from this territory. Very few of the 
name of Seaman or Jackson were then living within its 
limits. From this cradle of the families, however, went 
Surgeon Edgar Jackson, a young man of great promise, 
who lost his life in the service; Henry P. Jackson, Samuel 
Jackson Jones and Albert Jones, and Captain Obadiah 

Jackson Downing, of the Harris cavalry, who did much 
hard fighting and suffered much from imprisonment. 
Oscar C. Jackson also represented in part the Jackson 
stock; while John W. Seaman, 95th New York, who was 
severely wounded and disabled at the battle of the Wil- 
derness in 1864; Gilbert Seaman, Charles Seaman and 
Piatt Seaman, noted sharpshooters, Valentine Seaman 
and others of the old stock " made their names known by 
their deeds." Captain John Birdsall, a representative of 
the blood of the Seamans and Jacksons, as well as that 
of the name he bore, was among the early volunteers. 


This great summer resort is nearly five miles long, and 
from an eighth to half a mile wide. The ocean front is 
almost a straight line, while the northern front, on Jamaica 
Bay, is very crooked. About 1795 seven or eight hun- 
dred acres, including Garry Eldred's, and from there to 
the point of the beach, were owned by Samuel Rider. 
He sold half of his property, with the exception of El- 
dred's. He sold an undivided half of the rest of the 
property to Henry Hewlett. The other undivided half 
he gave to his son Rothey Rider. David Jennings ob- 
taining judgment against R. Rider, about 1840, Sheriff 
T. Treadwell sold the latter's undivided half to Henry 
Hewlett, which gave that gentleman possession of the 
whole tract. About five years later the property was 
purchased by a Mr. Cowhart, and he failing to pay his 
interest the property reverted to the children, and it was 
foreclosed byAbram Hewlett. It was purchased in 1853 
by James Remsen and John Johnson for $525. At that 
time there were no buildings on the beach, with the excep- 
tion of two or three little hotels at the upper end. Then 
the beach was reached by a wagon road and yachts. Now 
excursion steamers ply between New York and the beach, 
while two railroads run trains hourly during the busy 
season. Large hotels, stores, restaurants and boarding 
houses have sprung up, until the place is a city in popu- 
lation during the summer season. 

Forty years ago, with the exception of Saratoga 
Springs, Rockaway was the most famous watering place 
in America. About the year 1833 the renowned Marine 
Pavilion was built. It was two stories high, and con- 
tained about 150 rooms. Its piazza was 200 feet long 
and 25 feet broad. It was consumed by fire in 1864. 
Since that time have sprung up many large hotels at Far 
Rockaway, the beautiful hotel at Long Beach and those 
at Rockaway Beach, including that colossal structure the 
Rockaway Beach Hotel, 


In 1881, while not yet completed, a part of it was 
opened to the public about the ist of August. The 
building is 1,188 feet long by 250 feet wide. It has 
several hundred rooms and over 100,000 square feet of 
piazzas. It fronts the ocean, and the beach is unsur- 
passed. Near the hotel are a large number of bathing 
houses. The water and gas supply is furnished from the 
company's own works, a Holly pumping machine forcing 





the water from a large well to all parts of the hotel. 
The drainage system is complete; all the refuse matter 
is discharged through massive iron pipes at a point 
distant from the hotel, and is carried by direct currents 
into Jamaica Bay. The rooms are heated by steam. 
The observatory on the top of the hotel is 200 feet 
square and there are two elevators to it. An unob- 
structed view of the ocean, the bay and the Long Island 
country for many miles is obtained from this elevation. 
The new iron pier, constructed by the Rockaway Beach 
Pier Company, is the largest of its kind in the United 
States. It extends about 1,300 feet into the ocean, be- 
yond the breakers, affording water sufficiently deep for 
landing from large steamers. Its general width is 31/^ 
feet, the pierhead being 81^ feet wide. Every span is 


To James S. Remsen belongs the credit of being the 
pioneer in promoting the interests and welfare of Rocka- 
way Beach. He was born at Jamaica, L. I., October 
14th 1813. Mr. Remsen has been proprietor of the Ja- 
maica Hotel for forty years, and in 188 1 was the owner 
of twenty hotels at the beach, the museum building, the 
drug store, and other property. His father, R. Remsen, 
was a native of Hempstead. Among the favorite hotels 
of the beach is the Seaside House, established many 
years. The proprietors are James Remsen and William 
Wainwright. When Mr. Remsen became a part purchaser 
of the beach many of his friends believed him to be de- 
ranged, but after long years of earnest work and the suc- 
cess of his enterprise they have changed their minds. 
The building is directly in front of the three piers known 
as the Seaside Landing, on Jamaica Bay, where all the 
steamboats discharge their passengers. It is also near 
both railroad stations, and fronts westwardly on Remsen 
avenue, the principal thoroughfare. The building is 
three stories high, and there are piazzas thirteen feet 
wide on three sides of the building. It has accommoda- 
tions for about 300 guests. The wine room is in a separ- 
ate building across the avenue, and on the main pier is a 
large restaurant. 

On the beach at the other end of the avenue is the 
Surf Pavilion, commanding a fine view of the sea and the 
new iron pier. This house is on the corner of Eldert's 
and Ocean avenues, and is very easily reached by a fine 
plank walk from Eldert's landing, and from the railroad 
station. It has 443 feet frontage _ on the beach, and 
affords a magnificent view of the broad Atlantic. The 
dancing floor is 80 by 40 feet in the main building, and 
40 by 50 feet in the extension. The restaurant seats 125 
persons, and refreshments can be ordered at all hours. 
The building is one of the best to be found at any sea- 
side resort, and the dancing platform has the advantage 
of being inclosed quickly by large sl.utters in case of a 
sudden shower, or a high wind. There are 300 bathing 
houses, in charge of polite attendants. Expert swimmers 
and a lifeboat are always on duty for the benefit of 
bathers. The proprietors are Messrs. Harper & Stumpf. 

The extensive and well arranged Metropolitan Hotel 
is centrally located on Remsen avenue, between the Sea- 
side Landing and the beach, and its piazza joins the plat- 
form of the Long Island Railroad station. The proprie- 
tor is Alderman E. E. Datz, of Jersey City. The house 
has a capacious restaurant and lodging-rooms, and a 
picnic grove attached. Besides the above described build- 
ings there are the Atlas Hotel, the Mammoth Pavilion, 
Rutland's Seaside Pavilion (Holland's Station), Hillyer's 
Surf House, the Grand Republic Hotel, East End Hotel, 
Hammell's Hotel, Atlantic Park Hotel, the Holland 
House, and at Eldert's Grove, near the railroad depot, 
the two houses and six cottages owned by Captain John 
R. Carney, known as the Captain Jack Hope House. 
Hundreds of small buildings used for every variety of 
business go to make up the Rockaway Beach of 1881. 

Dr. H. C. Van Norman located at Rockaway Beach in 
1879, and in 1881 was the only physician there. He has 
an office at 382 West Thirty-second street. New York, 
near Ninth avenue. 

A fine livery stable has been opened at Seaside station 
by John D. S. O'Brien, of Oceanus. He keeps every 
description of carriage and other vehicles, which can be 
had at any time. 


This village is a mile east of Pearsalls on the Southern 
Railroad, and there may be found on file in the Queens 
County clerk's office a map made in the year 1854, with 
the following advertisement: 

'' The subscribers, having purchased the farm of the 
late Rev. Mordecai Smith, on the Merrick and Jamaica 
Plank Road, nine miles from Jamaica and three miles 
from Hempstead village, with a view of extending the 
village offer for sale a large number of building lots, 
fifty feet front and two hundred feet deep. The site is 
one unsurpassed within the State for salubrity of climate 
and beauty of location. It lies on a natural terrace, 
commanding an extensive view of the surrounding coun- 
try and the lake lately purchased by the city of Brook- 
lyn as a reservoir for their water works. The Rockaway 
Bay, renowned for its abundance of game and shell-fish 
of all kinds, lies within less than a mile from the village. 
The property is partly improved, a post-office being al- 
ready established, and stages passing three or four times 
to and from the city of New York. Gentlemen wishing 
a country seat will find it to their interest to secure lots 
in said village. 

"John P. Rhodes,. President. 

" Robert Pettit, Treasurer. 

"Julius Auerbach, Secretary." 

Previous to the date of the above the nucleus around 
which the village had grown consisted of the farm of 
the late Samuel De Mott (the father of John W. De Mott 
and Elijah P. De Mott) lying on the south side of the 
plank road, opposite the Smith farm. This was pur- 
chased of the De Motts by the late Stephen R. Wiggins, 
who owned it a number of years and sold it to Robert 
Pettit, who built a large store and dwelling on the site of 
the De Mott dwelling, which had always been kept as a 




tavern. This in fact was the commencement of the vil- 
lage of Rockville Centre; it was bounded by the plank 
road on the north, a road running through this farm 
southeasterly to Christian Hook (now called Oceanville) 
and to the bay, and another running south to East Rock- 
away. .'\t this time there were about half a dozen 
ancient farm houses in the place. After the advent of 
Mr. Pettit and the purchase and majiping out of the 
Smith farm, which was on the north side of the plank 
road (the main country road through the island) the vil- 
lage began to grow. In 1868 John P. Rhodes bought 
the farm of Israel Wright, lying to the north of and ad- 
joining the Smith property, and, mapping it out at right 
angles with the former map, added it to the village. 
The two farms comprised one hundred acres. 

Rockville Centre is on high ground, perfectly drained 
by the stream through the valley from Hempstead village 
to East Rockaway Bay, and beautified by the succession 
of lakes which feed the Brooklyn city water works. 
The most southern of these formerly belonged to Rev. 
Mordecai Smith, who utilized it all his life for grist-mill 
and carding and fulling machines. In the western part 
of the village is what is now denominated the First 
Methodist Church, a very handsome edifice, occupying 
the site of one of the oldest churches of that denomi- 
nation on Long Island. 

The village has a population of about one thousand, 
largely made up of men doing business in the city, and 
of sea captains and their families. A large portion of 
the latter class come from Maine and other eastern States. 
The business men find easy access to New York, by way 
of the Southern Railroad, which passes through the 
village. There are three churches. 

Previous to the building of the railroad there were but 
very few buildings; one store, a post-office, a weekly 
paper, the Picket, and one church. At present there are 
several stores and three hotels, viz.: the La Rosa House, 
the Grossman House (built in 1867 and conducted by W. 
H. Crossman), and the Henry House, Edward Denton 
proprietor. Mr. Crossman built the house now used as 
a store and post-office in 1856. There are three churches, 
the office of the South Side Observer, the wheelwright 
shops of Charles H. Losea, Freeman E. Eager's paint shop, 
the blacksmith shop of J. R. Sprague, Thurston's first- 
class drug store, the tin shop of James R. Brightman and 
the large manufactory of A. V. S. Hicks, started in 1871. 
Mr. Hicks employs about 15 persons, and, besides hand 
and machine knitting, manufactures sixteen kinds of 
hammocks; also tropical beds, school bags, fly nets for 
horses, etc. Henry Lotz has a livery stable in connec- 
tion with the Lotz House, and also keeps a lumber, coal 
and wood yard. Aside from these there are the usual 
number of enterprising professional and business men to 
be found in a thriving village. 

The fire department was organized September 25th 
1875, by forming a hook and ladder company. November 
ist 1875 the following officers were elected: Foreman, 
John R. Sprague; assistant foreman, B. L. Coffin; sec- 
retary, C. Noye; treasurer, Jacob F. Cock. During the 

next year a house for a truck was secured, and a truck 
was built by C. H. Losea. Rubber buckets were pre- 
sented, and in 1877 a neat uniform was obtained. The 
company has a nice house for its apparatus, with every- 
thing in proper shape to fight the fire fiend. 

The following gentlemen have been post-masters in 
Rockville Centre: Root Pettit, Frank Wyant, Hubbard 
Smith, John H. Reed and Clinton F. Combs. 

St. M.'\kK's M. E. Church. 

For some time previous to 184.3 the Jamaica and 
Rockaway circuit embraiced the village of Jamaica, Far 
Rockaway, Foster's Meadow and that region of country 
now known under the various names of Pearsalls, East 
Rockaway, Rockville Centre and Christian Hook, but 
which was known at that time by the general name 
of Near Rockaway. In the spring of 1843 Jamaica was 
detached from this circuit, and the remaining places con- 
stituted what was afterward known as the Rockaway 
circuit. Rev. John J. Matthias was preacher in charge 
at the time of the separation, and the following ministers 
were successively stationed over tne circuit: Revs. H. 
Hatfield, David Holmes, S. C. Youngs, E. O. Bates, 
J. W. B. Wood. 

The name Rockville Centre first appears on the 
record in 1854. In the minutes of the fourth quarterly 
conference of that year this church, which had previous- 
ly been known as Near Rockaway church, and which 
was situated half way between Rockville Centre and 
Pearsalls, is called Rockville Centre church. In the 
same document it is stated that the trustees of a new vil- 
lage which had just been laid out in the immediate 
vicinity had offered to the society " a lot of land with a 
deed of gift as a site for a new parsonage." The offer 
was accepted with thanks. Subsequently Revs. Samuel 
H. King and J. D. Bouton were placed in charge of the 
circuit. In 1857 after considerable discussion it was de- 
cided that two preachers should be employed, one to be 
supported by Rockville Centre, the other by Far Rocka- 
way and Foster's Meadow. Accordingly in 1858 Rev. W. 
Gothard was appointed pastor of the church at Rock- 
ville Centre, which thus virtually became a station, al- 
though still united with the other places in quarterly con- 
ference. The successors of Mr. Gothard were: Revs. 
Charles Stearns, i860, 1861; Henry C. Glover, 1862, 
1863; Rev. Albert Booth, 1864, 1865; Rev. John Wesley 
Horn, 1866; Rev. Henry D. Lathan, 1867. 

In the year 1868, during the pastorate of Rev. S. 
Rushmore, a committee was appointed to ascertain 
whether sites could be procured at Pearsalls and Rock- 
ville Centre on which to build new churches. Nothing 
of importance was done in the matter however until 1870, 
when Rev. Charles Kelsey was appointed to this charge. 
He immediately entered upon the execution of a plan 
to build two new churches, and secured the incorporation 
of St. Mark's at Rockville Centre, and St. James's at 

In August 1870 the society at Rockville Centre erected 
a temporary building known as the " Tabernacle," and 



services were held in it until the completion of the pres- 
ent church. A complete and impartial account of the 
difficulties which followed will perhaps never be written. 
Some of the more prominent facts may however be 
given, which will not be controverted by any. It was the 
plan of those who inaugurated the movement, and after- 
ward announced by the presiding elder, that the .two new 
churches were " to substitute the old church," which lat 
ter was to be used for burial services and extra meetings. 

A very strong feeling of opposition to this plan was 
excited in certain quarters and great bitterness was shown 
toward Mr. Kelsey, who was finally excluded from the 
old church. In 1871 Rev. Charles P. Corner was sent to 
the three churches, but as the adherents of the old 
church refused to be connected with the new churches, 
and had so notified the conference, they refused to recog- 
nize Mr. Corner as their pastor and endeavored to i)re- 
vent him from occupying the parsonage. 

Alt-hough unsuccessful in this attempt they afterward 
gained possession of the parsonage by process of law. 
The old church then ceased to be a Methodist Episcopal 
church. Rev. Willian) McGinn was appointed to assist 
Mr. Corner and the two preached alternately at Rock- 
ville Centre and Pearsalls. 

On the nth of August 1871 the corner stone of St. 
Mark's church was laid, and dedication services were 
held December 17th of the same year. In the following 
year a new church building was erected and dedicated at 
Pearsalls, and in 1872 each of these places became a 
station. Rev. W. J. Robinson was the first pastor of St. 
Mark's church. During the first year of his pastorate a 
new parsonage was built on a lot adjoining the church. 
Mr. Robinson remained two years and was succeeded by 
Rev;. T. C. Hill, who during a successful pastorate of 
three years was the means of greatjy strengthening the 
society. He was followed in 1878 by Rev. F. Brown, 
who served the church for two years and was succeeded 
in 1880 by Rev. C. H. Beale. 

Methodist Protestant Church. 

The following- facts were collected by the present pas- 
tor. Rev. R. C. Hulsart, during the year 1881, but it will 
be impossible to give all the facts of interest connected 
with the history of this church, as it dates back nearly 
one hundred years. 

About 1790 the first church was erected, on the site 
where the present beautiful temple stands. The land 
was donated by Isaac Denton, Esq. Land has since 
been purchased and added to the first, from time to time, 
until now the church is surrounded by a beautiful ceme- 
tery, where sleep many of the fathers of early Method- 
ism. The first church was 20 by 30 feet, and cost 
about $1,000. It iiad only one door in front, opening 
directly into the church; it had rough movable seats, 
and gallery across the front end; it was built without 
reference to denomination and all denominations occu- 
pied it in turn, but the Methodists being in the majority 
it became a Methodist Episcopal church. At this time 
there were but two other churches on the island, one at 

Newtown and one at Searingtown. Rev. William Phebus, 
one of the first ministers who preached in it, called it 

In 181 7 the church proved too small to accommodate 
the growing congregation, and a more commodious one 
was built in its stead; but the galleries were not com- 
pleted until several years afterward, when Christian 
Snedeker, one of the trustees, raised about $200 and 
finished them. In this condition the people worshiped 
in it until 1836, when it was lathed and plastered. 

During the year 1831 a church was built at Far Rock- 
away, and several others were built at the same time at 
different points on the island, but all were in one circuit 
in charge of one preacher. 

The society continued to grow and Methodism spread 
over the island. The circuit was divided and sub- 
divided, and the time arrived when the people felt the 
need of a parsonage here. As this church seemed to be 
the most central, a site was selected at Pearsalls, where 
in 1 84 1 a parsonage was built at a cost of $800. Rev. 
Theron Osborn was the first to occupy it, and for about 
20 years it was occupied "in turn by Rev. Messrs. Hat- 
field, • Mathews, Holmes, Bovvton Stearns and H. C. 

In 1849 the church was lengthened by an addition of 
15 feet on the front; in 1858 it was reseated and other- 
wise improved at a cost of $600, which was raised by 
the ladies of the church. 

During the years 1862 and 1863 the parsonage was 
sold, and a new one was built near the church at a cost 
of i|i,6oo. Methodism seemed to grow rapidly, as well 
it might with such men as Revs. Nathan Bangs, S. Clark, 
P. P. Sanford, Rice, Holmes, Divine, Hunt, Oldrin and 
Law as leaders. 

The list of preachers would not be complete without 
the name of Mordecai Smith, whose house was always a 
home for the preachers. He was a local preacher many 
years, bfit traveled far and near; if at any time a preach- 
er failed to ineet his appointment it was well filled by 
Mr. Smith. His remains lie near the church, the spot 
marked by a plain white marble slab. To his son Hew- 
lett Smith we are indebted for much of the information 
here given. 

In 1862 and 1863 the old pulpit was cut down and 
remodeled to a more modern style. It has been occupied 
by Francis Asbury, the first Methodist bishop of Ameri- 
ca; it was also honored by the presence of Lorenzo 
Dow and other heroes of old time Methodism. 

From 1858 to 1870 the pulpit was supplied by Rev. 
Messrs. Glover, Booth, Rushmore and Kelsey. During 
Mr. Kelsey's administration the church was divided and 
built a chapel at Pearsalls and one at Rockville Centre. 

In 187 1 the society secured the services of Rev. R. S. 
Hulsart, the present pastor. He is a member of the 
Methodist Protestant conference, and the church has 
connected itself with the same conference. 

In 1874 a new and commodious house of worship 
was erected, at a cost of $15,000 

During the winter of 1879 and 1880 about two hundred 



professed to be converted. There were in 1881 390 
members and 25 probationers. 

The " South Side Observer." 

The Sout// Side O/'ser-Mf, \mh\ished at Rockville Centre, 
was founded there in June 1865, by Jolm H. Reed, as a 
six-column quaito. In 1870 Mr. Reed sold out to George 
Wallace, who enlarged the paper and changed its name 
to Souf/i Side Observer, the first number being issued No- 
vember 4th of that year. In 1873 Charles I>. Wallace, a 
younger brother, was admitted to partnership in the bus- 
iness, which has since been in the firm name of Wallace 
Brothers, publishers. In 1874 George Wallace relin- 
quished possession of the editorial chair, since which 
time Charles L. has been the editor. 

The paper has been recently enlarged to a 9-column 
quarto, and does a very flourishing business. 

It is the only paper in Hempstead to discard the old- 
fashioned hand press, and has for years been printed on 
a cylinder press. It is Republican in politics, but its 
chief characteristic is that of a local newspaper. In its 
early years it had a severe struggle for existence, but 
made steady progress after 1870, and has made rapid 
progress of late years. It occupies a two-story building 
specially built for the purpose, and has one of the largest 
and best fitted printing establishments outside of the 


For more than a hundred years the site of Pearsalls 
has been in possession of persons by the name of Pear- 
sail, two distinct families of the same name having owned 
a large portion. Henry Pearsall sen. and family resided 
here many years, keeping a small store in an old-fashion- 
ed house on the most prominent corner, where five roads 
meet, known as " Pearsall's Corners." The houses were 
few and scattering and but little improvement was made. 

In 1853 Wright Pearsall, the present owner of the site 
(who is not related to the foririer owners, though of the 
same name), and his father, Samuel Pearsall, purchased 
fifty acres and removed here from Near Rockaway. The 
old house was moved, and the present building erected 
and store opened the following year. Two lines of stages 
passed the door — one daily from Freeport waiting here 
to be met by one from Near Rockaway, and another every 
day from Amityville. 

In 1857 the water works for supplying the city of 
Brooklyn with water were commenced, and the aqueduct 
was built through this place, making a great deal of stir 
and activity. 

In 1867 the Southside Railroad was commenced, and 
with frequent- communication with New York, but 18 
miles distant, Pearsalls began rapidly to improve. 
Wright Pearsall had his land surveyed and laid out in 
building lots, many of which found ready sale. He had 
a number of houses built, and gave the land for the 
railroad depot. He donated the lot (100 by 200 feet) 

for the Methodist Episcopal church, and has done much 
toward building up and developing the place. Hamilton 
W. Pearsall, his son, the ))resent proprietor of the store 
(the former store having been torn down and a new store 
and house built on the opposite corner), is the present 
postmaster (1881), and has assisted in the development 
of the place. A post-office was established here in 1873, 
mainly through the instrumentality of D. K. Elmendorf, 
who was the first postmaster. The citizens decided to 
drop " Corners " from the name and call the place simply 

Henry Pearsall, a much respected citizen, resided here 
all his life and was justice of the peace twenty-one con- 
secutive years. Doctor Julius Auerbach lived here a 
number of years; also D. K. Elmendorf, who promoted 
the interests of the place. 

St. James's Methodist Episcopal Church 

was built in 1873, at a cost of about $8, 000. The chapel 
was built in 1870, at a cost of ^2,500. Rev. C. Kelsey 
was the first pastor of the society, which was organized in 
1870. He was followed in 187 1 by Rev. C. P. Corner, 
who was assisted the first year by Rev. AV. W. McGuire 
and the second year by Rev. E. H. Dutcher. In 1873 
Rev. Mansfield French became pastor. He died, greatly 
lamented, at the close of his three years pastorate. He 
was followed in 1876 by Rev. William Platts, and he 
after two years by Rev. C. W. Fordham. A parsonage 
was built in 1874. The Sunday-school was organized 
October 9th 1870, with 74 members; it has now a mem- 
bership of 200. Its first superintendent was D. K. El- 
mendorf; he was followed by R. H. Young and he 
by Hamilton W. Pearsall. 


The first school-house was built in 1855. Shortly 
after the district was organized a plot of ground was 
bought for $100, and a house was built thereon for $600. 
This, at the commencement of the last decade, was found 
too small to accommodate the increasing necessities 
of the district, and about 1874, at a cost of $2,250 for 
building and furniture, a school-house with two rooms 
for as many departments was built. Before that a school- 
house was kept by Jeremiah Foster in an old building 
(since torn down) belonging to Charles Abrams (since de- 
ceased), on Union avenue. After the building of the 
school-house the following persons successively taught 
for periods of three months or more: David Tyson, 
Alvah Cummings, Thomas H. Wheeler, Clinton F. Combs, 
George W. Dickinson, William F. Dickinson, Thomas D. 
Smith, Hattie Ketcham, Orson H. Pettit, Miss Sayres, 
Jeremiah Foster, and John H. Reed, the present incum- 
bent. About 1874 the school was divided into two 
departments, the primary being taught by Marietta Fos- 
ter and subsequently by Julia E. Fowler, who still con- 
tinues. The most extended service was performed by 
Jeremiah Foster, who officiated about seven years. This 
school, with the other schools of the town, is in part sup- 
ported by what is known as the " Plain " or " Stewart " 



fund. Since the last school-house was built, in 1S74, the 
district has not raised any money by tax on its property, 
except to pay for that building, the income from the State 
and town being sufficient to support the school and pay 
current expenses. 

On the 30th of September 1879 there were 215 persons 
between the ages of five and twenty-one years residing in 
the district; and on the 30th of September 18S0 there 
were 226. 


In 1875 Charles L. Sherman, machinist, started a man- 
ufactory of sheet and cast metal goods, toys, etc., remov- 
ing from Brooklyn. He employs on an average eighteen 
men, and ships goods to all parts of the country. 

In 1879 a fire company was organized, having seven- 
teen charter members. Their house is on Main street, 
and meetings are held the first Tuesday of each month. 
The following are the officers of Rescue Hook and Lad- 
der Company No. i: Foreman, C. C. Van Dusen; assist- 
ant foreman, J. W. Dredges; secretaries, Henry A. Graef 
and Samuel Thompson; treasurer, H. W. Pearsall; trus- 
tees— G. A. Mott, G. W. Strickland, H. A. Graef. No 
fires of importance have occurred. 

James A. Hutcheson, M. D., has been the practicing 
physician of Pearsalls for the last seven years. He is a 
graduate of the Long Island College, Brooklyn, and is a 
son of Robert Hutcheson, of East Rockaway. Dr. 
Hutcheson holds the position of county physician, visit- 
ing the county-liouse at Barnum's Island twice each week, 
and as much oftener as circumstances demand. 

M. L. Mount, wheelwright and blacksmith, has built 
up a business in the manufacture of ships' goods which is 
a credit to the village and the proprietor. 

At present this village contains some five or six hun- 
dred inhabitants. There are two hotels, both near the 
depot, one recently rebuilt and conducted by Elbert 
Abrams, and the Furman House, conducted by S. Fur- 
man, in the upper part of which is a court-room. There 
are six stores, the hot-houses of Sealey Brothers, 
sash and blind makers, wheelwright, blacksmith and car- 
riage shops, meat markets, barber shops, etc., and rail- 
road and telegraph communications. 

A large quantity of oysters is shipped from this point 
to New York, and many gentlemen doing business in the 
city find here a pleasant suburban home. 



This beautiful village 'Jormer known as Hempstead 
South, or Raynorville) is one of the oldest of the town. It 
is on the Southern Railroad, about twenty-three miles 
from Long Island City, and, like Baldwins, borders on the 
bay. It is a great oyster depot, some of the residents 
being the first to inaugurate the business on the south 
side of the island. Aside from the depot and school 
building there are two churches, Presbyterian and Meth- 

odist; two large hotels, the bakery of Mead & Wright, 
Golder's drug store, the grist, (louring and saw mill of 
Isaac Horsfall, the dry goods and grocery store of Nel- 
son H. Smith and Franklin P. Smith, the boot and shoe 
store of William Raynor, the harness shop of J. H. Smith, 
the barber shop and store of Frederick Blankerhorn, etc. 
The hotels are managed by B. T. Smith and George D. 
Smith. Both hotels are first-class. The streets of Free- 
port are well laid out and cared for, and a general air of 
thrift is apparent. 

On Saturday February 25th 1837 a committee of gen- 
tlemen from New York met Captain Raynor Rock Smith, 
of Freeport, at the hotel of Oliver Conklin, in Hemp- 
stead, and in behalf of citizens of the fifth ward of New 
York presented him with a cup, in recognition of his at- 
tempt at rescuing the passengers of the bark " Mexico," 
stranded on the beach. The cup, now in possession of 
the family, is described as follows: "On one side a de- 
vice of the ship ' Mexico ' imbedded in the sand, with 
the waves breaking over her. Her helpless crew are seen 
stretching out their imploring hands. A boat is making 
its way to them. A few figures stand upon the beach, 
surrounded by masses of ice, which show the severity of 
the season and the peril of the undertaking." The re- 
verse side bears the following inscription: " Reward of 
Merit, Presented to Raynor R. Smith, of Hempstead 
South, L. I., by a number of his fellow citizens of the 
fifth ward, as a token of regard for his noble daring, per- 
formed at the peril of his life, in saving the eight persons 
from t!ie wreck of the fated ship ' Mexico,' on the morn- 
ing of Jan. 2nd 1837." Raynor R. Smith was born Feb- 
ruary 27th 1785. 

T/ie First Presbyterian Churck was organized about 
1849. From a communication from J. Davidson, M. D., 
of Hempstead, read at the memorial services held at 
Freeport, at the close of the twenty-fifth year of its or- 
ganization. December 29th 1874, is taken the following 
extra'ct in regard to the early history: "I have lived in 
this town for half a century, and of course have been ac- 
quainted with every part of it, and I do not know that in 
any. other part of the town there was so much indiffer- 
ence to the Sabbath, and to the subject of religion gen- 
erally, as in Raynor South, as we then called it. * * * 
At this time we had in this village [Hempstead] for our 
pastor Rev. Sylvester Woodbridge jr. I saw he was the 
very man for this work, and at the proper time I broach- 
ed the subject to him. He gladly fell in with my wishes, 
and told me that if I could get a place to preach in he 
would gladly preach. I succeeded in getting the old 
school-house that stood in the point of the crossing of 
the road. Every Sabbath afternoon I went down with 
him. He preached and I led the singing. The house 
could not hold one-half that came. * * * Not long 
after the people moved in the matter, and a church was 

The first house of worship in the village (since turned 
into a private dwelling) stood nearly east of the present 
church. The corner stone of the present edifice was laid 
July 20th 1859. The building committee were Samuel 



S. Carman, Valentine Smith and G. B. Banks. The 
building and lot cost S5.500. The first Sabbath bell in 
Freeport was heard on the 13th of May i860. In 1875 
Mrs. Susan Bergen donated to the trustees a lot imme- 
diately south of the church and erected a chapel 28 by 
45 feet, which is used for social meetings and Sabbath- 
school room. By action of the trustees it was named 
the " Elizabeth Carman Memorial Chapel." The follow- 
ing have been pastors: Rev. Franklin Merrill, 1847; 
Rev. H. B. Burr; Rev. James M. McDougall, 1856-63; 
Rev. R. G. Hinsdale, 1863, 1864; Rev. Charles F. Boyn- 
ton, pastor in i88r. 

Methodist Episcopal Church. — While there is no record 
of the first class formed in Freeport, it is known that 
Rev. Jonathan Lyon preached in 1813 at Willett Raynor's 
farm house (now owned by Mr. Graffing). Rev. 
Thomas Birdsall, in 1881 a local preacher at East Mead- 
ows, was converted at that meeting. At that time a 
class was led by Parker Baldwin, at Raynortown. In 
1827 Thomas Seaman was leader of a class of eighteen. 
Services were held at Willett Raynor's, William B. Ray, 
nor's and Isaac Post's until 1833, when a small store near 
the residence of William B. Raynor was purchased and 
fitted for religious pur])oses. It was dedicated by Rev. 
N. Bigelow, of Hempstead circuit. From this time for 
a number of years circuit and local preachers from 
Hempstead conducted services, with the exception of a 
short time while under the jurisdiction of the Amityville 
circuit. A Sunday-school was organized, with William 
B. Raynor as superintendent, a position which he filled 
until the time of his death, in 1867. He was also a class 
leader. The little society struggled for existence until 
the conversion of John C. Raynor, when it was decided 
to build a church in the center of the village. The cor- 
ner stone was placed in position in 1858. The church 
was dedicated in February 1859 by Rev. B. Pillsbury, of 
Hempstead. Rev. S. N. Snedeker, a local preacher of 
Hempstead, supplied the pulpit until July of that year, 
when the Rev. S. M. Hammond took charge of the Free- 
port and Baldwins circuit. In 1872 the two villages were 
supplied with different preachers. In 1873 morj land 
was bought and a parsonage was built. The church was 
enlarged, and was rededicated by Bishop Simpson Janu- 
ary 1 6th 1878. The following are the names of the min- 
isters since 1859: Rev. S. M. Hammond, 1859, i860; 
Rev. E. Miner, 1861; Rev. A. Booth, 1862, 1863; Rev. 
R.Wake, 1864, 1865 (freeport only); Rev. C. P. Corner, 
1866, 1867; Rev. F. W. AVare, 1868, 1869; Rev. W. W. 
Clark, 1870, 1871; Rev. S. M. Hammond, 1872-74 (Free- 
port only); Rev. E. S. Hebberd, 1875, 1876; Rev. W. R. 
Webster, 1877, 1878; Rev. U. S. Stevens, 1879-81. Of 
W. B. Raynor Rev. S. M. Hammond says, " He may 
be called the father of the modern church in Freeport." 
He was born in 1801, converted in 1823 and was married 
to Mary Ann Valentine in 1826, and until the time of his 
death, in 1867, served the church in various capacities. 
Revivals occurred in 1865, 1872, 1873, 1874 and 1877 
The church property is valued at $4,000, the parsonage 
at $3,000. The Sunday-school numbers 240 scholars. 

Far Rockaway. 

Historians in speaking of Far Rockaway say that the 
Rockaway tribe of Indians were scattered over the 
southern part of the town of Hempstead, which, with a 
part of Jamaica and the whole of Newtown, formed the 
extent of their claim. It is believed, however, that a 
greater part of the population was at Near Rockaway 
and as far west as the old Marine Pavilion. There was 
a like settlement on Barnum's Island. 

The beach at Far Rockaway and for many miles east 
and west is undergoing frequent local changes. Many 
times the surf washes away several rods in width during 
a single storm, and perhaps the next storm adds more 
than has been removed by the preceding'one. The sea 
often makes inlets to the bays and marshes and as often 
fills up others, and for this reason if for no other it is 
impossible to correctly give a geographical history of 
this section. 

Of the original settlers the conclusion has been 
reached that in 1676 this tract was purchased of the 
Rockaway tribe by one Cornwell, said to be a younger son 
of Lord Cornwall. The right of such sale was subse- 
quently disputed by the town of Hempstead. Later re- 
searches go to prove that the Cornwell family resided in 
this section for a number of years. According to an 
article recently prepared for jjublication by Mrs. William 
J. Kavanagh, Benjamin Cornwell was the first to con- 
ceive the idea of making sea bathing here remunerative, 
and to that end he o])ened a place of entertainment on 
the site now known as the old Pavilion grounds. Men- 
tion is made of one John Carnagay. His property was 
subsequently sold to one of the Mott brothers, of whom 
there were six, who in turn sold it to the Healy family_ 
The house is on Jamaica Bay, and is now in the posses- 
sion of Judge Healy. Another interesting old residence 
is the Mott homestead at the junction of the old turn- 
pike road and Mott avenue. The house, although over 
one hundred years old, is still in an excellent state of 
preservation. Its original owner was 'Squire John Mott. 
Among other old buildings is Rock Hall, built by the 
Hon. Joseph Martin, now in possession of the Hewlett 
family. The building is a large and imposing structure. 
The Morton mansion, now the country seat of Edward 
N. Dickerson, is situated within the limits of Wave 
Crest Park. 

During the last half century Far Rockaway has been 
a fashionable summer resort and to-day it is a large vil- 
lage, mainly composed of fine hotels and boarding 
houses. Mention has already been made of the Marine 
Pavilion, one of the early resorts; here it probably was 
that the following lines were indited by George P. 

On old Long- Island's seagirt shore 

Manj' an hour I've whiled away, 
List'ning to the breakers' roar 

That wash the beach of Rockaway. 
Transfl.xed I've stood while Nature's lyre 

In one harmonious concert broke, 
And, catching: its Promethean fire, 

My inmost soul to rapture woke. 



Oh, how delightful 'tis to stroll 

Where nuirm'ring: winds and waters meet, 
Marking the billows as they roll 

And break resistless at your feet; 
To watch youns' Iris, as she dips 

Her mantle in the sparkling dew, 
And, ehas'd by Sol, away she trips 

O'er the horizon's quiv'ring blue. 

To hear the startling night-winds sigh. 

As di-eamy twilight lulls to sleep ; 
While the pale moon rotlccts from high 

Her image in the mighty deep ; 
Majestic scene where Nature dwells. 

Profound in everlasting love. 
While her unmeasured music swells, 

The vaulted firmament above. 

Within the last few years Far Rockaway has more 
than doubled its resident population. Building lots that 
were worth $(50 in 1875 in 1881 were valued at three 
times that amount, and during the fall and winter of 
18S0-81 a large number of buildings were erected. The 
Wave Crest purchase, comprising the tract known as the 
Clark estate, and the land once belonging to the old 
Marine Pavilion, enclosed as a private park, with lodges 
at the entrance gates, contain the summer residences of 
a number of prominent people. The village has a good 
school building, a depot, a post-office, built by Mr. Cole, 
and arranged for the office and a drug store; an Episco- 
pal chapel, the Catholic church, Rev. Father Zimmer 
pastor; St. Mary's Academy, several stores and a large 
number of hotels, among them the United States, St. 
James (L. Corser proprietor), Coleman, Mansion, Arling- 
ton, Atlantic, Wave Crest, Mott's, etc. Through the 
energy of Justice Healy a court-house and public hall 
was built near the railroad depot in 1881. At the beach 
is found every facility for bathing, while at the old and 
established landing of J. L. C. Norton boats are always in 
waiting to carry passengers to the ocean side. 

Trinity Episcopal parish at Far Rockaway has been 
divided. It included Hewletts, Woodburgh and Law- 
rence. These latter villages will hereafter constitute 
Trinity parish, and Far Rockaway will be known as 
St. John's parish. The wardens are William H. Neilson 
and J. A. Hewlett, and the vestrymen are Alfred Neilson, 
Hewlett Lawrence, William E. Foote, Joseph Marsden, 
Edwa-d N. Dickerson, Edward Brinkerhoff, Dr. White 
and Mr. Merrick. A new edifice is to be erected and 
the chapel used for Sunday-school purposes. 

New Bridge. 

In the year 1818 a new bridge was built over the 
brook which separates what was anciently known as 
Whale Neck from Little Neck; and the name New 
Bridge was applied to that section of country bordering 
on either side of the bridge. Several unsuccessful at- 
tempts have been made to change the local name. 
Nearly twenty years ago the citizens assembled and re- 
solved thencefoitli to call the place Bridge Haven; but 
the circumstantial name New Bridge seemed determined 
not to pass into oblivion without a struggle. 

Tradition describes this place as being the " happy 

hunting ground " of a band of Indians related to the 
Merrick or the Merikoke tribe, the relics of whom are 
often found by the farmers on this neck of land, which 
was known and described in ancient writings as Little 
Neck. The principal village of this tribe of Indians was 
on the east side of the New Bridge creek or river and on 
the southerly part of the farms now owned by David Be- 
dell, Thomas S. Smith and John D. Cornelius; large 
heaps of shells extending several feet into the ground 
still exist in this locality. These Indians reluctantly re- 
moved from this section in 1658, when the early settlers 
of the town of Hempstead, after several unsuccessful ef- 
forts, secured from the tribe an amicable settlement. 

The original settler of this place was Colonel John 
Jackson, who at an early day owned nearly all the land 
on Little Neck. He resided at one time in Jeru- 
salem, but later on the site of the residence of Jacob S. J. 
Jones. On the 23d of January 1804 he obtained from 
the town of Hempstead a grant of the whole liberty and 
privilege of Jerusalem River for a grist and fulling-mill, 
with fifty or sixty acres of land adjoining, which property 
has descended from father to the eldest son to the fourth 
generation. During the Revolutionary period a British 
fleet was lying off Jones's Beach, where General Jacob S. 
Jackson (grandfather of Jacob S. J. Jones) was stationed 
with his brigade for the protection of the south coast of 
Long -Island. While the general was walking along the 
beach at a little distance from his command, a ball weigh- 
ing about eight pounds, fired from a British ship, lodged 
a few feet from him in the sand. On turning suddenly 
around he fell. His men, seeing him fall, supposed he 
was killed. They ran to his assistance, but found him up 
and digging for the ball. They found it and carried it 
away as a memento. It has since been kept in the fam- 
ily. When Jacob S. J. Jones came in possession of it 
with the premises in 1829 he dug a hole by his house, put 
the ball in the bottom and planted a weeping willow tree 
on it, thinking it had made noise enough. The tree grew 
splendidly for forty years. Then a violent storm blew 
down the tree, which was five feet in diameter; with it a 
large quantity of earth was taken up and the ball was 

During the Revolutionary period this region was much 
molested by gunboat men who infested the harbors, came 
up the Jerusalem River, now called Jackson's Creek, and 
raided the mill and farms in its vicinity. At one time 
General Jackson was awakened by hearing his negro ser- 
vant pass through his room into an adjoining room, where 
the silverware was kept. In a moment she returned, 
bringing it with her, and the next moment was heard a 
splash. Soon the servant was at the bedside, saying, 
■' Mas'er, the gunboat men! Mas'er, the gunboat men!" 
The general found it was too late to run, which he had 
frequently had to do in order to save his life. The win- 
dows were barricaded, but by means of a battering ram 
the enemy succeeded in breaking in the back hall door. 
They took General Jackson out of bed, shook him around 
and demanded his money and silverware. He replied 
that he had none. At this they became enraged, again 



caught hold of him and commenced roughly to ]nish him 
about the room. In so doing they backed him against 
two posts which stood as a support in a part of the room, 
between which a sort of till had been temporarily made 
by the general; and by their violence he momentarily ex- 
pected this would give way and expose his falsehood. 
Still he obstinately refused to give up anything, and still 
the old till kept in its place. 

After ransacking the house and finding nothing — for 
the old servant had thrown the silverware into the swill 
barrel for safety — the party concluded to take General 
Jackson prisoner, and dragged him down to the bank of 
the river. An alarm was given, and in a short time a 
number of citizens were on the banks of the stream; but 
the general was taken on board a British vessel lying off 
the coast, and after a few weeks was sent to a place of 
confinement in New Jersey. Here he was kept several 
months. Through negligence on the part of the keeper 
he finally escaped in open day, and walked quietly through 
the fields to a wood. Once in the woods he no longer 
walked quietly, but ran rapidly, and late in the evening 
arrived at the quarters of an old negro, who lodged him 
in a garret, about large enough for him to turn around in, 
to which he gained access through a trap door by a lad- 
der. After directing the old negro to take the ladder far 
away from the hut, and if any one came to tell them he 
had seen nobody, he quietly closed the trap door and lay 
down upon it. In the night he was awakened by the 
British, who were in search of him; but the old darkey 
was faithful to the directions given him, and they pro- 
ceeded. In the early morning he resumed his journey, 
and after several days' starvation and anxiety he reached j 
home. , 

The silverware which was thrown into the swill bar- 
rel for safety was seen by the writer of this account; it i 
bears the initials " O. A. J." (Obadiah and Almy Jack- j 
son). i 

The residence of Jacob S. J. Jones will long be remem- 
bered as the scene of many interesting events. In one 
of the upper windows may be seen cut upon a pane of { 
glass the names Phebe Jackson, Mary Jackson and \ 
Henry C. Bogert, with the date April 17th 1766. Mary I 
Jackson was the wife of Major Thomas Jones, who was 
the first white settler on Fort Neck. 

Hamlets and Stations. 

Hiasi Rockaway, formerly known as Near Rockavvay, is 
located five miles south of the village of Hempstead, and 
four miles north of the Long Beach Hotel. It is a pleas- 
ant little village, open to the Atlantic Ocean, and con- 
tains two stores, one owned by Mr. S. S. Rhame, andone 
in which is located the post-office; two hotels, conducted 
by L. C. Smith and Daniel Pettit; a flouring-mill, a 
school building, a chapel, and several fine residences. 

" Rockaway " was the name of a tribe of Indians who 
inhabited Hog Island (now Barnum's Island), where 
many traces of them are to be seen. A few years ago 

there yet remained on the island a mount called " In- 
dian Hill." It was about fifty feet long, thirty feet wide 
and from four to six feet high, composed of oyster and 
clam shells and a little soil. 

During the Revolutionary war Colonel Richard Hew- 
lett resided here. He was an English officer, and had a 
small regiment of English soldiers at his residence and 
under his command. The only monument now existing 
of their doings is the remains of a large ditch and an em- 
bankment thrown up by these soldiers around a piece of 
woodland then owned by him. 

At East Rockaway are the pumping engine and well 
which furnish water to the Long Beach Hotel and cot- 
tages. A neat depot accommodates passengers. Among 
the artisans are George Rider & Son, boatbuilders and 
carpenters. Mr. Rider has resided in East Rockaway a 
number of years, and has seen a large part of its growth. 
The village and locality are the home of many of the old 
residents of Hempstead, among whom we may mention 
the names of Peter Hewlett, Oliver S. Denton and Rich- 
ard Carman. 

The union Sunday-school at East Rockaway was 
organized in the district school-house by L. D. Simons 
as superintendent on Sunday June 9th 1867. The first 
teachers were L. D. and W. A. Simons, S. S. Rhame, 
Mrs. L. D. Simon?, Mrs. R. T. Hewlett and Misses Mary 
A. Simons and Libbie B. Baiseley. The total number 
present at the organization was fourteen, but before the 
expiration of the year the membership had increased to 
fifty or more. At the present time (1882) more than 
a hundred names are upon the school's roll. 

In 1877 the subject of the erection of a suitable build- 
ing for the use of the school was agitated, resulting in 
the election of a board of trustees, who purchased a lot 
50 by 150 feet, located on the main street. Ground was 
broken for the erection of a building 30 by 50 feet. May 
25th 1878, and on Sunday August 25th the opening ser- 
vices were held in the chapel. Within three yenrs from 
that time the chapel was entirely completed and taste- 
fully furnished, and a fence built around the lot, at a 
total cost of about ^2,000. Services are held in the 
chapel by pastors of neighboring churches. 

Long Beach. — This beach, which contains about 1,800 
acres, with a frontage on the Atlantic ocean, extends 
nearly seven miles in a straight line of gently sloping 
hard packed sand, as smooth and even in its contour as a 
floor of asphalt. It is one of the chain of beaches of the 
southern part of Hempstead. Durmg the latter part of 
the summer of 1879 it was visited with a view of determ- 
ining its availability for improvement, and under the 
auspices of the Long Beach Improvement Company, in 
the spring of 1880, work was .commenced. A railroad 
was built from Pearsalls, a distance of between five and 
six miles, a jiart of the distance on trestle, and the first 
mudsill for the foundation of a large hotel was put in 
place May 13th 1880; workmen commenced to raise the 
building May i8th; July 17th 1880 it was completely en- 
closed and opened to the public. The building is 875 
feet long, including its piazzas, 140 feet wide, three and 



a half stories high, and 170 feet away from the nearest 
building, except the music stand — no feet off. The 
basement is used for storing supplies, and the first floor 
for offices. In the center of the building is the great re- 
freshment room, 175 by 80 feet, and on the sides are cor- 
ridors, each 50 feet wide, running across the building 
from north to south. On the second floor, which is 
reached by flights of stairs 20 feet broad, are parlors, 
dining-rooms and public rooms for guests, while a broad 
porch runs entirely around the building. The third floor 
is the size of the second, and contains sleeping rooms, 
bath rooms and lavatories. The fourth floor is entirely a 
chamber floor. Architecturally, the building is a simple 
and quiet rendering of the so-called Queen Anne, with 
low roofs and projecting gables, running up with half 
timberings and shingled spandrils. In brief the hotel 
has serving rooms sufficient to wait upon 5,000 people at 
the same time. Water is supplied from an immense well 
at East Rockaway, four miles distant. Two large engines 
and pumps are located at that point, and the water is 
forced to the beach at the rate of 275,000 gallons a 
day. The building is lighted by gas, the tank being 
about 1,000 feet away from the hotel. The boiler that 
runs the engine in the hotel is also about 1,000 feet distant. 
East of the hotel a large number of cottages have been 
erected, which are rented to families during the season. 
In 1881 the railroad was extended five miles to Point 
Lookout, the east end of the beach, where cottages, a 
pavilion and 50 bathing houses were built. Near the 
hotel are 1,006 bathing houses, properly arranged for con- 
venience; and connected with these houses, which are 
under the care of a superintendent, is the laundry. An 
ice-house, a livery stable, etc., make up the rest of the 
hotel attachments. The master builder of this hotel was 
C. McLean. N. B. Mulliner was the master painter, both 
gentlemen having a small army of workmen under their 

Scafoi-d, formerly known as Atlanticville and previous 
to that as Verity Town, was originally owned by the Sea- 
mans, descendants of the renowned Captain John Sea- 
man, a historical account of whom was written by Jordan 
Seaman, of Jericho, and published by Ardon Seaman, of 
Jerusalem, in 1866. The Veritys settled in the southerly 
part of the locality, and for a time it was known as Verity 
Town. It is on the westerly boundary of Fort Neck. 
The island southerly from here in the Great South Bay, 
known as Squaw Island, is said to have obtained its 
name in the determined conflicts between the Long Isl- 
and and Connecticut Indians. The former transported 
their squaws and children to this island for safety. 

The general grocery store of Bayliss <S: Van Nostrand 
is a favorite resort for the citizens of this and the sur- 
rounding villages. The post-office connected with it is 
well conducted by John Bayliss. The new general grocery 
store of R. B. Jackson is a credit to the place and to its 
])roprietor. Mr. Jackson has been in the business fifteen 
years. The well stocked lumber yards of Curtis S. 
Smith & Co., established in 1865; the planing, moulding 
and saw-mill run by the efficient millwright Edgar Half; 

the old established blacksmith shop operated by John W, 
Hendrickson; and the carriage factories and other places 
of business render this a considerable center of trade 
and industry. Its quiet and genial citizens have already 
awakened to the inteiest of oyster planting, having 
formed a large company with a considerable cai)ital. 
Here may be found the' best oyster planting grounds on 
the south shore of Long Island. 

Sinithville South. — Still further north, on the Little 
Neck road, lies tiie thriving village of Smithville South. 
It has a store, a carpenter shop, a post-office, a black- 
smith shop, a church, a school-house and a hotel. It is 
the home of 'Squire Thomas D. Smith, civil engineer 
and surveyor. Vegetables, berries, etc., are extensively 
cultivated, and find a ready market at Long Beach. 

Greenville Point was formerly a great resort for per- 
sons passing from Hempstead to Freeport and vicinity, 
and was for many years known as " Rum P'int." In 1881 
there were only the traces of the hotels, and a church 
and school-house form the nucleus of what will probably 
grow into a village in the near future. 

Merrick, Bcllmore and Ridgewood are stations on the 
Southern Railroad, in the center of a rich agricultural 
district. The houses in these neighborhoods are so 
scattered that they can scarcely be called villages. Each 
station has a neat depot building. At Merrick, about a 
mile from the depot, are the Long Island camp meeting 
grounds, upon which numerous cottages have been 
erected. This large tract of land, thickly wooded, 
affords abundant and delightful shade, and the locality is 
admirably suited to its present use. Not far from the 
camping ground is the extensive farm of P. C. Barnum. 
The station is about twenty-five miles from Long Island 
City. The Ei)iscopal residents of Merrick, having pur- 
chased the Methodist chapel, paying therefor ^1,000, 
have deeded it to the trustees of the estate of the dio- 
cese. A Brooklyn church has presented the new parish 
with a baptismal font. Money, however, is needed to 
supply seats, an organ and a bell. 

Bellmore is about a mile further. It has access to the 
South Bay by a creek navigable for vessels of consider- 
able size. It has a carriage manufactory and flour-mills, 
two churches and a post-office. Among the well known 
residents at Bellmore are Charles N. Clement, supervi- 
sor of Hempstead, and John D. Cornelius. 

Ridgewood is a hamlet about half a mile south of the 
station. It has two churches, one newspaper and two 
flour-mills, and is a milk depot for this section. There 
are two stores and a post-office. In 1880 Willet Whit- 
more was station agent and merchant, also assistant post- 
master. At all cf these places there are excellent schools. 

Valley Stream, on the Long Island Railroad, is seven- 
teen miles from Long Island City, and at the junction of 
the Rockaway branch railroad. It has a fine depot, 
post-office and telegraph office combined, under the 
charge of F. E. Janowitz (who is also a notary public). 
A store and two hotels are situated near the depot. K. 
P. Chopin is the proprietor of the Valley Stream Hotel, 
built in 1869. A short distance from the depot is a 




pumping station of the Brooklyn water works, simi- 
lar to that at Rockville Centre, and built in 1881. 
The large dry goods and grocery store of James 
Fletcher is about a mile from the village. Valley 
Stream is at the junction of the branch road to 
Hempstead, now abandoned. 

Hewlett, about nineteen miles from Brooklyn, is a 
thriving little village, containing many fine houses and 
surrounded by fine farms. A Roman Catholic church is 
situated at this point; also the large general store of 
Frank H. Weyant, in which is the post-office. Near the 
village is the undertaking establishment and wheelwright 
shop of James Kimball & Son. 

Woodsburgh is a village similar in size to Hewlett, con- 
taining a post-office, the blacksmith shop of Edward W. 
Shaw, several stores and two hotels. At the Neptune 
House William O. Mott is in charge. The Pavilion 
Hotel, with accommodations for five hundred guests, is 
complete in every respect. A short distance from the 
hotel is fine bathing and an anchorage for yachts. Con- 
nected with the Neptune House is a half-mile course, 
called the Woodsburgh Driving Park. In this vicinity 
the drives are excellent, and the cottages are readily 
rented every year. A beautiful Episcopal church is sit- 
uated a short distance from the Pavilion Hotel; Rev. S. 
W. Sayres is the rector. 

Ocean Point and Laivrencc are thriving villages only a 
short distance apart, containing fine residences. Law- 
rence, founded by Alfred Lawrence, from whom it 
derives its name, has over five hundred inhabitants, sev- 
eral stores, a post-office and many elegant mansions, 
owned by wealthy New York and Brooklyn gentlemen. 
On the avenues leading to Far Rockaway from these 
villages, within the last few years have been erected 
many fine and costly residences and large club-houses, 
which are owned by men of wealth, who lavish money in 
beautifying the buildings and grounds. 

The Lawrence depot is about midway between the 
village and Westville, or North West Point, another 
beautiful little settlement. James Harris has been the 
station agent since the building of the railroad. 

Christian Hook {Oceanvil/e). — This settlement, although 
not a village, has been frequently referred to in the his- 
tory of Queens county. It occupies a considerable por- 
tion of Hempstead, bordering on the bay, and contains 
many fine farms. A Presbyterian chapel has been built, 
by members of the Hempstead church. Rev. Marcus 
Burr is the pastor. A large school building is situated 
near it. There are three stores proper, viz., Lorenzo 
Davison's, George H. Soper's and Stephen Rider's. A 
large proportion of the inhabitants " follow the bay." 
Among the principal farmers and residents are the Pettits, 
Sopers, Joseph Brower, Z. Story (one of the oldest men 
on the island) and Conways. Since 1826 Ira Pettit has 
lived on his present farm, a fine one, commanding a beau- 
tiful view seaward. His father, James Pettit, was born 
at Hicks Neck. Ira, the youngest son, was born in 1812. 

The farm was bought of the Rev. Seth Hart, in 1826. 
At that time it was called the Parsonage, which name it 
still retains. The old house is yet standing, but a new 
one was built in 1875. 

Baldwins. — This village is between Rockville Center 
and Freeport, on the Southern Railroad, twenty-one miles 
from Long Island City. In 1850 it was a hamlet of a few 
houses, and its growth was not rapid until the completion 
of the Southern Railroad, about fifteen years later, since 
which the population has increased to nearly 1,500, scat- 
tered from the depot to the meadows bordering Hemp- 
stead Bay. The name of the village, which was formerly 
Baldwinsville, has been changed to Baldwins. It was de- 
rived from Francis B. Baldwin, in i88r the treasurer of 
Queens county. Mr. Baldwin owns a large tract of land 
west of the village, which has been beautifully arranged 
for a home, and he has erected many buildings in the vil- 
lage. On his farm is a half-mile driving park, in 1881 
under the management of Dr. A. F. Carpenter for the South 
Side Gentlemen's Driving Club. 

In the village are two Methodist churches, si.\ stores, 
including that of Isaiah Thomas, general grocer; a well 
arranged hotel, conducted by Treadvvell Jones; a pub- 
lic school building, a depot and a post-office, the general 
sewing machine agency of E. S. Raynor & Brother, 
dealers in all kinds of sewing machines, and the car- 
riage shop of Hingle Brothers, near the hotel, established 
several years ago, besides other smaller shops, etc. A 
large number of fishermen and oystermen are located at 
this point, and their wares greatly add to the prosperity of 
the village. 

Bridgeport and Norwood, on the branch of the Southern 
Railroad from Valley Stream to Hempstead, were formerly 
stopping places for the accommodation of farmers in the 
vicinity. The road is not used at present, although the 
rails are yet in place and it is thought that it will again 
come into use. At Norwood station is the general store 
of Smith Du Bois, formerly kept by Valentine Wood, and 
there are several fine residences. The store has been es- 
tablished over forty years. Among the prominent resi- 
dents are Martin Wood, son of Valentine Wood; Ezekiel 
Frost, a farmer, born in 1816, and Smith Du Bois, the 
merchant. Mr. Frost attended school fifty years ago in 
one of the old log school-houses of Hempstead, situated 
on the road to Triming Square. There are many fine 
farms in the vicinity of these stations. 

Life-Saving Stations. — Along the Hempstead beaches 
are several United States life-saving stations, at which 
are stationed quite a number of men during the incle- 
ment seasons of the year. The stations are provided 
with boats and everything pertaining to the service, and 
the men employed are carefully chosen from those used 
to the sea and its dangers. During the winter and spring 
months they are constantly on duty, and many lives and 
much property have been saved by them. The buildings, 
while not large, are substantial, and are fitted up conven- 
iently for those employed. 




This village, the largest in the town and the oldest in 
the county, as well as one of the most populous, is sit- 
uated about twenty miles east of New York city, which 
is easily reached by rail or turnpike. The village con- 
tains the residences of many New York families, who 
spend the summer mouths here, preferring the ocean 
breeze and the country comforts to the heat and dust of 
the city. The streets are beautifully laid out and cared 
for, many of them comparing favorably with avenues in 
larger places, and the roads leading to neighboring vil- 
lages in the town are, when in good condition, the scene 
of many pleasure trips, winding as they do amid beautiful 
farms and attractive villas. A number of the streets 
were named in 1834, among them Fulton street. Others 
are Main, Front, Greenwich, Jackson, Franklin, Orchard, 
Prospect, Washington, Clinton and High, and numerous 
avenues, the principal business streets being those first 

Among the public buildings are five churches, two 
halls, two school buildings, two large buildings used for 
the fire department, the railroad station and six hotels, 
besides numerous boarding houses. Some of these, 
with the more important business firms, are noticed 
hereafter. There are two newspapers, the Inquirer 
and Sentinel. The village is lighted with gas. Several 
small sheets of water and parks add to its beauty. 

The growth of Hempstead during the last quarter of a 
century has been rapid, and it is safe to surmise that the 
next twenty years will see it double its present size, and 
virtually make Hempstead village and Garden City one. 

The following were the officers of the village elected 
on Tuesday March ist 1881: Trustees — E. Kellum, B. F. 
Rushmore, Samuel H. Minshull, William M. Akley, 
Richard Brower; clerk, Scott Van De Water jr. ; treas- 
urer, B. Valentine Clowes; collector, John B. Mersereau; 
street commissioner, Charles Noon; firewardens — Moses 
R. Smith, William E. Carman, Horace F. Denton. E. 
Kellum was chosen chairman of the board of trustees. 


"Christ's First Church (Presbyterian)." 

The history of the above named church dates back to 
the first settlement on Long Island and, as the name 
implies, probably to the establishment of the first Pres- 
byterian church in America. 

The writer of this sketch, after careful research, not 
accepting the written reports for the sixteenth century 
without carefully studying the records and comparing 
the same, believes the following to be as nearly correct 
as possible, although there are periods of which no trace 
can be discovered. Many facts have been gleaned from 
a carefully prepared discourse by the Rev. Sylvester 
Woodbridge, pastor of the church from 1838 to 1848, 
who in writing his evidently carefully prepared manu- 
script had recourse to everything pertaining to the early 
history of the church, as well as many historical remin- 

iscences chronicled only in the memory of those ad- 
vanced in life, who have since passed away. 

"Among Uaose who emigrated to America was the Rev. 
Richard Denton, a Presbyterian minister of Coly Chapel, 
parish of Halifax, in the northern part of England. ' He 
was,' says the Rev. O. Hayward, ' a good minister of 
Jesus Christ, and affluent in hjs worldly circumstances. 
* * * In his time came out the book for sports on 
the Sabbath days. He saw he could not do what was 
required, feared further persecution and therefore took 
the opportunity of going into New England.' Mr. Den- 
ton came to Watertown, Mass., A. D. 1634; removed to 
Wethersfield, Conn., in 1635, to Stamford in 1641, and 
in 1644 came to Hempstead." 

From Mr. Denton's known views the friends of Pres- 
byterianism reach the conclusion that the church was 
Presbyterian, and from the fact that the first church was 
called " Christ's First Church " it is supposed by many 
that this was the earliest Presbyterian church in America. 

" The first meeting-house was erected in 1648. It 
stood near the pond, in the northwest part of the village, 
and was surrounded by or at least connected with a fort 
or stockade." 

" It may be proper to observe that at this time the most 
intimate connection existed between church and State in 
all Christian countries. In towns which, like Hempstead, 
were Presbyterian (that is, which chose their own officers) 
this was particularly the case. The same persons con- 
stituted ' the church ' and ' the town,' and elected the two 
boards of magistrates and elders, who were often the 
same individuals." 

In the year 1658-9 the Rev. Mr. Denton returned to 
England, and immediately thereafter the congregation 
sent Joseph Meade to procure a pastor. In this he was 
unsuccessful, but during the year 1662 the services of 
Rev. Mr. Fordham were obtained." From 1658 to 1682 
the congregation was destitute of a settled minister, 
although it is probable the people assembled for wor- 
ship. The old meeting-house being out of repair, at 
a general town meeting held January yth 1677 it was 
agreed to erect a new building, and in 1678 a house was 
built a few yards west of the present Episcopal church. 
It was to be "30 feet long and 24 wide and 12 feet stud, 
with a lentwo on Ech side." In 1734 it was taken down 
and another erected on the same site. The first parson- 
age was erected in 1682, when the Rev. Jeremy Hub- 
ard was called to be minister, a position which he filled 
until 1696. It is thought that the controversy which 
took place between the Presbyterians and Episcopalians 
about this time, and the course taken by the governor, 
were the cause of the removal of Mr. Hubard from 

From this time for about twenty years, Rev. John 
Thomas, a clergyman who had received Episcopal ordi- 
nation, but who dispensed with some of the usages of the 
Church of England, preached acceptably to the people. 
He died in 1724, after which came the formation of the 
Episcopal society, and a general receding by many of 
the older Presbyterians. 



Of" this Mr. Woodbridge says: " Many members of the 
congregation entirely deserted all religious meetings, and 
the church, reduced to a mere handful, for a time was 
threatened with extinction. When at length it became 
certain that they could not obtain their property without 
resorting to a suit at law, they rallied around the elders 
and for a time held religious meetings at each other's 

In 1762, thirty-eight years after the seizure of the 
church property, a small edifice was erected near the site 
of the present church. Soon afterward the Rev. Abra- 
ham Keteltas supplied the congregation, which rapidly 
increased until the Revolutionary war, when it received 
a check. The church was used by the British as a stable, 
but was repaired after the war. It was destroyed by 
fire in 1803. For a time it again appeared as if the 
society would become extinct. " The number of mem- 
bers of the church did not exceed fifteen or twenty, and 
even to the elders it seemed impossible that the congre- 
gation could continue to exist." They received aid from 
many unexpected quarters, and the same year were 
enabled to erect a house of worship, and March i6th 
1818 Rev. Charles AVebster was installed as pastor, after 
the church had been without a pastor one hundred and 
twenty-two years. 

Since that time the church has steadily advanced, and 
its history can easily be traced. The following is a list 
of ministers since the organization in 1644, with the date 
of beginning and the length of their service: 

1644, Richard Denton, 15 years; 1659, Jonas Ford- 
ham, 22; 1682, Jeremiah Hubard, 14; 1717, Joseph 
Lamb, 7; 7736, Benjamin Woolsey, 20; 1760, Abraham 
Keteltas, 5 or 6; 1770, Mr. Hotchkiss, i; 1772, Joshua 
Hart, 4; 1787, Joshua Hart, 3; 1791, Mr. Sturgiss, 2; 
1794, Mr. Davenport, 2; 1797, Joshua Hart, 6; 1805, 
AVilliam P. Kuypers, 5; 1812, Josiah Andrews, i; 1816, 
Samuel Robertson, i; i8r8, Charles Webster, 19; 1838, 
Sylvester Woodbridge, 10; 1849, Charles W. Shields, r; 
1850, N. C. Locke, 10; i860, J. J. A. Morgan, 7; 1867, 
James B. Finch, 7; 1875, Franklin Noble, 5)^. 

The Sunday-school has about 175 scholars, 25 officers 
and teachers, and 400 books in the library. 

The following probably constituted the earliest board 
of elders: Rev. Richard Denton, Robert Ashman, Wil- 
liam Washburne, Richard Gildersleeve, John Hicks, Mr. 

The following is a partial list of elders who have 
served at different times during the last half century: 
David Hendrickson, William R. Finney, Eldred Piatt, 
John Sealey, James Pine, Robert White, Lefferts Bergen, 
Charles M. Pine, David Sealey, Reuben Pine, A. S. 
Gardner, Adrian V. Cortileyou, Dr. John Davidson, Cor- 
nelius Hendrickson, Albert W. Hendrickson, Henry 
Higbe, Edwin A. Weeks, Ebenezer Kellum, Richard E. 
Losea, George W. Rapelye, Elias C. Everitt and Luke 

At a meeting held October 3d 1844 it was resolved to 
erect a new church, and during the same year a branch 
church was organized at Oyster Bay. The cost of the new 
church at Hempstead, which was completed in 1846, was 

^6,017.25. The old parsonage on the east side of Main 
street was sold for ^1,150, and the site of the parsonage 
on Fulton street was purchased for $317.10; the old 
church was removed to the lot and rebuilt for a parson- 
age at . an expense of ;|2,44i.86. The present lecture 
and Sunday-school room was built in 1855 and was ded- 
icated February 7th 1856. 

Christian Hook was so named because the glebe or 
parsonage lands of this church were situated there. 

Branches of this church have been established at 
Freeport and Glen Cove, and the Presbyterian church at 
Jamaica is said to be an offshoot from the Hempstead 

A. M. E. ZiON Church. 

This church is situated on Cross street, near Front. 
The society was organized in 1848; the site of the edifice 
was bought of E. Willets, December 6th 1848, and about 
the same time an old school-house was purchased and 
removed to the land, where ic was made into the present 
church. At present there are about thirty members, and 
there is preaching every Sunday and Sunday-school in the 
afternoon. The society is free of debt. Benjamin 
Evans, a son of John Evans, who is one of the oldest 
residents, is president of the board of trustees, treasurer 
and class leader. The following have been some of the 
preachers: Revs. George Treadvvell, Peter Corster, Mr. 
Davis, James Lowery, Mr. Williams, John Seaman, Mr. 
Cliff, James Landon, John J. Stewart, Thomas C. John- 
son, Adam Jackson, Charles W. Robinson and S. C. 
Burchmore. The first trustees were Elijah Horton, 
William B. Corse and Benjamin Evans. 

Church of our Lady of Loretta. 

This society was formed about ten years ago, when 
the land on Greenwich street, the site of the church 
property, was purchased, together with a building which 
has since been moved back to make room for the new 
church, which was built a short time afterward. The parson- 
age was already built, having been occupied as a private 
residence. The lot is about 100 feet by 600. The church 
is of the gothic style of architecture, about 45 by 85 
feet, with sacristy of 16 feet in the rear. The church is 
nicely seated, lighted and heated, and has a small organ 
in the gallery. The entire cost has been about $13,000. 
Rev. Eugene McSherrey was the first pastor, and died at 
his post in the summer of 1879. He was succeeded by 
Rev. P. Kearney, under whose pastorate the church is 
growing in numbers and prosperity. Some of the prom- 
inent members are Michael Mulgannon, Nicholas Gibney, 
John Brein, John Hogan, John Mulgannon, Senator Fox, 
Michael Fox, Owen Riley, James and Barney Powers, 
Patrick Burns and Michael Nolan. 

St. George's P. E. Church. 

In 1702 representations were made by the Rev. George 
Keith, Colonel Heathcote and others, to the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts — founded in 
London in 1701 — that a Church of England minister was 



Built, 1733. Opened, April I'l, 1735, by Gov. Cosby, 
New Edifice Erected, 1822. 

Taken Down, 1821. 










much desired by many of the inhabitants of 
Hempstead. On these representations the 
Rev. John Thomas was sent as a missionary 
here, who had approved himself while assist- 
ing the Rev. Evan Evans of Christ Church, 
Philadelphia. Mr. Thomas was inducted into 
the parish by a mandate from Lord Cornbury, 
governor of the province. There were a few 
influential persons ready to greet Mr. Thomas 
and unite themselves into a parish. The 
number of English-speaking people, however, 
was not large. The Dutch predominated. 
Mr. Thomas found here a church building of 
moderate dimensions and a house for the 
minister — both of them built by the town 
and owned by it. The church was but poorly 
adapted for religious purposes, and was ar- 
ranged to be used by the town tor civil 
purposes on week days. Neither of the build- 
ings was used by any religious society at Mr. 
Thomas's coming, the person who had 
officiated here — the Rev. Jeremy Hobart — 
having removed from Hempstead some time 
previous. The Rev. Mr. Thomas by his judi- 
cious and kindly manner did much to as- 
suage the strong prejudice which was felt by 
the inhabitants (who had been reared as 
Quakers and Presbyterians) and which some- 
times manifested itself in acts of violence. 
Mr. Thomas continued his ministry here 
until his death, in 1724 — a period of 20 
years. Major-General Thomas Thomas, of 
the Continental army, was a grandson of the Rev. John 

After an interval of two years the vacancy caused by 
the death of the Rev. Mr. Thomas was filled by the ap- 
pointment to the parish of the Rev. Robert Jenney, a 
graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, who had for 
some years been officiating as the missionary at Rye, 
Westchester county. Under his exertions the parish 
continued to prosper. He saw the time had come to 
have the parish placed upon an independent and stable 
foundation, and being a man of much personal influence 
and enterprise he achieved his purpose. By a vote of 
the freeholders of the town he obtained a transfer of the 
church and parsonage and glebe to the parish, and the 
release was followed and confirmed to the parish by a 
charter from George II., granted in 1735. This charter 


(jroun d Plan ofOlJ_ C/ufj^c/i. 

1. Communiofz Table. 

2,3 &4. Pulpil,7^eadinq and CIcr/^sDesk. 

0, South jDoor. 

6- Tower ik West jDoor. 

Corporate, op St. George's Chukcr, 1735. 



is still in full force as the organic law of 
the parish, and in this respect is, it is be- 
lieved, a single exception to the many 
charters granted by the royal government. 
Its authority was confirmed by the consti- 
tution of the State of New York adopted 
in 1777. It has never been submitted to 
the Legislature for alteration or amend- 
ment; even the title — "The Inhabitants of 
Hempstead in Communion with the Church 
of England " — remains unaltered. While 
oiher chartered parishes have petitioned 
to have changes made St. George's has 
found the provisions of its charter adapted 
to all the exigencies which have arisen. 
The old church which had been given by 
the town was found inconvenient and too 
small, and it was removed and another 
built — not by tax, as the former one, but by 
the gifts of members of the parish. It 
was opened, with a display of the military 
of the county and much ceremony, by 
Governor Cosby, attended by many of the 
distinguished citizens of the province, on 
St. George's day, April 22nd 1735. A 
ci^t of it is given on the preceding page. 

Mr. Jenney remained in Hempstead 17 
years, removed to Philadelphia in 1742 and 
became rector of Christ Church. From 
the University of Pennsylvania — then the 
" College of Philadelphia " — he received 
the degree' of LL. D. 

To him succeeded the Rev. Samuel 
Seabury — a descendant of John Alden, 
one of the original settlers at Plymouth, Mass. Mr. 
Seabury was educated at Yale College, but left it 
for Harvard in consequence of the excitement attendant 
on its president and others becoming Episcopalians. 
Mr. Seabury himself changed his views, and after 
ordination in 1730 by the Bishop of London and 
his return to this country he became minister of 
St. James's Church, New London, Conn., and from thence 
removed to Hempstead. At the time of his removal his 
son Samuel was a lad 13 years old. He subsequently 
Jjecame renowned as the first bishop of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in North America, and one who ex- 
erted a great influence in determining its career. 

The parish of Hempstead by an act of Legislature in 
1693 embraced all the territory of Queens county 
east of Jamaica township. This territory of nearly 
20 miles square the Rev. Mr. Seabury did his best to care 
for. He held services regularly in Oyster Bay and other 
villages besides Hempstead, and could not refuse appli- 
cations from Huntington and even many destitute places 
in Dutchess county. A remarkably vigorous frame aided 
him in fulfilling his duties, which involved almost con- 
tinuous riding on horseback, as roads were few and car- 
riages were hardly used. The people of this parish — 
though many of them were thriving farmers and well-to- 

Rev. Thomas Lambert Moore ; Died 1790. 

do in the world — were not liberal ; and Mr. Seabury, 
in order to obtain a support, was obliged to add to his 
care of all the churches the keeping of a classical school. 
In it were educated some of the most distinguished 
citizens of New York State. A classical school was ac- 
quiesced in by the people of the parish as a means for their 
rector's support for the succeeding sixty years. Mr. 
Seabury died in 1764. 

To him succeeded, after a space of two years, the Rev. 
Leonard Cutting, the progenitor of the family of that 
name in this State. He was educated at Cambridge, 
England. Seeking to benefit his fortune he emigrated 
to America and accepted the position of overseer of a 
plantation in Virginia. While so engaged he was recog- 
nized by a clergyman of the Church of England, for- 
merly a fellow student at Cambridge. By the kindly ex- 
ertions of this clergyman he obtained a position more 
suitable for his attainments and abilities; that of tutor 
in the classics in Kings (now Columbia) College, New 
York city, which had been established in 1754. In this 
position he remained until 1763, when he returned to 
England an applicant for holy orders; and, his papers 
being found eminently satisfactory, he was ordained by 
the bishop of London in December 1763 a deacon, and 
some time afterward a priest. He returned to this 



St. George's Church Rectory; Built 1793. 

country in 1764 and was for nearly two years missionary 
at New Brunswick, N. J. From thence he was trans- 
ferred to Hempstead. His career was peaceful until the 
breaking out of the Revolutionary war, when he was sub- 
jected to some of the trials of that stormy period. Yet 
he escaped better than many others, because the people 
of his parish were almost all tories and a British force 

was on the ground nearly all the time. But he found, 
like many other loyalists, that the British soldier did not 
carefully discriminate between friend and foe. More than 
once the rector and his vestry had to complain of out- 
rages commited. When, at length, the arms of the Con- 
tinental army prevailed, and the independence of the 
States was acknowledged, Mr. Cutting found himself in so 

St. George's Episcopal Chukuh, IlEMPsrEAu; conseuiiated SEPrEiiuKR UUh 1.s;;;j. 



embarrassing a position that he left the parish without 
formally resigning the rectorship. He retired to Mary- 
land, and subsecpiently officiated at Newbern, N. C. In 
1792 he returned to New York city, where he died in 
1794. The sundering of the civil and ecclesiastical re- 
lations of St. George's parish with the English govern- 
ment and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
presented some new questions for solution. The provis- 
ions of the charter were, however, found sufficient in 
this crisis, and the vestry of that period wisely followed 
their direction, with some slight deviations attributable to 
the novelty of their position and their lack of exper- 

They called the Rev. Thomas Lambert Moore to fill 
the vacancy which Mr. Cutting's retirement had created. 
Mr. Moore was a native of New York city. He had been 
ordained in England in 1781 by Bishop Lowth, and had 
remained in England until, by the kindly influence of the 
Hon. Edmund Burke, he obtained appointment as chap- 
lain to a British frigate, in which he sailed first for Hal- 
ifax, and arrived in New York in 1782. He was officiat- 
ing as missionary at Islip, Suffolk county, when he was 
called to Hempstead. During his rectorship the first 
steps were taken to organize the Episcopal church in the 
several United States into one body, and Mr. Moore was 
one of the thirteen persons who took part in the initiative 
measures. Under his ministrations the parish greatly 
prospered. The prayer book which had been used in the 
church since 171 1 and was a gift from Queen Anne, as 
was the communion set still in use, required some 
changes after the close of the Revolutionary war; such 
as the substitution of prayers for the President and Con- 
gress for those for the King and royal family and for 
Parliament. These changes Mr. Moore made by writing 
out the new prayers and pasting them over the discon- 
tinued ones. The book has thus been made a significant 
relic. The first ordination in the State of New York 
took place in this parish, in November 1785, in the person 
of Mr. John Lowe, from Virginia. In 1793 the house 
which the town had built in 1683 for a minister's resi- 
dence, being dilapidated, was taken down and the present 
parsonage built. Mr. Moore died in 1799. 

He was succeeded by the Rev. John Henry Hobart, 
who remained but a few months, having accepted a call 
to be an assistant minister in Trinity Church, New York, 
from which position he was elevated to the office of 
bishop of New York. 

On the resignation of Mr. Hobart a call to the rector- 
ship was accepted by the Rev. Seth Hart, a native of 
Connecticut. His rectorship continued till 1829, a period 
of more than twenty-eight years, when he became dis- 
abled by paralysis from performing his duties and resigned 
his office. He lingered in infirmity until March 1832. 
During his rectorship the church built in 1734, which had 
become decayed, was taken down and the present 
church was built, which was consecrated in September 

The Rev. Richard Drason Hall, a native of Philadel- 
phia, succeeded Mr. Hart. He was called in February 

1829, and resigned in April 1834, and removed to the 
neighborhood of his native city, where he officiated in 
several places and died in 1873. 

The successor to Mr. Hall was the Rev. William M. 
Carmichael, D. D., who entered upon his duties in July 
1834 and resigned the parish in September 1843. He 
subsequently ministered in Meadville, Pa., Richmond, 
Va., Newtown, Conn., and other places. At his resi- 
dence in Jamaica, Long Island — where he lived in the 
closing years of his life — he was stricken with paralysis 
and died in June 1881. 

The Rev. Orlando Harriman jr. became rector of the 
parish in January 1844, continued until June 1849, and 
then resigned. He removed to New Jersey, officiating 
as his strength and opportunities allowed until May 
1881, when he died in Florida, whither he had gone for 
his health. 

Rev. William H. Moore, D. D., Hector of St. George's Chuhch. 

In August 1849 a call to the rectorship was given to 
and accepted by, the present rector, the Rev. William 
H. Moore, D. D. 

In the course of years the following named parishes 
have been organized and churches built within the limits 
which, by the act of 1693, were designated as the bounds 
of the original parish : Christ Church, Manhasset; 
Christ Church, Oyster Bay; St. Paul's Church, Glen 
Cove; Trinity Church, Rockaway; Grace Church, South 
Oyster Bay, and Trinity Church, Roslyn. Besides these, 
at Garden City the Cathedral of the Incarnation and 
educational institutions are in process of erection as 
memorials of Mr. Alexander Turnev Stewart. 



Methodist Episcopal Church. 

From a historical sermon preached by the pastor, Rev. 
C. E. Glover, in 1877, we gather the following facts re- 
lating to the Methodist Episcopal church of Hempstead 

The first wave of Methodism reached Hempstead 
about the year 1800, when Rev. John Wilson, a preacher 
on the Jamaica circuit and traveling eastward, arrived in 
Hempstead on a Sabbath morning, near the close of the 
Episcopal public service. He mounted a wagon under a 
willow tree in front of the site of Hewlett's Hotel, where 
he commenced singing. A crowd soon collected, to 
whom he preached. From that time for a period of 
twelve years no record appears, although the Jamaica 
circuit was worked by such men as Thomas ^Vare, " Billy" 
Hibbard and David Buck, and it is probable that services 
were held during that time. 

In 18 1 2 William Thatcher was appointed to the cir- 
cuit, and arranged to preach in Hempstead every four 
weeks. The first sermon was preached in an upper room 
in the house of Stephen C. Bedell, on Main and Jackson 
streets, by Mr. Thatcher, who was an excellent scholar. 
He died at the age of 89 years, after having been in the 
ministry about 60 years. The work was somewhat inter- 
rupted during the war with England. The first prayer 
meeting recorded was held at the house of Mr. Bedell in 
1815, and the first class was formed in the same year by 
Benjamin Griffin, who was then twenty-three years old. 
Mr. Griffin spent fifty years in the ministry. He was 
succeeded as leader by Richard Carman, whose name first 
appears officially in the conference proceedings as report- 
ing ^8.78 from Hempstead for the support of the gospel. 
The original members of the first class were Richard 
Carman, Ann Carman, Stephen C. Bedell, Hannah Bedell, 
James Cooper -and Mary Cooper. 

During the year 1816 the congregation rented a house 
standing on Front street at the corner of Franklin; the 
partitions were removed, and seats, made of slabs fur- 
nished from a neighboring saw-mill, arranged. The 
preachers were Thomas Ware and Marvin Richardson. 
In 1817, more room being needed, a school-house was 
purchased and moved to the common near the brook, 
south of the Episcopal property, and fitted up with pul- 
pit and seats. Dr. Phebus, John M. Smith, Phineas 
Rice, Nicholas Morris, Noble W. Thomas and Samuel 
Cochrane were the preachers there. 

In 1820 the society erected an edifice on the site of 
the present church, which cost them, including lot, ^1,500. 
It was^ dedicated December 31st 1822. Samuel Coch- 
rane, who rendered 38 years of effective service as a min- 
ister, greatly assisted in the work of building the new 
church. The first trustees were elected May 4th 1822, 
and were as follows: James Cooper, Isaac Wright, Ste- 
phen H. Skidmore, Richard Carman and Stephen C. 
Bedell. Stephen C. Snedeker was appointed treas- 

In 1827 Hempstead circuit was formed. In 1828 Isaac 
Snedeker was elected trustee and secretary of the board, 

a position which he held over 50 years, until the time of 
his death. 

In 1834 a lot adjoining the church was purchased, on 
which a parsonage was erected. The cost of lot and 
parsonage was $1,400. In 1835 the church was moved 
back to the i)roper building line and enlarged, at a cost 
of $1,700. In 1838 the basement was furnished with 
four class rooms and a lecture room. The first stewards 
were chosen July 31st 1837, as follows: Benjamin Rush- 
more, Christian, Stephen C. and Isaac Snedeker and 
Smith Skidmore. Instrumental music was introduced 
March 29th 1852, and in 1872 the church was pre- 
sented with a beautiful organ, the gift of P. J. A. 

The centennial of American and semi-centennial of 
Hempstead Methodism were appropriately celebrated, 
November 25th 1866. At this time $10,000 was raised 
for centenary and church extension purposes. As a re- 
sult of this offering the present Sunday-school home was 
erected at a cost of $6,958; it was dedicated July 19th 
1868. The Sunday-school was organized August 30th 
1830, when Stephen C. Snedeker was appointed superin- 
tendent, a position which he filled to the time of his 
death, 30 years later. Isaac Snedeker was appointed 
secretary, treasurer and librarian at the same time, and 
has filled the position for over 50 years. From 12 teach- 
ers and an average attendance of 37 scholars the school 
has grown to be the largest on the island outside of 
Brooklyn, having an average attendance of over 400 
members, and over 1,000 books in the library. 

In 1854 the old church and parsonage were sold at 
public auction, and the present commodious edifice was 
erected. In 1856 a lot 74^ by 200 feet was bought on 
Washington street and the present parsonage erected, at 
a cost of $3,896. The church edifice is 53 by 72 feet 
in size, and has a spire 160 feet high. There are class 
rooms and a lecture room adjoining. The total cost, in- 
cluding furnishing and bell, was $14,651. The new 
church was dedicated June 30th 1855, at which time the 
sum of $3,800 was raised, which left the church free 
from debt. 

In 1875 the parsonage was enlarged, and a large re- 
flector placed in the audience room of the church, at a 
total expense of $2,367. 

The following is a list of preachers from 1822 to 1880, 
inclusive: 1822, 1823, Elijah Hebbard, Horace Barttell; 
1826, 1827, Daniel De Vinne, David Holmes, Barthol- 
omew Creagh; 1828, 1829, N. W. Thomas, Daniel 
Wright, Samuel Green; 1830, 1831, Jere Hunt, Gershom 
Pierce, Richard Wymond; 1832, 1833, Noah Bigelow, 
Alexander Hulin, Edward Oldrin; 1834, 1835, Bradley 
Sellick, Robert Travis, Ezra Jagger; 1836, 1837, Joseph 
Law, James Floy; 1838, 1839, Ira Ferris; 1840, 1841, 
Laban C. Cheney; 1842-44, W. K. Stopford, Seymour" 
Landen; 1845, 1846, E. E. Griswold; 1847, 1848, W. F. 
Collins; 1849, William Dixon, who died, and William 
Lawrence was supply; 1850-53, Buel Goodsell, S. W. 
Smith; 1854, J. S. Gilder; 1856, Henry J. Fox; 1857, B. 
Pillsbury; 1859, i860, Francis Bottome; 1861, 1862, M, 




L. Scudder; 1863-65. J. B. Merwin; 1866, 1867, D. O. 
Ferris; 1868-70, George Stillman; 1871-73, George Lan- 
sing Taylor; 1874, B. M. Adams; 1875-77, C. E. Glover; 
1878-80, C. E. Miller. 

The cluirch property is valued at between ^40,000 and 
and ^50,000. 

The Press of Hemtstead. 

The town of Hempstead has three newspapers, two in 
Hempstead village and one at Rockville Centre. The 
first paper started here was the Schoolmaster, edited by 
Timothy Clowes previous to 1850. Only a few numbers 
were published. Zephaniah Thurston, foreman in the 
Observer office, is probably one of the oldest printers, if 
not the oldest, in Queens county. 

The Sentinel was established June ist 1858, by John 
H. Hentz, who was the publisher until September ist 
1863, when it was {)urchased by Lott Van De Water, the 
present editor and proprietor. Mr. Van De Water had 
been connected with the office two years previous to 
purchasing it, and in fact has had control of the paper 
since 1861. The ^/'/Z/V/f/ is a thirty-two column sheet, 
nicely printed and carefully edited, the editor aiming to 
make it a journal for the family, in all that term implies. 
No advertisements of an objectionable nature are re- 
ceived, no matter what price is offered. The office is on 
Main street, near Fulton. In politics the Sentinel is in- 
dependent, treating both parties fairly. 

The Hempstead Inquirer, published in the village of 
Hempstead, is one of the oldest papers on Long Island — 
the Corrector, of Sag Harbor, and the Republican Watch- 
man, oi Greenport, both of Suffolk county, and \.\it Long 
Island Farmer, of Jamaica, Queens county, being the 
only ones that antedate it. The Inquirer was established 
under the name of the Long Island Telegraph and Gen- 
eral Advertiser, on May 8th 1830, by Messrs. William 
Hutchinson and Clement F. Le Fevre. On November 
nth 1831 its name was changed to that it now bears. It 
continued to be conducted by its founder until April 
1833, when it was transferred to James G. Watts. On 
the 23d of June 1834 Mr. Watts died, and the paper 
went into the hands of his son, who bore his father's 
name. He conducted it until May 1838, when he sold 
out to John W. Smith. Under Mr. Smith's supervision 
the paper was successfully edited for three years. In 
1841 Charles Willets became the editor, having purchased 
the property and good will from his predecessor. He 
edited it eight years, and in 1849 disposed of it to Sea- 
man N. Snedeker, who sold it in 1851 to Dr. Morris 
Snedeker. For eleven years it continued under the doc- 
tor's management. In 1862 it was purchased by Jesse 
S. Pettit, who after a year's trial transferred it to Smith 
T. Willets in 1863. In 1866 Mr. Willets was succeeded 
by James B. Cooper, who in 1868 disposed of the con- 
cern to Thomas H. Rhodes and Daniel Clark. On the 
i6th of April 1869 Mr. Clark became the sole editor and 
proprietor, and he so continued until July 9th 1870, 

when impaired health compelled him to relinquish edi- 
torial duties. 

At that date the establishment was purchased by the 
Hon. Henry M. Onderdonk. Many improvements were 
made in the typographical appearance of the paper, which 
was enlarged and brought more prominently before the 
public. At this time (t88i) it continues to be edited by 
Mr. Onderdonk, is in a flourishing condition, and is con- 
ceded to be a leading paper in Queens county. 

Public Houses and Halls. 

Nehemiah Sammis built one of the early taverns of 
Hempstead, a part of which is now standing on Fulton 
street, near the railroad depot. After his death in 1802 
his son Benjamin Sammis continued as "mine host," and 
he was succeeded by Harry Sammis, who was born De- 
cember 23d 1797, and died in August 1881. His son, 
ex-Sheriff Charles Sammis, is the present proprietor of 
the old hostelry. Harry Sammis remembered distinctly 
when a barn burned on the hill south, about 80 rods dis- 
tant, one Sunday in the year 1802, the same year in which 
his grandfather died. The sparks and burning shingles 
were carried by the wind to the hotel and Presbyterian 
church east, which was also destroyed. At that time 
there were only six houses in Hempstead village, and 
only three buildings within a circle of a mile, viz., the 
hotel, the church on the east and a farm house west. 
During the Revolutionary war the British were encamped 
in Hempstead, at that time making a horse stable of the 
old Presbyterian church, using the hotel as headquarters 
for the officers. After the war General George Washing- 
ton passed several nights in the old tavern. 

Hewlett's Hotel, on Front street at the corner of Main, 
was built by Samuel Carman in 1840. It is a large, three- 
story building, well arranged and furnished for the ac- 
commodation of guests, and during the summer season 
is well filled with visitors. Up to 1847 it was conducted 
by the builder; but during that year came into the pos- 
session of Stephen Hewlett, whose family have conducted 
it until this time. C. A. Hewlett is the present propri- 

The Germania Hotel, on Main street, was established 
about twenty years ago by William Stoffel. The present 
proprietor, Anton Miltenberger, has been the owner for 
the last eight years, and has made it a pleasant place, 
having recently furnished and refitted it It is the only 
German hotel in the village, and is a large three-story 
building, the lower floor being occupied with store and 
office. It will accommodate 20 guests and eight horses 
can be provided for. Billiard tables are provided, and 
charges are as at other first-class houses. 

The present Central Hotel was built in 1847, on the 
site of one of the early hotels of Hempstead, which was 
destroyed by fire in 1835. William Coons commenced 
building the present house, but died before it was com- 
pleted by his son Michael Coons. Among the land- 
lords were Benjamin Smith, Robert Anderson, Benjamin 
Curtis and A. Smith. John B. Pettit, the present propri- 
etor, purchased the property in 1854, and for the last 



twenty-seven years has conducted the business. It is 
centrally located, on Main street, and is one of the lead- 
ing hotels of the village. The hotel which was destroyed 
by fire was, before railroads were known on the island, the 
"stage house," and consequently a well known place. 

There are two halls in Hempstead village used for 
town purposes and irieetings, lectures and amusements. 
Liberty Hall is a large three-story building, with man- 
sard roof, situated on Front street. The first floor is di- 
vided into three stores. The second story is well ar- 
ranged for an amusement hall, having a fair sized stage 
with its attachments, and being well seated, accommodat- 
ing 450 people. The third story is also a hall, used for 
different purposes. Washington Hall, or the Town Hall, 
situated near Liberty Hall, was built by the Ladies' 
Washington Association, and purchased by the town au- 
thorities for village purposes. Aside from the larger 
rooms it contains the lock-up. 

Secret Societies. 

Morion Lodge, No. 63, F. and A. M. dates back 
to June 23d 1797, when a charter was granted, appointing 
David Richard Floyd Jones to be the master, Jacob Sea- 
man Jackson senior warden, and Thomas Carman junior 
warden of a lodge of Free and Accepted Masons to be 
formed at Hempstead. From that date communications 
were held in the lodge rooms in Hempstead for about 
half a century, when the building in which the rooms 
were situated was destroyed by fire, the charter, jewels, 
Bible, etc., being saved. The lodge was resuscitated in 
1859, since which time stated communications have been 
held on the second and fourth Monday evenings of each 
month. The present number of active members is about 
ninety; and the lodge rooms are on the third floor of the 
Cornelius building on Main street; three in number, they 
are appropriately fitted up and furnished. A large fire- 
proof safe contains the records, the original charter, the 
old silver jewels, and the Bible, on the fly leaf of which 
is the following: " Presented to the worshipful master, 
wardens and brethren of Morton Lodge, No. 63, by their 
affectionate brother Jacob Morton, deputy grand master 
of masons of the State of New York. — New York, Jan. 
8th 1798." 

The following is a list of officers for 1881: Master, 
Benjamin A. Haff; S. warden, Robert A. Davison; J. 
warden, Daniel Shields; treasurer, P. J. A. Harper; sec- 
retory, Ebenezer Kellum; S. deacon, John W. De Mott, 
of Alfred; J. deacon, Lewis H. Clowes; chaplain. Rev. 
C. C. Lasby; S. M. C, Henry Heutz; J. M. C, H. L. 
Weeks; tyler, John Crampton; trustees — Benjamin A. 
Haff, Samuel C. Seaman, B. Valentine Clowes. 

The masters since 1859 have been as follows: 1859, 
Daniel Raynor; i860, John Charlick; 1861, Carman 
Smith; 1862, 1865, 1866, D. A. M. Smith; 1863, A. R. 
Griffin; 1864, John W. De Mott; 1867-71, 1876, 1877, 
Samuel C. Seaman; 1872-74. 1880, 1881, Benjamin A. 
Hafi"; 1875, 1878, 1879, B. Valentine Clowes. 

Odd Fello7vs. — A charter was granted to Hempstead 
Lodge, No. 141, I. O. O. F. February i8th 1845, and it 

was instituted March 5th 1845. The charter members 
were Willet Charlie, William Cornwell, Thomas S. Dor- 
Ion, Hiram A.' Whitlaker and William Curtis. Up to 1880 
288 persons had signed the constitution of the lodge, 
and the present membership is about eighty-five. The 
lodge room, which is neatly carpeted and furnished, is 
on Front street and regular meetings are held every 
Thursday evening. The following are the officers: F. D. 
Bedell. N. G.; I. Horsfall, V. G.; V. Clowes, P. S.; A. R. 
Roads, R. S.; J. B. Curley, R. S. to N. G.; W. H. Haw- 
kins, L. S. to N. G.; Thomas Bact, R. S. to V. G.; S. F. 
Sprague, L. S. to V. G.; S. H. Minshull, War.; J. Ham- 
let, Con.; R. O. Gildersleeve, Chap.; J. A. Bedell, I. G.; 
W. B. Pettit, R. S. S.; J. Raynor, L. S. S.; J. R. Bedell, 

Sonsof Temperance. — This society was organized in Au- 
gust 1869, and has nicely furnished rooms over the post- 
office, at the corner of Main and Front streets, where 
regular meetings are held each Monday evening. Chris- 
topher Snedeker is W. P. and J. S. Snedeker is R. S. 
The following were the first officers of the organization: 
John Hammond, W. P.; R. C. Campell, W. A.; J. E. 
Snedeker, R. S.; Edward Searing, A. R. S.; Thomas 
Rhodes, F. S.; Thomas F. Gilbert, Treas.; E. L. Prey, 
chaplain; T. B. Hogan, conductor; J. F. Rhodes, assist- 
ant conductor; Samuel Snedeker, inside sentinel; James 
H. Campbell, outside sentinel. 

Tlie Livingston Social Club. — This body of young men 
was organized March 27th 1877. The following were 
the officers in 1880: President, H. L. Parsons; vice-pres- 
ident, John Griffin; secretary, Henry Miltenberger; 
treasurer, Henry Agnew. 

The Fire Department. 

The first organization of which there are any data goes 
back to December 15th 1831, when we find that the su- 
pervisor and justices appointed the following firemen: 
Charles Baldwin, Jarvis Bedell, Thomas D. Carman, Ja- 
cob Coles, Richard De Mott, Samuel E. Marvin, Samuel 
J. Raymond, Elbert Rushmore, Robert Seabury, Alex- 
ander W. Seaman, Joseph D. Gildersleeve, Joseph B. 
Gildersleeve, Stephen Hewlett, Nelson Jennings, John 
Kellum, Lattin Smith, Isaac Snedeker, Floyd Southard, 
James Stephenson and William Van Nostrand. Isaac 
Snedeker was chosen foreman of the company, and an 
old-fashioned fire engine, "No. i," formerly "No. 4" in 
Brooklyn, was bought in that city. 

The engine house was on Main street, near the site of 
Nostrand's carriage manufactory; it has since been re- 
moved to the rear of the firemen's building on Ful- 
ton street, where the original fire apparatus of Hemp- 
stead may yet be seen. Several years after the forma- 
tion of the engine company a hook and ladder company 
was formed, the truck being made in the village. The 
rooms of the company were on Fulton street, nearly op- 
posite the Episcopal church. It was a volunteer com- 
pany. The water supply was obtained from private wells 
and cisterns. 

During the time of these companies a large fire took 



place, destroying the block at the corner of Greenwich 
and Front streets, and causing a loss of several thousand 
dollars. By the exertions of the firemen the buildings 
west of Main street were saved. The burning of the 
Stage House was the next fire of any importance. At 
that time other buildings were saved through the efforts 
of the companies. 

June 23d 1862 Protection Fire Engine Company, No. 
3, was organized; it was composed of many of the lead- 
ing citizens, some of whom are still members of the 

Harper's Hook and Ladder Company, No. i, is a fine 
organization, witii rooms on Fulton street. 

Enterprise Hose Conpany was organized August 14th 
1872, and the follouing officers were elected: Foreman, 
Ebenezer Kellum jr.; assistant foreman, A. F. Rushmore; 
treasurer, S. B. Mersereau; secretary, J. Davison; stew- 
ard, T. W. Snedeker. Mr. Kellum was foreman five 
succeeding years. S. W. Willets was elected in 1878, B. 
Carpenter in 1879, and M. R. Smith in 1880, with other 
officers as follows: Assistant foreman, G. Lowden; sec- 
retary, G. W. Willets; treasurer, J. Simoson; stewards, 
E. Abrams and B. Carpenter. The company has two 
rooms in the'building on Fulton street, the lower used for 
the carriage and the upper beautifully furnished for a 

Protectioti Hose Company, No. 3. — This company was 
organized August nth 1874. The following were the 
first officers: Foreman, Augustus Cruikshank; assistant 
foreman, John Mimno; secretary, Benjamin Campbell; 
treasurer, Robert Cruikshank. During the years 1875- 
79 John Mrmno was foreman, when he resigned, and 
Charles Akley and John Box have since held that 
office until the following officers were elected: Foreman, 
Charles De Motl; assistant foreman, John Box; secre- 
tary, Charles Agnew; treasurer, William Plyer. The 
rooms of the company are on Prospect street, and, 
like others of the department, are nicely furnished. 
When first organized the company had no rooms, 
but held their meetings in Protection engine room. 
The present house was built in 1875, by P. J. A. 

There are other organizations, but data concerning 
them were not furnished. 

George N. Paff. 

George N. Paff, one of the prominent citizens of 
Hempstead, is a native of New York city, where he was 

born November 15th 1831. His father, George Paff, and 
his grandfather, Andrew Paff, were descendants of John 
Paff, of Wurtemburg, Germany. His mother was a daugh- 
ter of General Robert Henderson, a Scotchman, who was 
killed at Yorktown, Va., in the Revolutionary war. The 
family have been residents of Long Island since April 

During his early days the subject of this sketch was 
employed as a clerk, as an apprentice to a baker, as a 
daguerreotype operator and as a painter. After the usual 
course of the district school he was a student in the 
Hempstead Seminary, under Professor Dockarty, and in 
a private school under Timothy Clowes, D. D., LL. D. 

He is now working a fine farm of 50 acres near Hemp- 
stead village, which was settled in 1777 by Eliphalet 

Before he became so exclusively engaged in farming he 
was interested in the mineral vvater business, and acted 
as real estate agent for some time. He has also traveled 
quite extensively in the west, and has been in business 
in Cleveland, Cincinnati and Dubuque, and was trading 
at one time with the Indians of Minnesota. 

Mr. Paff is a gentleman whose advice is not unfre- 
quently sought by his townsmen in business affairs, and 
even in litigations in the minor courts he has frequently 
appeared as an advocate. He has also been called to the 
duties of several offices of importance in his town. In 
i860 he was elected constable, and subsequently served 
as special deputy under several sheriffs. In 1877 he was 
elected commissioner of excise, and in 1880, at the expi- 
ration of the term, he was re-elected by 500 majority over 
George A. Mott, the Republican candidate. In the dis- 
charge of the responsible d